Abstract

We evaluate the effect on human visual detection of a display method that stabilizes the motion of the feature of interest in sequential JPEG compressed x-ray coronary angiogram images. At all levels of image compression the feature stabilized display significantly improved performance with respect to the standard display where the artery is moving. In addition, for both the moving artery and stabilized display, human performance with images compressed at 15:1 was not significantly different from performance with the uncompressed images.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. E. Nissen et al., “Cardiac Aniography Without Cine Film: Erecting a Tower of Babel in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory,” J. Am. College Cardiology 24, 834–837 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. S. Whiting, D. Honig, D. Carterette, and N. L. Eigler, “Observer performance in dynamic displays: effect of frame rate on visual signal detection in noisy images,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 165–167 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. P. Eckstein, J. S. Whiting, and J. P. Thomas, “Detection and discrimination of moving signals in Gaussian uncorrelated noise,” Proc. SPIE 2712, 9–25 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Tapiovaara, “Efficiency of low-contrast detail detectability in fluoroscopic imaging,” Med. Phys. 24, 655–64 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. L. Wilson, K. N. Jabri, P. Xue, and R. Aufrichtig, “Perceived noise versus display noise in temporally filtered image sequences,” J. Electron. Imaging 5, 490–495 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Aufrichtig, C. W. Thomas CW, P. Xue, and D. L. Wilson, “Model for perception of pulsed fluoroscopy image sequences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3167–3176 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. L. Eigler, M. P. Eckstein, K. Maher, D. Honig, and J. S. Whiting, “Effect of a stenosis stabilized display on morphological feature detection,” Circ,  89, 2700–2709 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. A. Baker et al., “Lossy (15:1) JPEG compression of digital coronary angiograms does not limit detection of subtle morphological features,” Circ. 96, 1157–1164 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. A. Morioka, M. P. Eckstein, J. L. Bartroff, J. Hauseleiter, and J. S. Whiting, “JPEG vs. Wavelet image compression of x-ray coronary angiograms,” Opt. Express (to be submitted).
  10. L. A. Love and R A. Kruger, “Scatter estimation for a digital radiographic system using convolution filtering,” Med. Phys. 14, 178–185, (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Note that in this method the scattering and veiling glare is not corrected for the presence of the new simulated object.
  12. D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Wiley, N.Y.1966).
  13. A. E. Burgess and H. Ghandeharian, “Visual signal detection. II. Signal-location identification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 906–910 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. P. Eckstein and J. S. Whiting, “Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds I. Effect of number of possible locations and signal contrast,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1777–1787 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, C. A. Morioka, and N. L. Eigler, “Effect of additive noise, signal contrast and feature motion on signal detection in structured noise,” Proc. SPIE 2712, 39–47 (1996).
  16. J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, and N. L Eigler, “Effect of motion on feature detectability in dynamicaly displayed coronary arteries,” Fifth Far West Image Perception Conference, Newport, RI (1993).
  17. R. A. Close and J. S. Whiting, “Decomposition of projection image sequences into moving layers,” in Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, Editors, H. U. Lemke, M. W. Vannier, K. Inamura, and A. Farman, Elsevier Science,  143-146 (1998).
  18. M. P. Eckstein, T. D. Wickens, G. Aharonov, G. Ruan, C. A. Morioka, and J. S. Whiting, “Quantifying the limitations of the use of consensus expert committees in ROC studies,” Proc. SPIE 3340, 128–134 (1998).
    [Crossref]

1998 (2)

R. A. Close and J. S. Whiting, “Decomposition of projection image sequences into moving layers,” in Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, Editors, H. U. Lemke, M. W. Vannier, K. Inamura, and A. Farman, Elsevier Science,  143-146 (1998).

