Abstract

The CO2 laser locked onto a saturated absorption resonance of OsO4 provides a secondary frequency standard in the 10 μm region, with an accuracy of 50 Hz to 1 kHz. For averaging times less than 100 s its stability performance is better than the Hydrogen maser. This paper deals with the present attempt to increase this performance by using a two-photon molecular resonance as a reference. We begin with some preliminary and promising results on a two-photon line of SF6 leading to characteristics similar to those obtained with a saturation line of OsO4. Then two alternative methods to increase the resolution are presented : optical detection of slow molecules and a new development of the well-known Ramsey fringes. Metrological features are analyzed for both methods.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. Simon, P. Laurent, and A. Clairon, “Measurement of the Stark shift on the Cs hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain,” Phys.Rev. A 57, 436–439 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, G. Zinner, K. Zeiske, B. Lipphardt, and J. Helmcke, “Calcium optical frequency standard based on atom interferometry,” Laser Phys. 6, 237–243 (1996).
  4. L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, “Metrological features of the Rubidium two-photon standards of the LPTF and the Kastler-Brossel Laboratories,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 4, 219–225 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Huber, B. Gross, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Two-photon Ramsey spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in atomic Hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2631–R2634 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy, and C. Chardonnet, “Sélection des molécules lentes en spectroscopie sans effet Doppler à deux photons,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 20, 601–602 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “Slow-molecule detection in Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 37, 103–108 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. N. Bagayev, A. E. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, and A. S. Dychkov, “Superhigh resolution spectroscopy in methane with cold molecules,” Rev. Roum. Phys. 33, 361–367 (1988).
  9. S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Y. V. Nekrasov, and B. N. Skvortsov, “Second-Order Doppler-Free Spectroscopy,” App. Phys. B 52, 63–66 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Chardonnet, F. Guernet, G. Charton, and C. J. Bordé, “Ultrahigh-resolution saturation spectroscopy using slow molecules in an external cell,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 333–343 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  11. V. Bernard, C. Daussy, G. Nogues, L. Constantin, P. E. Durand, A. Amy-Klein, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Chardonnet, “CO2 laser stabilization to 0.1-Hz level using external electrooptic modulation,”  QE-33, 1282 (1997).
  12. F. Herlemont, M. Khelkhal, J. Legrand, and G. Pierre, “Doppler-free two-photon spectrum of SF6 for metrological purposes,” Opt. Lett. 23, 957–959 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Linskens, S. te Lintel Hekkert, and J. Reuss, “One and two photon spectra of SF6 molecular beam measurements,” Infrared Phys. 32, 259–282 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. V. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, and B. Y. Dubetsky, “The Resonance of Two-Photon Absorption in Separated Optical Fields,” App. Phys. 11, 201–202 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. J. Bordé, “Sur les franges de Ramsey en spectroscopie sans élargissement Doppler,” C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris 284B, 101–104 (1977).
  16. C. J. Bordé, “Density matrix equations and diagrams for high resolution non-linear laser spectroscopy : application to Ramsey fringes in the optical domain,” in Advances in laser spectroscopy, F. T. Arecchi, F. Strumia, and H. Walther, Editors, (1983).
  17. A. F. Linskens, W. L. Meerts, J. Reuss, and C. J. Bordé, “Doppler-free two-photon Ramsey Fringes in the 10 μm region,” in Laser controlled dynamics of molecular processes, A. F. Linskens and Ph. D. Thesis, University of Nijmegen, ISBN 90-9007146-6 (1994).
  18. C. J. Bordé, Private communication
  19. O. Acef, “Metrological properties of CO2/OsO4 optical frequency standard,” Opt. Comm. 134, 479–486 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. P. Sassi and K. Stoll, “Investigation of anomalous Zeeman effect in OsO4 molecule," in Laser Spectroscopy XIII, 111–113 (1997).
  21. E. Giacobono and B. Cagnac, “Doppler-free multiphoton spectroscopy," in Progress in Optics XVII, E. Wolf, Editor, 85–161 (1980).
  22. S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, and J. L. Hall, “High Resolution two-Photon Spectroscopy of Rb Rydberg Levels,” in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H.W.a.K.E. Rothe, Editor, 130–141 (1979).
  23. C. J. Bordé, “Développements récents en spectroscopie infrarouge à ultra-haute résolution,” in Revue du Cethedec-Ondes et signal-NS 83-1, 1–118 (1982).
  24. F. Herlemont, M. Lyszyk, and J. Lemaire, “Doppler-Free Two-Photon Spectroscopy of the 2ν3 band of SF6,” Appl. Phys. 24, 369–374 (1981).
    [Crossref]

