Abstract

Development of “filmless” cardiac catheterization laboratories is eminent. The problems of implementing a digital catheterization laboratory involve archiving large amounts of data per procedure and high transfer rates to retrieve previous procedures. Lossy compression can accommodate these changes, but at the cost of possibly impairing detection of clinically important angiographic features. Our study involves the observer detection and classification of features in clinical images and the effects that JPEG and wavelet compression have on the detectability of these features. We found no significant degradation in human observer performance with 7:1 and 15:1 JPEG compressed images in 6 clinically relevant visual tasks. Human observer performance for wavelet compression degraded significantly for 2 out of 6 tasks at 7:1 compression and 4 out of 6 tasks at 19:1 compression.

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References

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  1. S. E. Nissen, C. J. Pepine, T. M. Bashore, P. C . Block, L. I. Bonchek, J. A. Brinker, B. Carabello, J. S. Douglas, J. L. Elion, J. W. Hirshfeld, D. R. Holmes, W. L. Johnson, W. P. Klinke, D. C. Levin, G. B. J Mancini., C. E Mullins, J. D. Thomas, E. J. Topol, J. H. K. Vogel and M. A. Wondrow, "Cardiac Angiography Without Cine Film: Erecting a "Tower of Babel" in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory," J. of Am. Col. of Card. 24, 834- 837 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. W.A. Baker, S. E. Hearne, L. A. Spero, K. G. Morris, R. A. Harrington, M. H. Sketch Jr., V. S. Behar, Y. Kong, R. H. Peter, T. M. Bashore, J. K. Harrison and J. T. Cusma, "Lossy (15:1) JPEG Compression of Digital Coronary Angiograms Does Not Limit Detection of Subtle Morphological Features," Circ. 96, 1157-1164 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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  7. N. L. Eigler, M. P. Eckstein, K. Mahrer, D. Honig and J. S. Whiting, "Effect of a stenosis stablilized display on morphological features," Circ. 96, 1157-1164 (1997).
  8. L. A. Love and R. A. Kruger, "Scattering estimation for a digital radiographic system using convolution filtering," Med. Phys. 14, 178-185 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. B. Pennebaker and J. L. Mitchell, JPEG Still Image Data Compression Standard, (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1992).
  10. A. Zandi, J. Allen, E. L. Schwartz and M. Boliek, "CREW Lossless/Lossy Medical Image Compression," IEEE Data Compression Conference, 212-221 (1995).
  11. D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics, Wiley, New York, (1966).
  12. A. E. Burgess and H. Ghandeharian,"Visual signal detection II. Signal-location identification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 1, 906-910 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. F. Kijewski, R. G. Swensson and P. F. Judy , "Analysis of rating data from multiple-alternative tasks," J. of Math. Psych. 33, 428-451 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Daubechies, Ten Lectures on Wavelets, (SIAM, Philadelphia, 1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. K. Chui, An Introduction to Wavelets, (Academic Press, Boston, (1992).

Other (15)

S. E. Nissen, C. J. Pepine, T. M. Bashore, P. C . Block, L. I. Bonchek, J. A. Brinker, B. Carabello, J. S. Douglas, J. L. Elion, J. W. Hirshfeld, D. R. Holmes, W. L. Johnson, W. P. Klinke, D. C. Levin, G. B. J Mancini., C. E Mullins, J. D. Thomas, E. J. Topol, J. H. K. Vogel and M. A. Wondrow, "Cardiac Angiography Without Cine Film: Erecting a "Tower of Babel" in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory," J. of Am. Col. of Card. 24, 834- 837 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Strang and T. Nguyen, Wavelets and Filter Banks, (Wellesley-Cambridge Press, Wellesley, MA, 1996) 362- 364 .