M. P. Eckstein, T. D. Wickens, G. Aharonov, G. Ruan, C. A. Morioka, and J. S. Whiting, “Quantifying the limitations of the use of consensus expert committees in ROC studies,” Proc. SPIE 3340, 128–134 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

M. Tapiovaara, “Efficiency of low-contrast detail detectability in fluoroscopic imaging,” Med. Phys. 24, 655–64 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Baker et al., “Lossy (15:1) JPEG compression of digital coronary angiograms does not limit detection of subtle morphological features,” Circ. 96, 1157–1164 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (4)

D. L. Wilson, K. N. Jabri, P. Xue, and R. Aufrichtig, “Perceived noise versus display noise in temporally filtered image sequences,” J. Electron. Imaging 5, 490–495 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. P. Eckstein and J. S. Whiting, “Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds I. Effect of number of possible locations and signal contrast,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1777–1787 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, C. A. Morioka, and N. L. Eigler, “Effect of additive noise, signal contrast and feature motion on signal detection in structured noise,” Proc. SPIE 2712, 39–47 (1996).

M. P. Eckstein, J. S. Whiting, and J. P. Thomas, “Detection and discrimination of moving signals in Gaussian uncorrelated noise,” Proc. SPIE 2712, 9–25 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

R. Aufrichtig, C. W. Thomas CW, P. Xue, and D. L. Wilson, “Model for perception of pulsed fluoroscopy image sequences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3167–3176 (1994).
[Crossref]

N. L. Eigler, M. P. Eckstein, K. Maher, D. Honig, and J. S. Whiting, “Effect of a stenosis stabilized display on morphological feature detection,” Circ,  89, 2700–2709 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. E. Nissen et al., “Cardiac Aniography Without Cine Film: Erecting a Tower of Babel in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory,” J. Am. College Cardiology 24, 834–837 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, and N. L Eigler, “Effect of motion on feature detectability in dynamicaly displayed coronary arteries,” Fifth Far West Image Perception Conference, Newport, RI (1993).

1991 (1)

J. S. Whiting, D. Honig, D. Carterette, and N. L. Eigler, “Observer performance in dynamic displays: effect of frame rate on visual signal detection in noisy images,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 165–167 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

L. A. Love and R A. Kruger, “Scatter estimation for a digital radiographic system using convolution filtering,” Med. Phys. 14, 178–185, (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

Aharonov, G.

M. P. Eckstein, T. D. Wickens, G. Aharonov, G. Ruan, C. A. Morioka, and J. S. Whiting, “Quantifying the limitations of the use of consensus expert committees in ROC studies,” Proc. SPIE 3340, 128–134 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aufrichtig, R.

D. L. Wilson, K. N. Jabri, P. Xue, and R. Aufrichtig, “Perceived noise versus display noise in temporally filtered image sequences,” J. Electron. Imaging 5, 490–495 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. Aufrichtig, C. W. Thomas CW, P. Xue, and D. L. Wilson, “Model for perception of pulsed fluoroscopy image sequences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3167–3176 (1994).
[Crossref]

Baker, W. A.

W. A. Baker et al., “Lossy (15:1) JPEG compression of digital coronary angiograms does not limit detection of subtle morphological features,” Circ. 96, 1157–1164 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bartroff, J. L.

C. A. Morioka, M. P. Eckstein, J. L. Bartroff, J. Hauseleiter, and J. S. Whiting, “JPEG vs. Wavelet image compression of x-ray coronary angiograms,” Opt. Express (to be submitted).

Burgess, A. E.

Carterette, D.

J. S. Whiting, D. Honig, D. Carterette, and N. L. Eigler, “Observer performance in dynamic displays: effect of frame rate on visual signal detection in noisy images,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 165–167 (1991).
[Crossref]

Close, R. A.

R. A. Close and J. S. Whiting, “Decomposition of projection image sequences into moving layers,” in Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, Editors, H. U. Lemke, M. W. Vannier, K. Inamura, and A. Farman, Elsevier Science,  143-146 (1998).

Eckstein, M. P.

M. P. Eckstein, T. D. Wickens, G. Aharonov, G. Ruan, C. A. Morioka, and J. S. Whiting, “Quantifying the limitations of the use of consensus expert committees in ROC studies,” Proc. SPIE 3340, 128–134 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. P. Eckstein, J. S. Whiting, and J. P. Thomas, “Detection and discrimination of moving signals in Gaussian uncorrelated noise,” Proc. SPIE 2712, 9–25 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. P. Eckstein and J. S. Whiting, “Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds I. Effect of number of possible locations and signal contrast,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1777–1787 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, C. A. Morioka, and N. L. Eigler, “Effect of additive noise, signal contrast and feature motion on signal detection in structured noise,” Proc. SPIE 2712, 39–47 (1996).

