Abstract

We report that the submerged microbubbles are an efficient source of diffuse radiance and may contribute to a rapid transition to the diffuse asymptotic regime. In this asymptotic regime an average cosine is easily predictable and measurable.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. R. V. Zaneveld. “An asymptotic closure theory for irradiance in the sea and its inversion to obtain the inherent optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34,1442–1452 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  2. N. J. McCormick. “Mathematical models for the mean cosine of irradiance and the diffuse attenuation coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1013–1018 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. T. Bannister. “Model of the mean cosine of underwater radiance and estimation of underwater scalar irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37.773–780 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer. “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnology and Oceanography 40, 1347–1357 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Stramski. Gas microbubbles: An assessment of their significance to light scattering in quiescent seas. In Ocean optics XII : 13–15 June 1994, Bergen, Norway, Jules S. Jaffe, editor, Proc. SPIEv. 2258, 704–710 (Bellingham, Wash., USA, 1994).
  6. R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P.-Y. Deschamps. “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  7. Curtis D. Mobley. Light and water : radiative transfer in natural waters (Academic Press, San Diego, 1994).
  8. P. J. Flatau, M. K. Flatau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and C. Mobley. “Remote sensing of clouds of bubbles in seawater,” Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. (1999)(to be published).
  9. D. M. Farmer and D. D. Lemon. “The influence of bubbles on ambient noise in the ocean at high wind speeds,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 14, 1762–1778 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. A. Thorpe. “Dynamical processes of transfer at the sea surface,” Prog. Oceanogr. 35, 315–352 (1995).
  11. B. D. Johnson and P. J. Wangersky. “Microbubbles: stabilization by monolayers of adsorbed particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14641–14647 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. Medwin. “In situ acoustic measurements of microbubbles at sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 971–976, (1977).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Isao, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, and K. Kogure. “Role of sub-micrometre particles in the ocean,” Nature 345, 242–244 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. A. Thorpe, P. Bowyer, and D. K. Woolf. “Some factors affecting the size distributions of oceanic bubbles,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 22, 382–389 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  15. P. J. Mulhearn. “Distribution of microbubbles in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 6429–6434 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Piskozub. Effects of surface waves and sea bottom on self-shading of in-water optical instruments. In Ocean optics XII : 13–15 June 1994, Bergen, Norway, Jules S. Jaffe, editor, Proc. SPIEv. 2258, 300–308 (Bellingham, Wash., USA, 1994).

1996 (1)

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P.-Y. Deschamps. “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

S. A. Thorpe. “Dynamical processes of transfer at the sea surface,” Prog. Oceanogr. 35, 315–352 (1995).

N. J. McCormick. “Mathematical models for the mean cosine of irradiance and the diffuse attenuation coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1013–1018 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer. “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnology and Oceanography 40, 1347–1357 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

T. T. Bannister. “Model of the mean cosine of underwater radiance and estimation of underwater scalar irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37.773–780 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. A. Thorpe, P. Bowyer, and D. K. Woolf. “Some factors affecting the size distributions of oceanic bubbles,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 22, 382–389 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

K. Isao, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, and K. Kogure. “Role of sub-micrometre particles in the ocean,” Nature 345, 242–244 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. R. V. Zaneveld. “An asymptotic closure theory for irradiance in the sea and its inversion to obtain the inherent optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34,1442–1452 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

B. D. Johnson and P. J. Wangersky. “Microbubbles: stabilization by monolayers of adsorbed particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14641–14647 (1987).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

D. M. Farmer and D. D. Lemon. “The influence of bubbles on ambient noise in the ocean at high wind speeds,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 14, 1762–1778 (1984).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

P. J. Mulhearn. “Distribution of microbubbles in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 6429–6434 (1981).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

H. Medwin. “In situ acoustic measurements of microbubbles at sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 971–976, (1977).
[Crossref]

Bannister, T. T.