1998 (4)

E. Simon, P. Laurent, and A. Clairon, “Measurement of the Stark shift on the Cs hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain,” Phys.Rev. A 57, 436–439 (1998).
[Crossref]

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, “Metrological features of the Rubidium two-photon standards of the LPTF and the Kastler-Brossel Laboratories,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 4, 219–225 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Huber, B. Gross, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Two-photon Ramsey spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in atomic Hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2631–R2634 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. Herlemont, M. Khelkhal, J. Legrand, and G. Pierre, “Doppler-free two-photon spectrum of SF6 for metrological purposes,” Opt. Lett. 23, 957–959 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (4)

V. Bernard, C. Daussy, G. Nogues, L. Constantin, P. E. Durand, A. Amy-Klein, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Chardonnet, “CO2 laser stabilization to 0.1-Hz level using external electrooptic modulation,”  QE-33, 1282 (1997).

O. Acef, “Metrological properties of CO2/OsO4 optical frequency standard,” Opt. Comm. 134, 479–486 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. P. Sassi and K. Stoll, “Investigation of anomalous Zeeman effect in OsO4 molecule," in Laser Spectroscopy XIII, 111–113 (1997).

P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “Slow-molecule detection in Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 37, 103–108 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, G. Zinner, K. Zeiske, B. Lipphardt, and J. Helmcke, “Calcium optical frequency standard based on atom interferometry,” Laser Phys. 6, 237–243 (1996).

1995 (1)

P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy, and C. Chardonnet, “Sélection des molécules lentes en spectroscopie sans effet Doppler à deux photons,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 20, 601–602 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

C. Chardonnet, F. Guernet, G. Charton, and C. J. Bordé, “Ultrahigh-resolution saturation spectroscopy using slow molecules in an external cell,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 333–343 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (3)

A. Linskens, S. te Lintel Hekkert, and J. Reuss, “One and two photon spectra of SF6 molecular beam measurements,” Infrared Phys. 32, 259–282 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Y. V. Nekrasov, and B. N. Skvortsov, “Second-Order Doppler-Free Spectroscopy,” App. Phys. B 52, 63–66 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

S. N. Bagayev, A. E. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, and A. S. Dychkov, “Superhigh resolution spectroscopy in methane with cold molecules,” Rev. Roum. Phys. 33, 361–367 (1988).

1981 (1)

F. Herlemont, M. Lyszyk, and J. Lemaire, “Doppler-Free Two-Photon Spectroscopy of the 2ν3 band of SF6,” Appl. Phys. 24, 369–374 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

E. Giacobono and B. Cagnac, “Doppler-free multiphoton spectroscopy," in Progress in Optics XVII, E. Wolf, Editor, 85–161 (1980).

1977 (1)

C. J. Bordé, “Sur les franges de Ramsey en spectroscopie sans élargissement Doppler,” C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris 284B, 101–104 (1977).

1976 (1)

Y. V. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, and B. Y. Dubetsky, “The Resonance of Two-Photon Absorption in Separated Optical Fields,” App. Phys. 11, 201–202 (1976).
[Crossref]

Acef, O.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, “Metrological features of the Rubidium two-photon standards of the LPTF and the Kastler-Brossel Laboratories,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 4, 219–225 (1998).
[Crossref]

O. Acef, “Metrological properties of CO2/OsO4 optical frequency standard,” Opt. Comm. 134, 479–486 (1997).
[Crossref]

Amy, A.

P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy, and C. Chardonnet, “Sélection des molécules lentes en spectroscopie sans effet Doppler à deux photons,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 20, 601–602 (1995).
[Crossref]

Amy-Klein, A.

P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “Slow-molecule detection in Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 37, 103–108 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. Bernard, C. Daussy, G. Nogues, L. Constantin, P. E. Durand, A. Amy-Klein, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Chardonnet, “CO2 laser stabilization to 0.1-Hz level using external electrooptic modulation,”  QE-33, 1282 (1997).

