Abstract

The generation of 875 fs nearly rect-shaped pulses from 96 fs sech2 shaped Ti:sapphire laser pulses by means of a microoptical pulse shaper is presented conceptually and experimentally. Pulse shaping is performed by time frequency filtering of the input spectrum within a Fourier optical 4f setup with entrance and exit grating. The setup uses an optimized reflective filter concept with 40 nm filter bandwidth giving improved pulse shape at acceptable temporal pulse extension. Moreover, an integrated optical concept with inherent dispersion compensation for shaping ps pulses is proposed which employs an integrated film waveguide based telescopic system with curved waveguide mirrors for improved filtering of a limited spectral bandwidth.

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References

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  1. A. Weiner, J. Heritage and J. Salehi, "Encoding and decoding of femtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 13, 300-302 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996).
  3. A. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, D. Leaird, A. Saifi, M. Andrejco and P. Smith, "Use of Femtosecond Square Pulses to Avoid Pulse Break-Up in All-Optical Switching," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2648-2655 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Haner and W. S. Warren, "Synthesis of crafted optical pulses by time domain modulation in a fiber-grating compressor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1458-1460 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. B. Hill, D. J. Brady, "Pulse shaping in volume reflection holograms," Opt. Lett. 18, 1739-1741 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. Johnson, E. Maniloff, T. Mossberg, M. Munroe and J. Sweetser, "Spectral phase encoding and decoding using fiber Bragg gratings," Technical Digest of OFC & IOOC `99, PD33-1, San Diego, USA, (1999).
  7. H. Tsuda, H. Takenouchi, T. Ishii, K. Okamoto, T. Goh, K. Sato, A. Hirano, T. Kurokawa and C. Amano, "Photonic spectral encoder/decoder using an arrayed-waveguide grating for coherent optical code division multiplexing," Technical Digest of OFC & IOOC `99, PD32-1, San Diego, USA, (1999).
  8. J. Heritage, A. Weiner and R. Thurston, "Picosecond pulse shaping by spectral phase and amplitude manipulation," Opt. Lett. 10, 609-611 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Delfyett, H. Shi, S. Gee, C. Barty, G. Alphonse and J. Connolly, "Intracavity Spectral Shaping in External Cavity Mode-Locked Semiconductor Diode Lasers," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 216-223 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Emplit, J.-P. Hamaide and F. Reynaud, "Passive amplitude and phase picosecond pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 17, 1358-1360 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Weiner and A. Kanan, "Femtosecond Pulse Shaping for Synthesis, Processing, and Time-to-Space Conversion of Ultrafast Optical Waveforms," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 317-331 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of Arbitrary Femtosecond Pulses Using Frequency -Resolved Optical Gating," IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics 29, 571-579 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 792-794 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. M. Wefers and K. A. Nelson, "Analysis of programmable ultrashort waveform generation using liquid-crystal spatial light modulators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1343-1362 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. W. Goodman, Introductions to Fourier optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996) 2nd edition.

Other (15)

A. Weiner, J. Heritage and J. Salehi, "Encoding and decoding of femtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 13, 300-302 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996).

A. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, H. Fouckhardt, D. Leaird, A. Saifi, M. Andrejco and P. Smith, "Use of Femtosecond Square Pulses to Avoid Pulse Break-Up in All-Optical Switching," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2648-2655 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Haner and W. S. Warren, "Synthesis of crafted optical pulses by time domain modulation in a fiber-grating compressor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1458-1460 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Hill, D. J. Brady, "Pulse shaping in volume reflection holograms," Opt. Lett. 18, 1739-1741 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. Johnson, E. Maniloff, T. Mossberg, M. Munroe and J. Sweetser, "Spectral phase encoding and decoding using fiber Bragg gratings," Technical Digest of OFC & IOOC `99, PD33-1, San Diego, USA, (1999).

H. Tsuda, H. Takenouchi, T. Ishii, K. Okamoto, T. Goh, K. Sato, A. Hirano, T. Kurokawa and C. Amano, "Photonic spectral encoder/decoder using an arrayed-waveguide grating for coherent optical code division multiplexing," Technical Digest of OFC & IOOC `99, PD32-1, San Diego, USA, (1999).

J. Heritage, A. Weiner and R. Thurston, "Picosecond pulse shaping by spectral phase and amplitude manipulation," Opt. Lett. 10, 609-611 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Delfyett, H. Shi, S. Gee, C. Barty, G. Alphonse and J. Connolly, "Intracavity Spectral Shaping in External Cavity Mode-Locked Semiconductor Diode Lasers," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 216-223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Emplit, J.-P. Hamaide and F. Reynaud, "Passive amplitude and phase picosecond pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 17, 1358-1360 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weiner and A. Kanan, "Femtosecond Pulse Shaping for Synthesis, Processing, and Time-to-Space Conversion of Ultrafast Optical Waveforms," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 317-331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of Arbitrary Femtosecond Pulses Using Frequency -Resolved Optical Gating," IEEE J. of Quantum Electronics 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 792-794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Wefers and K. A. Nelson, "Analysis of programmable ultrashort waveform generation using liquid-crystal spatial light modulators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1343-1362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Introductions to Fourier optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996) 2nd edition.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fourier optical 4f pulse shaping setup with correlation of temporal and spatial frequencies by means of a diffraction grating (4f = 2f plus reflection). The inverse transform of the filtered spectrum is performed at the reverse propagation by the same lens

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative pulse intensity broadening of the input pulse by shaping with a truncated sinc-function for any filter bandwidth

Fig. 3 a)
Fig. 3 a)

Sech field amplitude of a 125 fs sech2 input pulse (rise time = 150 fs), b) spectral profile of input pulse, c) truncated and modified sinc filter function taking into account the spectral profile of the input pulse by use of the correction function (1/sech) shown in the right insert, d) filtered spectrum (sinc-shaped), e) calculated field amplitude of the rect-pulse after filtering the input pulse (a) with filter function (c); FWHM = 875 fs. All curves are calculated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Steps for generating the filter mask: a) digitization of chosen function, b) layout of resulting phase and amplitude mask

Fig. 5:
Fig. 5:

Micro-optical pulse shaper consisting of curved mirror, grating, and filter mounted on brass plate; a match is shown to illustrate size

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental setup for shaping and analyzing Ti:sapphire laser pulses by means of a micro-optical pulse shaper module (schematic), pulse shaper depicted in plain view

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) Digital amplitude filter mask (black areas represent reflectors, width of smallest structure: 6 μm), b) spectrum of the shaped pulse (resolution 0.2 nm), c) spectrum of the input pulse, d) enlargement of filter mask showing phase mask and amplitude mask elements, e) spectrum of the shaped pulse (resolution 1 nm), f) calculated bandlimited sinc2-spectrum of a 875 fs rectangular pulse

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

a) Autocorrelation trace of the shaped pulse, b) calculated autocorrelation of an 875 fs rect-pulse

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Integrated optical ps pulse shaper design, integrated optical filter mask for the filter values -1,1,0, MF is Fourier transform mirror, T1 and T2 are film mirrors making up a telescope, realized as highly reflective curved waveguide mirrors

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