T. T. Bannister. “Model of the mean cosine of underwater radiance and estimation of underwater scalar irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37.773–780 (1992).
[Crossref]

Berwald, J.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer. “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnology and Oceanography 40, 1347–1357 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bowyer, P.

S. A. Thorpe, P. Bowyer, and D. K. Woolf. “Some factors affecting the size distributions of oceanic bubbles,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 22, 382–389 (1992).
[Crossref]

Deschamps, P.-Y.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P.-Y. Deschamps. “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

Farmer, D. M.

D. M. Farmer and D. D. Lemon. “The influence of bubbles on ambient noise in the ocean at high wind speeds,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 14, 1762–1778 (1984).
[Crossref]

Flatau, M. K.

P. J. Flatau, M. K. Flatau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and C. Mobley. “Remote sensing of clouds of bubbles in seawater,” Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. (1999)(to be published).

Flatau, P. J.

P. J. Flatau, M. K. Flatau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and C. Mobley. “Remote sensing of clouds of bubbles in seawater,” Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. (1999)(to be published).

Frouin, R.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P.-Y. Deschamps. “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hara, S.

K. Isao, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, and K. Kogure. “Role of sub-micrometre particles in the ocean,” Nature 345, 242–244 (1990).
[Crossref]

Isao, K.

K. Isao, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, and K. Kogure. “Role of sub-micrometre particles in the ocean,” Nature 345, 242–244 (1990).
[Crossref]

Johnson, B. D.

B. D. Johnson and P. J. Wangersky. “Microbubbles: stabilization by monolayers of adsorbed particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14641–14647 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kiefer, D. A.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer. “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnology and Oceanography 40, 1347–1357 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kogure, K.

K. Isao, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, and K. Kogure. “Role of sub-micrometre particles in the ocean,” Nature 345, 242–244 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lemon, D. D.

D. M. Farmer and D. D. Lemon. “The influence of bubbles on ambient noise in the ocean at high wind speeds,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 14, 1762–1778 (1984).
[Crossref]

McCormick, N. J.

N. J. McCormick. “Mathematical models for the mean cosine of irradiance and the diffuse attenuation coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1013–1018 (1995).
[Crossref]

Medwin, H.

H. Medwin. “In situ acoustic measurements of microbubbles at sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 971–976, (1977).
[Crossref]

Mobley, C.

P. J. Flatau, M. K. Flatau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and C. Mobley. “Remote sensing of clouds of bubbles in seawater,” Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. (1999)(to be published).

Mobley, C. D.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer. “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnology and Oceanography 40, 1347–1357 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mobley, Curtis D.

Curtis D. Mobley. Light and water : radiative transfer in natural waters (Academic Press, San Diego, 1994).

Mulhearn, P. J.

P. J. Mulhearn. “Distribution of microbubbles in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 6429–6434 (1981).
[Crossref]

Piskozub, J.

J. Piskozub. Effects of surface waves and sea bottom on self-shading of in-water optical instruments. In Ocean optics XII : 13–15 June 1994, Bergen, Norway, Jules S. Jaffe, editor, Proc. SPIEv. 2258, 300–308 (Bellingham, Wash., USA, 1994).

Schwindling, M.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P.-Y. Deschamps. “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

Stramski, D.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer. “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnology and Oceanography 40, 1347–1357 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski. Gas microbubbles: An assessment of their significance to light scattering in quiescent seas. In Ocean optics XII : 13–15 June 1994, Bergen, Norway, Jules S. Jaffe, editor, Proc. SPIEv. 2258, 704–710 (Bellingham, Wash., USA, 1994).

Terauchi, K.

K. Isao, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, and K. Kogure. “Role of sub-micrometre particles in the ocean,” Nature 345, 242–244 (1990).
[Crossref]

Thorpe, S. A.