Bagayev, S. N.

S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Y. V. Nekrasov, and B. N. Skvortsov, “Second-Order Doppler-Free Spectroscopy,” App. Phys. B 52, 63–66 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. N. Bagayev, A. E. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, and A. S. Dychkov, “Superhigh resolution spectroscopy in methane with cold molecules,” Rev. Roum. Phys. 33, 361–367 (1988).

Baklanov, A. E.

S. N. Bagayev, A. E. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, and A. S. Dychkov, “Superhigh resolution spectroscopy in methane with cold molecules,” Rev. Roum. Phys. 33, 361–367 (1988).

Baklanov, Y. V.

Y. V. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, and B. Y. Dubetsky, “The Resonance of Two-Photon Absorption in Separated Optical Fields,” App. Phys. 11, 201–202 (1976).
[Crossref]

Bernard, V.

V. Bernard, C. Daussy, G. Nogues, L. Constantin, P. E. Durand, A. Amy-Klein, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Chardonnet, “CO2 laser stabilization to 0.1-Hz level using external electrooptic modulation,”  QE-33, 1282 (1997).

P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “Slow-molecule detection in Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 37, 103–108 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy, and C. Chardonnet, “Sélection des molécules lentes en spectroscopie sans effet Doppler à deux photons,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 20, 601–602 (1995).
[Crossref]

Biraben, F.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, “Metrological features of the Rubidium two-photon standards of the LPTF and the Kastler-Brossel Laboratories,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 4, 219–225 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bordé, C. J.

C. Chardonnet, F. Guernet, G. Charton, and C. J. Bordé, “Ultrahigh-resolution saturation spectroscopy using slow molecules in an external cell,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 333–343 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. J. Bordé, “Sur les franges de Ramsey en spectroscopie sans élargissement Doppler,” C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris 284B, 101–104 (1977).

C. J. Bordé, “Density matrix equations and diagrams for high resolution non-linear laser spectroscopy : application to Ramsey fringes in the optical domain,” in Advances in laser spectroscopy, F. T. Arecchi, F. Strumia, and H. Walther, Editors, (1983).

A. F. Linskens, W. L. Meerts, J. Reuss, and C. J. Bordé, “Doppler-free two-photon Ramsey Fringes in the 10 μm region,” in Laser controlled dynamics of molecular processes, A. F. Linskens and Ph. D. Thesis, University of Nijmegen, ISBN 90-9007146-6 (1994).

C. J. Bordé, Private communication

C. J. Bordé, “Développements récents en spectroscopie infrarouge à ultra-haute résolution,” in Revue du Cethedec-Ondes et signal-NS 83-1, 1–118 (1982).

Cagnac, B.

E. Giacobono and B. Cagnac, “Doppler-free multiphoton spectroscopy," in Progress in Optics XVII, E. Wolf, Editor, 85–161 (1980).

Chardonnet, C.

V. Bernard, C. Daussy, G. Nogues, L. Constantin, P. E. Durand, A. Amy-Klein, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Chardonnet, “CO2 laser stabilization to 0.1-Hz level using external electrooptic modulation,”  QE-33, 1282 (1997).

P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “Slow-molecule detection in Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 37, 103–108 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy, and C. Chardonnet, “Sélection des molécules lentes en spectroscopie sans effet Doppler à deux photons,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 20, 601–602 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. Chardonnet, F. Guernet, G. Charton, and C. J. Bordé, “Ultrahigh-resolution saturation spectroscopy using slow molecules in an external cell,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 333–343 (1994).
[Crossref]

Charton, G.

C. Chardonnet, F. Guernet, G. Charton, and C. J. Bordé, “Ultrahigh-resolution saturation spectroscopy using slow molecules in an external cell,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 333–343 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chebotayev, V. P.

S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Y. V. Nekrasov, and B. N. Skvortsov, “Second-Order Doppler-Free Spectroscopy,” App. Phys. B 52, 63–66 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. N. Bagayev, A. E. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, and A. S. Dychkov, “Superhigh resolution spectroscopy in methane with cold molecules,” Rev. Roum. Phys. 33, 361–367 (1988).