V. H. Rigolin, P. A. Robiolio, L. A. Spero, B. P. Harrawood, K. G. Morris, D. F. Fortin, W. A. Baker, T. M. Bashore and J. T. Cusma, "Compression of Digital Coronary Angiograms Does Not Affect Visual or Quantitative Assessment of Coronary Artery Stenosis Severity," Am. J. of Card. 78, 131-135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W.A. Baker, S. E. Hearne, L. A. Spero, K. G. Morris, R. A. Harrington, M. H. Sketch Jr., V. S. Behar, Y. Kong, R. H. Peter, T. M. Bashore, J. K. Harrison and J. T. Cusma, "Lossy (15:1) JPEG Compression of Digital Coronary Angiograms Does Not Limit Detection of Subtle Morphological Features," Circ. 96, 1157-1164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, C. A. D. Honig, S. Gu, S. Einav and N. L. Eigler, "Effect of lossy image compression on observer performance in dynamically displayed digital coronary angiograms," Circ. 86 (Suppl.) I-444 (1993).

M. P. Eckstein, T. D. Wickens, G. Aharanov, G. Ruan, C. Morioka and J. S. Whiting, "Quantifying the limitations of the use of consensus expert committees in ROC studies," Proceedings of the SPIE Medical Imaging Conference of the Society of Photo-Optical and Instrumentation Engineers 3340-12,128-134 (1998).

N. L. Eigler, M. P. Eckstein, K. Mahrer, D. Honig and J. S. Whiting, "Effect of a stenosis stablilized display on morphological features," Circ. 96, 1157-1164 (1997).

L. A. Love and R. A. Kruger, "Scattering estimation for a digital radiographic system using convolution filtering," Med. Phys. 14, 178-185 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Pennebaker and J. L. Mitchell, JPEG Still Image Data Compression Standard, (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1992).

A. Zandi, J. Allen, E. L. Schwartz and M. Boliek, "CREW Lossless/Lossy Medical Image Compression," IEEE Data Compression Conference, 212-221 (1995).

D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics, Wiley, New York, (1966).

A. E. Burgess and H. Ghandeharian,"Visual signal detection II. Signal-location identification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 1, 906-910 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kijewski, R. G. Swensson and P. F. Judy , "Analysis of rating data from multiple-alternative tasks," J. of Math. Psych. 33, 428-451 (1989).
[CrossRef]

I. Daubechies, Ten Lectures on Wavelets, (SIAM, Philadelphia, 1992).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chui, An Introduction to Wavelets, (Academic Press, Boston, (1992).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Dynamic demonstration of creation of test-images used for psychophysical experiments (test- images shown are 400×338 pixel subsets of the 512×512 images used in the experiments) [Media 1]

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

-C. Example of thrombosis cropped to 150×150 pixels from original 512×512 pixel image: a) uncompressed, b) 14.9:1 jpeg, c) 19.2:1 wavelet. Arrow indicates location of thrombosis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

-C. Example of ulcerated plaque: a) uncompressed, b) 14.9:1 JPEG, c) 19.2:1 wavelet. Arrow indicates location of ulcerated plaque.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

-c. Example of bridging lumen: a) uncompressed, b) 14.9:1 jpeg, c) 19.2:1 wavelet. Arrow indicates location of bridging lumen.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

-C. Example of grading stenosis: a) uncompressed, b) 14.9:1 JPEG, c) 19.2:1 Wavelet. Arrow indicates location of stenosis.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Human performance for 6 different observers. Upper Left: lumen detection. Upper Right: graded stenosis. Middle Left: thrombosis detection. Middle Right: ulcer detection Bottom Left: 16 frames/sec stenosis grading. Bottom Right: 16 frames/sec thrombosis detection.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Visual tasks and display conditions investigated in the present study

Tables Icon

Table 2. Results of observer performance for various detection tasks (α=0.05).

Equations (8)

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I ( x , y ) = P ( x , y ) + S ( x , y )
P ( x , y ) = I o e D p ( x , y ) e D a ( x , y )
D ( p ) = i = 1 N μ i t i
P s ( x , y ) = P ( x , y ) e D s ( x , y )
I s ( x , y ) = [ I ( x , y ) S ( x , y ) ] e D s ( x , y ) + S ( x , y )
S ( x , y ) = I ( x , y ) * α h ( x , y ) + β
h ( x , y ) = 20 e A x x o e B y y o
A = B = 2 log ( 2 ) 75 .

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