N. L. Eigler, M. P. Eckstein, K. Maher, D. Honig, and J. S. Whiting, “Effect of a stenosis stabilized display on morphological feature detection,” Circ,  89, 2700–2709 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, and N. L Eigler, “Effect of motion on feature detectability in dynamicaly displayed coronary arteries,” Fifth Far West Image Perception Conference, Newport, RI (1993).

C. A. Morioka, M. P. Eckstein, J. L. Bartroff, J. Hauseleiter, and J. S. Whiting, “JPEG vs. Wavelet image compression of x-ray coronary angiograms,” Opt. Express (to be submitted).

Eigler, N. L

J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, and N. L Eigler, “Effect of motion on feature detectability in dynamicaly displayed coronary arteries,” Fifth Far West Image Perception Conference, Newport, RI (1993).

Eigler, N. L.

J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, C. A. Morioka, and N. L. Eigler, “Effect of additive noise, signal contrast and feature motion on signal detection in structured noise,” Proc. SPIE 2712, 39–47 (1996).

N. L. Eigler, M. P. Eckstein, K. Maher, D. Honig, and J. S. Whiting, “Effect of a stenosis stabilized display on morphological feature detection,” Circ,  89, 2700–2709 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. S. Whiting, D. Honig, D. Carterette, and N. L. Eigler, “Observer performance in dynamic displays: effect of frame rate on visual signal detection in noisy images,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 165–167 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ghandeharian, H.

Green, D. M.

D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Wiley, N.Y.1966).

Hauseleiter, J.

C. A. Morioka, M. P. Eckstein, J. L. Bartroff, J. Hauseleiter, and J. S. Whiting, “JPEG vs. Wavelet image compression of x-ray coronary angiograms,” Opt. Express (to be submitted).

Honig, D.

N. L. Eigler, M. P. Eckstein, K. Maher, D. Honig, and J. S. Whiting, “Effect of a stenosis stabilized display on morphological feature detection,” Circ,  89, 2700–2709 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. S. Whiting, D. Honig, D. Carterette, and N. L. Eigler, “Observer performance in dynamic displays: effect of frame rate on visual signal detection in noisy images,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 165–167 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jabri, K. N.

D. L. Wilson, K. N. Jabri, P. Xue, and R. Aufrichtig, “Perceived noise versus display noise in temporally filtered image sequences,” J. Electron. Imaging 5, 490–495 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kruger, R A.

L. A. Love and R A. Kruger, “Scatter estimation for a digital radiographic system using convolution filtering,” Med. Phys. 14, 178–185, (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Love, L. A.

L. A. Love and R A. Kruger, “Scatter estimation for a digital radiographic system using convolution filtering,” Med. Phys. 14, 178–185, (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maher, K.

N. L. Eigler, M. P. Eckstein, K. Maher, D. Honig, and J. S. Whiting, “Effect of a stenosis stabilized display on morphological feature detection,” Circ,  89, 2700–2709 (1994).
[Crossref]

Morioka, C. A.

M. P. Eckstein, T. D. Wickens, G. Aharonov, G. Ruan, C. A. Morioka, and J. S. Whiting, “Quantifying the limitations of the use of consensus expert committees in ROC studies,” Proc. SPIE 3340, 128–134 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, C. A. Morioka, and N. L. Eigler, “Effect of additive noise, signal contrast and feature motion on signal detection in structured noise,” Proc. SPIE 2712, 39–47 (1996).

C. A. Morioka, M. P. Eckstein, J. L. Bartroff, J. Hauseleiter, and J. S. Whiting, “JPEG vs. Wavelet image compression of x-ray coronary angiograms,” Opt. Express (to be submitted).

Nissen, S. E.

S. E. Nissen et al., “Cardiac Aniography Without Cine Film: Erecting a Tower of Babel in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory,” J. Am. College Cardiology 24, 834–837 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ruan, G.