S. A. Thorpe. “Dynamical processes of transfer at the sea surface,” Prog. Oceanogr. 35, 315–352 (1995).

S. A. Thorpe, P. Bowyer, and D. K. Woolf. “Some factors affecting the size distributions of oceanic bubbles,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 22, 382–389 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wangersky, P. J.

B. D. Johnson and P. J. Wangersky. “Microbubbles: stabilization by monolayers of adsorbed particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14641–14647 (1987).
[Crossref]

Woolf, D. K.

S. A. Thorpe, P. Bowyer, and D. K. Woolf. “Some factors affecting the size distributions of oceanic bubbles,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 22, 382–389 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld. “An asymptotic closure theory for irradiance in the sea and its inversion to obtain the inherent optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34,1442–1452 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. J. Flatau, M. K. Flatau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and C. Mobley. “Remote sensing of clouds of bubbles in seawater,” Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. (1999)(to be published).

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P.-Y. Deschamps. “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[Crossref]

B. D. Johnson and P. J. Wangersky. “Microbubbles: stabilization by monolayers of adsorbed particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14641–14647 (1987).
[Crossref]

H. Medwin. “In situ acoustic measurements of microbubbles at sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 971–976, (1977).
[Crossref]

P. J. Mulhearn. “Distribution of microbubbles in coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 6429–6434 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Oceanogr. (2)

S. A. Thorpe, P. Bowyer, and D. K. Woolf. “Some factors affecting the size distributions of oceanic bubbles,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 22, 382–389 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. M. Farmer and D. D. Lemon. “The influence of bubbles on ambient noise in the ocean at high wind speeds,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 14, 1762–1778 (1984).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (3)

J. R. V. Zaneveld. “An asymptotic closure theory for irradiance in the sea and its inversion to obtain the inherent optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34,1442–1452 (1989).
[Crossref]

N. J. McCormick. “Mathematical models for the mean cosine of irradiance and the diffuse attenuation coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1013–1018 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. T. Bannister. “Model of the mean cosine of underwater radiance and estimation of underwater scalar irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37.773–780 (1992).
[Crossref]

Limnology and Oceanography (1)

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer. “Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field,” Limnology and Oceanography 40, 1347–1357 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

K. Isao, S. Hara, K. Terauchi, and K. Kogure. “Role of sub-micrometre particles in the ocean,” Nature 345, 242–244 (1990).
[Crossref]

Prog. Oceanogr. (1)

S. A. Thorpe. “Dynamical processes of transfer at the sea surface,” Prog. Oceanogr. 35, 315–352 (1995).

Other (4)

Curtis D. Mobley. Light and water : radiative transfer in natural waters (Academic Press, San Diego, 1994).

P. J. Flatau, M. K. Flatau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and C. Mobley. “Remote sensing of clouds of bubbles in seawater,” Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. (1999)(to be published).

D. Stramski. Gas microbubbles: An assessment of their significance to light scattering in quiescent seas. In Ocean optics XII : 13–15 June 1994, Bergen, Norway, Jules S. Jaffe, editor, Proc. SPIEv. 2258, 704–710 (Bellingham, Wash., USA, 1994).

J. Piskozub. Effects of surface waves and sea bottom on self-shading of in-water optical instruments. In Ocean optics XII : 13–15 June 1994, Bergen, Norway, Jules S. Jaffe, editor, Proc. SPIEv. 2258, 300–308 (Bellingham, Wash., USA, 1994).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Bubble-stratus layer generated by breaking waves. Bubble population is continually replenished by wave activity (breaking waves at the surface) leading eventually to semi-homogeneous layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Average cosine for downwelling radiation µ ¯ d (z) for (1) “infinitely” deep homogeneous ocean composed of CDOM, pure water, and particulates corresponding to chl=10mgm-3 (triangles); (2) “infinitely” deep homogeneous ocean with bubbles (cubes); (3) two-layer system composed of background CDOM, water, and particulates and 2m layer of submerged bubbles close to the surface (circles).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Same as 2 but for the average cosine µ ¯ (z).

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