Abstract

Liquid crystal modal lenses are switchable lenses with a continuous phase variation across the lens. A critical issue for such lenses is the minimization of phase aberrations. In this paper we present results of a simulation of control signals that have a range of harmonics. Experimental results using optimal sinusoidal and rectangular voltages are presented. A lack of uniqueness in the specification of the control voltage parameters is explained. The influence of a variable duty cycle of the control voltage on an adaptive lens is investigated. Finally we present experimental results showing a liquid crystal lens varying its focal length.

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References

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  1. V. Laude, "Twisted-nematic liquid-crystal pixelated active lens," Opt. Comm. 153, 134-152 (1998).
  2. W. W. Chan and S. T. Kowel, "Imaging performance of the liquid-crystal-adaptive lens with conductive ladder meshing," Appl. Opt. 36, 8958-8969 (1997).
  3. J. S. Patel and K. Rastani, "Electrically controlled polarization-independent liquid-crystal Fresnel lens arrays," Opt. Lett. 16, 532-534 (1991).
  4. C. W. Fowler and E. S. Pateras, "Liquid crystal lens review," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 10, 186-194 (1990).
  5. S. Masuda, S. Takahashi, T. Nose, S. Sato and H. Ito, "Liquid-crystal microlens with a beam-steering function," Appl. Opt. 36, 4772-4778 (1997).
  6. A. F. Naumov, "Modal wavefront correctors," Proc. of P. N. Lebedev Phys. Inst. 217, 177-182 (1993).
  7. A. F. Naumov, G. V. Vdovin, "Multichannel LC-based wavefront corrector with modal influence functions," Opt. Lett. 23, 1550-1552 (1998).
  8. E. G. Abramochkin, A. A. Vasiliev, P. V. Vashurin, L. I. Zhmurova, V. A. Ignatov and A. F. Naumov, "Controlled liquid crystal lens," preprint of P. N. Lebedev Phys. Inst. 194, 18p. (1988).
  9. A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev, I. R. Guralnik and G. V. Vdovin, "Liquid crystal adaptive lenses with modal control," Opt. Lett. 23, 992-994 (1998).
  10. G. D. Love, J. V. Major and A. Purvis, "Liquid-crystal prisms for tip-tilt adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 19, 1170-1172 (1994).
  11. F. L. Vladimirov, I. E. Morichev, L. I. Petrova and N. I. Pletneva, "Analog indicator based on liquid crystals," Opto-Mekhanicheskaja Promishlennost 3, 27-28 (1987).
  12. G. D. Love, "Liquid-crystal phase modulator for unpolarized light," Appl. Opt. 32, 2222-2223 (1993).
  13. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1968).
  14. A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev and I. R. Guralnik, "Cylindrical and spherical adaptive liquid crystal lenses," SPIE 3684, pp.18-27 (1998).
  15. L. M. Blinov, Electro-Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  16. A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev, I. R. Guralnik, S. V. Sheyenkov and G. V. Vdovin, "Modal liquid crystal adaptive lenses," preprint of P. N. Lebedev Phys. Inst. 13, 28p. (1998).
  17. B. R. Frieden (ed.), The Computer in Optical Research. Methods and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1980).

Other

V. Laude, "Twisted-nematic liquid-crystal pixelated active lens," Opt. Comm. 153, 134-152 (1998).

W. W. Chan and S. T. Kowel, "Imaging performance of the liquid-crystal-adaptive lens with conductive ladder meshing," Appl. Opt. 36, 8958-8969 (1997).

J. S. Patel and K. Rastani, "Electrically controlled polarization-independent liquid-crystal Fresnel lens arrays," Opt. Lett. 16, 532-534 (1991).

C. W. Fowler and E. S. Pateras, "Liquid crystal lens review," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 10, 186-194 (1990).

S. Masuda, S. Takahashi, T. Nose, S. Sato and H. Ito, "Liquid-crystal microlens with a beam-steering function," Appl. Opt. 36, 4772-4778 (1997).

A. F. Naumov, "Modal wavefront correctors," Proc. of P. N. Lebedev Phys. Inst. 217, 177-182 (1993).

A. F. Naumov, G. V. Vdovin, "Multichannel LC-based wavefront corrector with modal influence functions," Opt. Lett. 23, 1550-1552 (1998).

E. G. Abramochkin, A. A. Vasiliev, P. V. Vashurin, L. I. Zhmurova, V. A. Ignatov and A. F. Naumov, "Controlled liquid crystal lens," preprint of P. N. Lebedev Phys. Inst. 194, 18p. (1988).

A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev, I. R. Guralnik and G. V. Vdovin, "Liquid crystal adaptive lenses with modal control," Opt. Lett. 23, 992-994 (1998).

G. D. Love, J. V. Major and A. Purvis, "Liquid-crystal prisms for tip-tilt adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 19, 1170-1172 (1994).

F. L. Vladimirov, I. E. Morichev, L. I. Petrova and N. I. Pletneva, "Analog indicator based on liquid crystals," Opto-Mekhanicheskaja Promishlennost 3, 27-28 (1987).

G. D. Love, "Liquid-crystal phase modulator for unpolarized light," Appl. Opt. 32, 2222-2223 (1993).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1968).

A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev and I. R. Guralnik, "Cylindrical and spherical adaptive liquid crystal lenses," SPIE 3684, pp.18-27 (1998).

L. M. Blinov, Electro-Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1983).

A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev, I. R. Guralnik, S. V. Sheyenkov and G. V. Vdovin, "Modal liquid crystal adaptive lenses," preprint of P. N. Lebedev Phys. Inst. 13, 28p. (1998).

B. R. Frieden (ed.), The Computer in Optical Research. Methods and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1980).

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