Abstract

Self-organization of the dynamic cavity completed by holographic gratings in the novel laser oscillator was studied experimentally and numerically. A key role of the resonant grating of refractive index induced by generating beams in an Nd:YAG laser crystal was determined. Stabilization of the generated pulses and an increase in output power were achieved by use of a vibrating intracavity mirror.

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References

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  1. I. M. Bel'dyugin, V. A. Berenberg, A. E. Vasil'ev, et all, "Solid-state lasers with self-pumped PC mirrors in the active medium," Sov. J. Quant. Electron. 19, 740-742 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. J. Damzen, R. P. M. Green, K. S. Syed, "Self-adaptive solid-state oscillator formed by dynamic gain-gratings holograms," Opt. Lett. 20, 1704-1706 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Minassian, G. J. Crofts, M. J. Damzen, "Self-starting Ti:sapphire holographic laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 22, 697-699 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. L. Antipov, A. S. Kuzhelev, V. A. Vorob'yov, A. P. Zinov'ev, "Pulse repetitive Nd:YAG laser with distributed feedback by self-induced population grating," Opt. Comm. 152, 313-318 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. L. Antipov, S. I. Belyaev, A. S. Kuzhelev, A. P. Zinov'ev, "Nd:YAG laser with cavity formed by population inversion gratings," in Laser resonators I, P. Galarneau and A.V. Kudryashov, eds, Proc. SPIE 3267, 181-190 (1998).
  6. P. Sillard, A. Brignon, and J.-P. Huignard, "Gain-grating analysis of a self-starting self-pumped phase-conjugate Nd:YAG loop resonator," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 34, 465-472 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. L. Antipov, A. S. Kuzhelev, A. P. Zinov'ev, "High average-power solid-state lasers with cavity formed by self-induced refractive index gratings," in Laser resonators II, A.V. Kudryashov and P. Galarneau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3611, 147-156 (1999).
  8. O. L. Antipov, A. S. Kuzhelev, D. V. Chausov, and A. P. Zinov'ev, "Dynamics of refractive index changes in a Nd:YAG laser crystal under Nd 3+ -ions excitation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1072-1079 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. N. Oraevsky, "Quantum fluctuations and formation of coherency in laser," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. 5, 933-945 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

Other

I. M. Bel'dyugin, V. A. Berenberg, A. E. Vasil'ev, et all, "Solid-state lasers with self-pumped PC mirrors in the active medium," Sov. J. Quant. Electron. 19, 740-742 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Damzen, R. P. M. Green, K. S. Syed, "Self-adaptive solid-state oscillator formed by dynamic gain-gratings holograms," Opt. Lett. 20, 1704-1706 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Minassian, G. J. Crofts, M. J. Damzen, "Self-starting Ti:sapphire holographic laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 22, 697-699 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Antipov, A. S. Kuzhelev, V. A. Vorob'yov, A. P. Zinov'ev, "Pulse repetitive Nd:YAG laser with distributed feedback by self-induced population grating," Opt. Comm. 152, 313-318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Antipov, S. I. Belyaev, A. S. Kuzhelev, A. P. Zinov'ev, "Nd:YAG laser with cavity formed by population inversion gratings," in Laser resonators I, P. Galarneau and A.V. Kudryashov, eds, Proc. SPIE 3267, 181-190 (1998).

P. Sillard, A. Brignon, and J.-P. Huignard, "Gain-grating analysis of a self-starting self-pumped phase-conjugate Nd:YAG loop resonator," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 34, 465-472 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Antipov, A. S. Kuzhelev, A. P. Zinov'ev, "High average-power solid-state lasers with cavity formed by self-induced refractive index gratings," in Laser resonators II, A.V. Kudryashov and P. Galarneau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3611, 147-156 (1999).

O. L. Antipov, A. S. Kuzhelev, D. V. Chausov, and A. P. Zinov'ev, "Dynamics of refractive index changes in a Nd:YAG laser crystal under Nd 3+ -ions excitation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1072-1079 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Oraevsky, "Quantum fluctuations and formation of coherency in laser," J. Opt. Soc. of Am. 5, 933-945 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a self-starting generator with a loop cavity. M1 is the vibrating mirror that gives the frequency shift Ω to reflected waves; k1,…k4 are the wave vectors of the interacting optical waves E1,…E4 in the cavity; the traits indicate the PGs inside the LaC.

Fig 2.
Fig 2.

Results of numerical calculations: (a) oscillograms of the output wave I4 when maximum of the unsaturated amplification coefficient is α0l=1.5 (red curve), α0l=2.0 (blue curve), and α0l=4.0 (violet curve); the frequency detuning is Ω=1.25 (red and blue curves) and Ω=200 (violet curve); the PG noise is Nη =1.39×10-3; brown curve is the temporal profile of the Nd:YAG amplification; (b) oscillograms of the population grating N13 (blue curve) and the output wave intensity I4 (pink curve) when α0l=4.0 and Ω=250; (c) dependencies of the peak-pulse intensity I4 (solid curves) and the energy W (dashed curves) of the output wave on the amplitude of the PG noise source at Ω=1.25 (red curves), Ω=1.5 (blue curves), and Ω=1.0 (green curves), when α0l=2.0, F ε=10-8.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic view of the NDFWM investigation of RIG formation in a laser with a dynamic loop cavity. Diagram of the wave vectors for NDFWM inside Nd:YAG rod is presented separately.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependencies of the diffraction efficiency of the RIG on time for time scales of 5 µs (a) and 100 µs (b): experimental data for DE (▪), polynomial fit for DE (red line), typical oscillogram of the generated pulse (blue line), oscillogram of the single-pass unsaturated amplification coefficient of one amplifier (violet line), and oscillogram of the flash-lamp pumping (green line).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Oscillograms of the laser radiation (top) and the voltage modulating the mirror displacement (bottom): piezoelectric vibrator switch off (a, e), piezoelectric vibrator switch on (b-d), the modulation frequency is ν=80 kHz. (b); ν=1.5 kHz, the phase φ is nonoptimal (c); ν=1.5 kHz, the phase j is near-optimal (d). The flash-lamp pump energy per each amplifier is 32 J for (a, b), and 50 J for (c)-(e). The vertical scales are the same for all oscillograms.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dependencies of the energy of the generation pulse W and the DE of the RIG on (a) flash-lamp-pump energy per each amplifier and (b) phase φ of the voltage that modulates vibrations of an intracavity mirror. In Fig. 6a the mirror vibration is switched off (black curve), the mirror vibration is at a frequency of ν=80 kHz (red curve), and at 1.5 kHz with optimal phase (blue curve). Fig. 6b shows the dependence of the DE (squares and fitted green curve) and the dependence of the energy of generation pulse (circles and fitted braun curve); the horizontal lines are the energy (top) and the DE (bottom) when the modulation was switched off, and the flash-lamp pump energy is 50 J per each amplifier, ν=1.5 kHz.

Equations (3)

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n ij t + n ij = N 0 E i E j * n ij l = 1 4 E l 2 N η η ij ( z , t ) exp ( 2 π i ψ ij ( z , t ) ) ,
N 0 t + N 0 = N p ( t ) N 0 l = 1 4 E l 2 ,
μ E i t ± E i z = σ N 0 E i + σ j i N ij E j + σ N 0 F ε ε i ( z , t ) exp ( 2 π i φ i ( z , t ) ) ,

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