M. P. Eckstein, T. D. Wickens, G. Aharonov, G. Ruan, C. A. Morioka, and J. S. Whiting, “Quantifying the limitations of the use of consensus expert committees in ROC studies,” Proc. SPIE 3340, 128–134 (1998).
[Crossref]

Swets, J. A.

D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Wiley, N.Y.1966).

Tapiovaara, M.

M. Tapiovaara, “Efficiency of low-contrast detail detectability in fluoroscopic imaging,” Med. Phys. 24, 655–64 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, J. P.

M. P. Eckstein, J. S. Whiting, and J. P. Thomas, “Detection and discrimination of moving signals in Gaussian uncorrelated noise,” Proc. SPIE 2712, 9–25 (1996).
[Crossref]

Thomas CW, C. W.

Whiting, J. S.

R. A. Close and J. S. Whiting, “Decomposition of projection image sequences into moving layers,” in Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, Editors, H. U. Lemke, M. W. Vannier, K. Inamura, and A. Farman, Elsevier Science,  143-146 (1998).

M. P. Eckstein, T. D. Wickens, G. Aharonov, G. Ruan, C. A. Morioka, and J. S. Whiting, “Quantifying the limitations of the use of consensus expert committees in ROC studies,” Proc. SPIE 3340, 128–134 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. P. Eckstein, J. S. Whiting, and J. P. Thomas, “Detection and discrimination of moving signals in Gaussian uncorrelated noise,” Proc. SPIE 2712, 9–25 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. P. Eckstein and J. S. Whiting, “Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds I. Effect of number of possible locations and signal contrast,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1777–1787 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, C. A. Morioka, and N. L. Eigler, “Effect of additive noise, signal contrast and feature motion on signal detection in structured noise,” Proc. SPIE 2712, 39–47 (1996).

N. L. Eigler, M. P. Eckstein, K. Maher, D. Honig, and J. S. Whiting, “Effect of a stenosis stabilized display on morphological feature detection,” Circ,  89, 2700–2709 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, and N. L Eigler, “Effect of motion on feature detectability in dynamicaly displayed coronary arteries,” Fifth Far West Image Perception Conference, Newport, RI (1993).

J. S. Whiting, D. Honig, D. Carterette, and N. L. Eigler, “Observer performance in dynamic displays: effect of frame rate on visual signal detection in noisy images,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 165–167 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. A. Morioka, M. P. Eckstein, J. L. Bartroff, J. Hauseleiter, and J. S. Whiting, “JPEG vs. Wavelet image compression of x-ray coronary angiograms,” Opt. Express (to be submitted).

Wickens, T. D.

M. P. Eckstein, T. D. Wickens, G. Aharonov, G. Ruan, C. A. Morioka, and J. S. Whiting, “Quantifying the limitations of the use of consensus expert committees in ROC studies,” Proc. SPIE 3340, 128–134 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wilson, D. L.

D. L. Wilson, K. N. Jabri, P. Xue, and R. Aufrichtig, “Perceived noise versus display noise in temporally filtered image sequences,” J. Electron. Imaging 5, 490–495 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. Aufrichtig, C. W. Thomas CW, P. Xue, and D. L. Wilson, “Model for perception of pulsed fluoroscopy image sequences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3167–3176 (1994).
[Crossref]

Xue, P.

D. L. Wilson, K. N. Jabri, P. Xue, and R. Aufrichtig, “Perceived noise versus display noise in temporally filtered image sequences,” J. Electron. Imaging 5, 490–495 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. Aufrichtig, C. W. Thomas CW, P. Xue, and D. L. Wilson, “Model for perception of pulsed fluoroscopy image sequences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3167–3176 (1994).
[Crossref]

Circ (1)

N. L. Eigler, M. P. Eckstein, K. Maher, D. Honig, and J. S. Whiting, “Effect of a stenosis stabilized display on morphological feature detection,” Circ,  89, 2700–2709 (1994).
[Crossref]

Circ. (1)

W. A. Baker et al., “Lossy (15:1) JPEG compression of digital coronary angiograms does not limit detection of subtle morphological features,” Circ. 96, 1157–1164 (1997).
[Crossref]

Elsevier Science (1)

R. A. Close and J. S. Whiting, “Decomposition of projection image sequences into moving layers,” in Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, Editors, H. U. Lemke, M. W. Vannier, K. Inamura, and A. Farman, Elsevier Science,  143-146 (1998).