Y. V. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, and B. Y. Dubetsky, “The Resonance of Two-Photon Absorption in Separated Optical Fields,” App. Phys. 11, 201–202 (1976).
[Crossref]

Clairon, A.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, “Metrological features of the Rubidium two-photon standards of the LPTF and the Kastler-Brossel Laboratories,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 4, 219–225 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Simon, P. Laurent, and A. Clairon, “Measurement of the Stark shift on the Cs hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain,” Phys.Rev. A 57, 436–439 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
[Crossref]

Constantin, L.

V. Bernard, C. Daussy, G. Nogues, L. Constantin, P. E. Durand, A. Amy-Klein, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Chardonnet, “CO2 laser stabilization to 0.1-Hz level using external electrooptic modulation,”  QE-33, 1282 (1997).

Daussy, C.

V. Bernard, C. Daussy, G. Nogues, L. Constantin, P. E. Durand, A. Amy-Klein, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Chardonnet, “CO2 laser stabilization to 0.1-Hz level using external electrooptic modulation,”  QE-33, 1282 (1997).

Dmitriyev, A. K.

S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Y. V. Nekrasov, and B. N. Skvortsov, “Second-Order Doppler-Free Spectroscopy,” App. Phys. B 52, 63–66 (1991).
[Crossref]

Dubetsky, B. Y.

Y. V. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, and B. Y. Dubetsky, “The Resonance of Two-Photon Absorption in Separated Optical Fields,” App. Phys. 11, 201–202 (1976).
[Crossref]

Durand, P. E.

V. Bernard, C. Daussy, G. Nogues, L. Constantin, P. E. Durand, A. Amy-Klein, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Chardonnet, “CO2 laser stabilization to 0.1-Hz level using external electrooptic modulation,”  QE-33, 1282 (1997).

P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “Slow-molecule detection in Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 37, 103–108 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy, and C. Chardonnet, “Sélection des molécules lentes en spectroscopie sans effet Doppler à deux photons,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 20, 601–602 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dychkov, A. S.

S. N. Bagayev, A. E. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, and A. S. Dychkov, “Superhigh resolution spectroscopy in methane with cold molecules,” Rev. Roum. Phys. 33, 361–367 (1988).

Felder, R.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, “Metrological features of the Rubidium two-photon standards of the LPTF and the Kastler-Brossel Laboratories,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 4, 219–225 (1998).
[Crossref]

Giacobono, E.

E. Giacobono and B. Cagnac, “Doppler-free multiphoton spectroscopy," in Progress in Optics XVII, E. Wolf, Editor, 85–161 (1980).

Gross, B.

A. Huber, B. Gross, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Two-photon Ramsey spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in atomic Hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2631–R2634 (1998).
[Crossref]

Guellati, S.

A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
[Crossref]

Guernet, F.

C. Chardonnet, F. Guernet, G. Charton, and C. J. Bordé, “Ultrahigh-resolution saturation spectroscopy using slow molecules in an external cell,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 333–343 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, and J. L. Hall, “High Resolution two-Photon Spectroscopy of Rb Rydberg Levels,” in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H.W.a.K.E. Rothe, Editor, 130–141 (1979).

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Huber, B. Gross, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Two-photon Ramsey spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in atomic Hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2631–R2634 (1998).
[Crossref]

Helmcke, J.

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, G. Zinner, K. Zeiske, B. Lipphardt, and J. Helmcke, “Calcium optical frequency standard based on atom interferometry,” Laser Phys. 6, 237–243 (1996).

S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, and J. L. Hall, “High Resolution two-Photon Spectroscopy of Rb Rydberg Levels,” in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H.W.a.K.E. Rothe, Editor, 130–141 (1979).

Herlemont, F.

F. Herlemont, M. Khelkhal, J. Legrand, and G. Pierre, “Doppler-free two-photon spectrum of SF6 for metrological purposes,” Opt. Lett. 23, 957–959 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. Herlemont, M. Lyszyk, and J. Lemaire, “Doppler-Free Two-Photon Spectroscopy of the 2ν3 band of SF6,” Appl. Phys. 24, 369–374 (1981).
[Crossref]

Hilico, L.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, “Metrological features of the Rubidium two-photon standards of the LPTF and the Kastler-Brossel Laboratories,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 4, 219–225 (1998).
[Crossref]

Huber, A.

A. Huber, B. Gross, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Two-photon Ramsey spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in atomic Hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2631–R2634 (1998).
[Crossref]

Khelkhal, M.

Laurent, P.

E. Simon, P. Laurent, and A. Clairon, “Measurement of the Stark shift on the Cs hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain,” Phys.Rev. A 57, 436–439 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. A.

S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, and J. L. Hall, “High Resolution two-Photon Spectroscopy of Rb Rydberg Levels,” in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H.W.a.K.E. Rothe, Editor, 130–141 (1979).

Legrand, J.

Lemaire, J.

F. Herlemont, M. Lyszyk, and J. Lemaire, “Doppler-Free Two-Photon Spectroscopy of the 2ν3 band of SF6,” Appl. Phys. 24, 369–374 (1981).
[Crossref]

Linskens, A.

A. Linskens, S. te Lintel Hekkert, and J. Reuss, “One and two photon spectra of SF6 molecular beam measurements,” Infrared Phys. 32, 259–282 (1991).
[Crossref]

Linskens, A. F.

A. F. Linskens, W. L. Meerts, J. Reuss, and C. J. Bordé, “Doppler-free two-photon Ramsey Fringes in the 10 μm region,” in Laser controlled dynamics of molecular processes, A. F. Linskens and Ph. D. Thesis, University of Nijmegen, ISBN 90-9007146-6 (1994).

A. F. Linskens, W. L. Meerts, J. Reuss, and C. J. Bordé, “Doppler-free two-photon Ramsey Fringes in the 10 μm region,” in Laser controlled dynamics of molecular processes, A. F. Linskens and Ph. D. Thesis, University of Nijmegen, ISBN 90-9007146-6 (1994).

Lipphardt, B.

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, G. Zinner, K. Zeiske, B. Lipphardt, and J. Helmcke, “Calcium optical frequency standard based on atom interferometry,” Laser Phys. 6, 237–243 (1996).

Lyszyk, M.

F. Herlemont, M. Lyszyk, and J. Lemaire, “Doppler-Free Two-Photon Spectroscopy of the 2ν3 band of SF6,” Appl. Phys. 24, 369–374 (1981).
[Crossref]

Meerts, W. L.

A. F. Linskens, W. L. Meerts, J. Reuss, and C. J. Bordé, “Doppler-free two-photon Ramsey Fringes in the 10 μm region,” in Laser controlled dynamics of molecular processes, A. F. Linskens and Ph. D. Thesis, University of Nijmegen, ISBN 90-9007146-6 (1994).

Nekrasov, Y. V.

S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Y. V. Nekrasov, and B. N. Skvortsov, “Second-Order Doppler-Free Spectroscopy,” App. Phys. B 52, 63–66 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nogues, G.

V. Bernard, C. Daussy, G. Nogues, L. Constantin, P. E. Durand, A. Amy-Klein, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Chardonnet, “CO2 laser stabilization to 0.1-Hz level using external electrooptic modulation,”  QE-33, 1282 (1997).

P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “Slow-molecule detection in Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 37, 103–108 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy, and C. Chardonnet, “Sélection des molécules lentes en spectroscopie sans effet Doppler à deux photons,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 20, 601–602 (1995).
[Crossref]

Om, A. E.

S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Y. V. Nekrasov, and B. N. Skvortsov, “Second-Order Doppler-Free Spectroscopy,” App. Phys. B 52, 63–66 (1991).
[Crossref]

Phillips, W. D.

A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pierre, G.

Reuss, J.

A. Linskens, S. te Lintel Hekkert, and J. Reuss, “One and two photon spectra of SF6 molecular beam measurements,” Infrared Phys. 32, 259–282 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. F. Linskens, W. L. Meerts, J. Reuss, and C. J. Bordé, “Doppler-free two-photon Ramsey Fringes in the 10 μm region,” in Laser controlled dynamics of molecular processes, A. F. Linskens and Ph. D. Thesis, University of Nijmegen, ISBN 90-9007146-6 (1994).

Riehle, F.

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, G. Zinner, K. Zeiske, B. Lipphardt, and J. Helmcke, “Calcium optical frequency standard based on atom interferometry,” Laser Phys. 6, 237–243 (1996).

Salomon, C.

A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sassi, M. P.

M. P. Sassi and K. Stoll, “Investigation of anomalous Zeeman effect in OsO4 molecule," in Laser Spectroscopy XIII, 111–113 (1997).