Fifth Far West Image Perception Conference, Newport (1)

J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, and N. L Eigler, “Effect of motion on feature detectability in dynamicaly displayed coronary arteries,” Fifth Far West Image Perception Conference, Newport, RI (1993).

J. Am. College Cardiology (1)

S. E. Nissen et al., “Cardiac Aniography Without Cine Film: Erecting a Tower of Babel in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory,” J. Am. College Cardiology 24, 834–837 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

D. L. Wilson, K. N. Jabri, P. Xue, and R. Aufrichtig, “Perceived noise versus display noise in temporally filtered image sequences,” J. Electron. Imaging 5, 490–495 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Med. Phys. (2)

M. Tapiovaara, “Efficiency of low-contrast detail detectability in fluoroscopic imaging,” Med. Phys. 24, 655–64 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Love and R A. Kruger, “Scatter estimation for a digital radiographic system using convolution filtering,” Med. Phys. 14, 178–185, (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

C. A. Morioka, M. P. Eckstein, J. L. Bartroff, J. Hauseleiter, and J. S. Whiting, “JPEG vs. Wavelet image compression of x-ray coronary angiograms,” Opt. Express (to be submitted).

Proc. SPIE (4)

J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, C. A. Morioka, and N. L. Eigler, “Effect of additive noise, signal contrast and feature motion on signal detection in structured noise,” Proc. SPIE 2712, 39–47 (1996).

J. S. Whiting, D. Honig, D. Carterette, and N. L. Eigler, “Observer performance in dynamic displays: effect of frame rate on visual signal detection in noisy images,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 165–167 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. P. Eckstein, J. S. Whiting, and J. P. Thomas, “Detection and discrimination of moving signals in Gaussian uncorrelated noise,” Proc. SPIE 2712, 9–25 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. P. Eckstein, T. D. Wickens, G. Aharonov, G. Ruan, C. A. Morioka, and J. S. Whiting, “Quantifying the limitations of the use of consensus expert committees in ROC studies,” Proc. SPIE 3340, 128–134 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Note that in this method the scattering and veiling glare is not corrected for the presence of the new simulated object.

D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Wiley, N.Y.1966).

Supplementary Material (8)

» Media 1: MOV (2532 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2532 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (5063 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (5063 KB)     
» Media 5: MOV (3073 KB)     
» Media 6: MOV (3073 KB)     
» Media 7: MOV (3073 KB)     
» Media 8: MOV (3073 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Left standard moving artery display (M.A). Right the stabilized display (S.D.) [Media 1] [Media 2] [Media 3] [Media 4]

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Test image-sequences consisting of four simulated arterial segments (projected 3-D right cylinders with narrowing towards the center). The subtle lesion (a bright spot) is located at the vertical and horizontal center of the bottom right simulated arterial segment. From left to right: Uncompressed moving artery display, uncompressed stabilized display, 30:1 JPEG compressed moving artery and 30:1 JPEG compressed stabilized display. [Media 5] [Media 6] [Media 7] [Media 8]

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Human performance (da) for 4 observers detecting a low-contrast feature as a function of JPEG compression ratio for the standard moving artery display (M.A.) and the stabilized display (S.D.). For each graph the highest and lowest performance points are labeled with the corresponding Pc performance level.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pc ( d a , M ) = + g ( z d a ) [ G ( z ) ] M 1 dz
I ( x , y ) = P ( x , y ) + S ( x , y )
P ( x , y ) = I o e D p ( x , y ) e D a ( x , y )
P s ( x , y ) = P ( x , y ) e D s ( x , y )
I s ( x , y ) = [ I ( x , y ) S ( x , y ) ] e D s ( x , y ) + S ( x , y )
S ( x , y ) = I ( x , y ) * α h ( x , y ) + β
h ( x , y ) = 20 e A x x o e B y y o
D t ( x , y ) = κ 2.0 r 2 [ ( x x o ) 2 + ( y y o ) 2 ]

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