Schnatz, H.

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, G. Zinner, K. Zeiske, B. Lipphardt, and J. Helmcke, “Calcium optical frequency standard based on atom interferometry,” Laser Phys. 6, 237–243 (1996).

Simon, E.

E. Simon, P. Laurent, and A. Clairon, “Measurement of the Stark shift on the Cs hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain,” Phys.Rev. A 57, 436–439 (1998).
[Crossref]

Skvortsov, B. N.

S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Y. V. Nekrasov, and B. N. Skvortsov, “Second-Order Doppler-Free Spectroscopy,” App. Phys. B 52, 63–66 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stoll, K.

M. P. Sassi and K. Stoll, “Investigation of anomalous Zeeman effect in OsO4 molecule," in Laser Spectroscopy XIII, 111–113 (1997).

te Lintel Hekkert, S.

A. Linskens, S. te Lintel Hekkert, and J. Reuss, “One and two photon spectra of SF6 molecular beam measurements,” Infrared Phys. 32, 259–282 (1991).
[Crossref]

Thesis, Ph. D.

A. F. Linskens, W. L. Meerts, J. Reuss, and C. J. Bordé, “Doppler-free two-photon Ramsey Fringes in the 10 μm region,” in Laser controlled dynamics of molecular processes, A. F. Linskens and Ph. D. Thesis, University of Nijmegen, ISBN 90-9007146-6 (1994).

Touahri, D.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, “Metrological features of the Rubidium two-photon standards of the LPTF and the Kastler-Brossel Laboratories,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 4, 219–225 (1998).
[Crossref]

van Lerberghe, A.

V. Bernard, C. Daussy, G. Nogues, L. Constantin, P. E. Durand, A. Amy-Klein, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Chardonnet, “CO2 laser stabilization to 0.1-Hz level using external electrooptic modulation,”  QE-33, 1282 (1997).

Weitz, M.

A. Huber, B. Gross, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Two-photon Ramsey spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in atomic Hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2631–R2634 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zeiske, K.

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, G. Zinner, K. Zeiske, B. Lipphardt, and J. Helmcke, “Calcium optical frequency standard based on atom interferometry,” Laser Phys. 6, 237–243 (1996).

Zinner, G.

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, G. Zinner, K. Zeiske, B. Lipphardt, and J. Helmcke, “Calcium optical frequency standard based on atom interferometry,” Laser Phys. 6, 237–243 (1996).

Ann. Phys. Fr. (1)

P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy, and C. Chardonnet, “Sélection des molécules lentes en spectroscopie sans effet Doppler à deux photons,” Ann. Phys. Fr. 20, 601–602 (1995).
[Crossref]

App. Phys. (1)

Y. V. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, and B. Y. Dubetsky, “The Resonance of Two-Photon Absorption in Separated Optical Fields,” App. Phys. 11, 201–202 (1976).
[Crossref]

App. Phys. B (1)

S. N. Bagayev, V. P. Chebotayev, A. K. Dmitriyev, A. E. Om, Y. V. Nekrasov, and B. N. Skvortsov, “Second-Order Doppler-Free Spectroscopy,” App. Phys. B 52, 63–66 (1991).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Herlemont, M. Lyszyk, and J. Lemaire, “Doppler-Free Two-Photon Spectroscopy of the 2ν3 band of SF6,” Appl. Phys. 24, 369–374 (1981).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Chardonnet, F. Guernet, G. Charton, and C. J. Bordé, “Ultrahigh-resolution saturation spectroscopy using slow molecules in an external cell,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 333–343 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris (1)

C. J. Bordé, “Sur les franges de Ramsey en spectroscopie sans élargissement Doppler,” C. R. Acad. Sc. Paris 284B, 101–104 (1977).

Eur. Phys. J. AP (1)

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Biraben, “Metrological features of the Rubidium two-photon standards of the LPTF and the Kastler-Brossel Laboratories,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 4, 219–225 (1998).
[Crossref]

Europhys. Lett. (2)

A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, “Ramsey resonance in a Zacharias fountain,” Europhys. Lett. 16, 165–170 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. E. Durand, G. Nogues, V. Bernard, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “Slow-molecule detection in Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 37, 103–108 (1997).
[Crossref]

Infrared Phys. (1)

A. Linskens, S. te Lintel Hekkert, and J. Reuss, “One and two photon spectra of SF6 molecular beam measurements,” Infrared Phys. 32, 259–282 (1991).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

F. Riehle, H. Schnatz, G. Zinner, K. Zeiske, B. Lipphardt, and J. Helmcke, “Calcium optical frequency standard based on atom interferometry,” Laser Phys. 6, 237–243 (1996).

Opt. Comm. (1)

O. Acef, “Metrological properties of CO2/OsO4 optical frequency standard,” Opt. Comm. 134, 479–486 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Huber, B. Gross, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Two-photon Ramsey spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in atomic Hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2631–R2634 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys.Rev. A (1)

E. Simon, P. Laurent, and A. Clairon, “Measurement of the Stark shift on the Cs hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain,” Phys.Rev. A 57, 436–439 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rev. Roum. Phys. (1)

S. N. Bagayev, A. E. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, and A. S. Dychkov, “Superhigh resolution spectroscopy in methane with cold molecules,” Rev. Roum. Phys. 33, 361–367 (1988).

Other (8)

V. Bernard, C. Daussy, G. Nogues, L. Constantin, P. E. Durand, A. Amy-Klein, A. van Lerberghe, and C. Chardonnet, “CO2 laser stabilization to 0.1-Hz level using external electrooptic modulation,”  QE-33, 1282 (1997).

M. P. Sassi and K. Stoll, “Investigation of anomalous Zeeman effect in OsO4 molecule," in Laser Spectroscopy XIII, 111–113 (1997).

E. Giacobono and B. Cagnac, “Doppler-free multiphoton spectroscopy," in Progress in Optics XVII, E. Wolf, Editor, 85–161 (1980).

S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, and J. L. Hall, “High Resolution two-Photon Spectroscopy of Rb Rydberg Levels,” in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H.W.a.K.E. Rothe, Editor, 130–141 (1979).

C. J. Bordé, “Développements récents en spectroscopie infrarouge à ultra-haute résolution,” in Revue du Cethedec-Ondes et signal-NS 83-1, 1–118 (1982).

C. J. Bordé, “Density matrix equations and diagrams for high resolution non-linear laser spectroscopy : application to Ramsey fringes in the optical domain,” in Advances in laser spectroscopy, F. T. Arecchi, F. Strumia, and H. Walther, Editors, (1983).

A. F. Linskens, W. L. Meerts, J. Reuss, and C. J. Bordé, “Doppler-free two-photon Ramsey Fringes in the 10 μm region,” in Laser controlled dynamics of molecular processes, A. F. Linskens and Ph. D. Thesis, University of Nijmegen, ISBN 90-9007146-6 (1994).

C. J. Bordé, Private communication

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental apparatus. Frequency modulations at f1=90 kHz and f2=4.9 kHz are applied to the EOM. AOM : acoustooptic modulator, P : polarizer, OI : optical isolator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

a) Beat signal between the lasers, each stabilized onto the same two-photon R(47) resonance of the 2ν3 band of SF6 fitted with the best Lorentzian b) Square root of the Allan variance of the beat note frequency, divided by √2 in order to describe one of the two equivalent stabilized lasers.

Fig.3.
Fig.3.

Hyperfine structure of the P(4)E line in the 2ν3 3 band of SF6 a) Pressure P=10-2 Pa, power PW=60 mW, accumulation time t=3 s/point, modulation frequency f=2.2 kHz., depth 400 Hz, 2f-detection b) Central component. P=10-2 Pa, PW=12 mW, t=6 s/point, f= 120 Hz, depth 200 Hz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Experimental scheme for two-photon Ramsey fringes ; AOM : acousto-optic modulator, b) Schematic of the 3 levels involved in the P(4) E resonance.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Two-photon absorption signal detected a) on the cavity transmission beam using a laser FM of 5 kHz (detection channel S1 on Fig. 4), b) on an auxiliary beam absorption (detection channel S2), tuned to the upper one-photon transition, using the molecular beam chopper at 550 Hz. Typical conditions : 15 mW in the cavity, 5 bars pure SF6 beam, accumulation time 4 s/point. Data are fitted to a) the derivative of a Gaussian and b) a Gaussian.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Systematic shifts for slow molecule detection and Ramsey fringes.

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