Abstract

We report the demonstration of high power (660 mW) CW operation of a diode-pumped mid-IR Er fiber laser. This was achieved by using efficient depopulation of the lower laser level via enhanced cross-relaxation between Er ions and energy transfer to Pr ions (at doping densities much higher than those used previously in Er:ZBLAN), along with optimal pumping of such lasers via custom-designed double-clad fluoride fibers.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, “Rare Earth Doped IR Fiber Lasers for Medical Applications,” Proc. SPIE 1048, 129–132 (1989).
  2. K. F. Gibson and W. G. Kernohan, “Lasers in Medicine: A Review,” J. Med. Engg. and Tech. 17, 51–57 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  3. O. Kermani, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, and G. K. Krieglstein, “Internal Ablative Sinostomy Using a Fiber Delivered Q-Switched CTE:YAG Laser (2.69 μm),” Intl. Ophthalmology 17, 211–215 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, “Cutting and Skin-Ablative Properties of Pulsed Mid-Infrared Laser Surgery,” J. Derm. Surg. & Oncol. 20, 112–118 (1994).
  5. R. Moosdorf, F. C. Schoebel, and W. Hort, “Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization: Morphology, Pathophysiology and Historical Background of Indirect Myocardial Revascularization,” Z. Kardiologie 86, 149–164 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Pollnau, “The Route Toward a Diode-Pumped 1-W Erbium 3-μm Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1982–1990 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, “980nm-Diode-Pumped Continuous Wave Mid-IR (2.7 μm) Fiber Laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2331–2333 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, and K. J. Linden, “Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy: An Invited Review,” Opt. Engg. 19, 945–960 (1980).
  9. T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, and Y. Miyajima, “Wide-Band Erbium-Doped Fluoride Fiber Optical Amplifier at 2.7 μm with Fluoride Fiber Wavelength-Division Multiplex Coupler,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L62–L64 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Energy Transfer in Er3+/Pr3+-Doped Fluoride Glass Fibres and Application to Lasing at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 445–447 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “150 mW Unsaturated Output Power at 3 μm from a Single-Mode-Fiber Erbium Cascade Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564–3566 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, “CW and Pulsed 2.8 μm Laser Emission from Diode-Pumped Er3+:LiYF4 at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1553–1555 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, “Continuous-Wave Lasing on a Self-Terminating Transition,” Electron. Lett. 28, 14–16 (1989).
  14. X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, “Mirror-Free, High Power (~140mW) Diode-Pumped 2.7 μm CW Fiber Laser,” Postdeadline paper, CLEO Europe ’98 Technical Digest (1998).
  15. B. Srinivasan, G. Monnom, and R. K. Jain, “Indirect Measurement of the Magnitude of Ion Clustering at High Doping Densities in Er:ZBLAN Fibers,” to be published.
  16. S. Bedö, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “The Effective Absorption Coefficient in Double-Clad Fibers,” Opt. Commn. 99, 331–335 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Liu and K. Ueda, “The Absorption Characteristics of Circular, Offset, and Rectangular Double-Clad Fibers,” Opt. Commn. 132, 511–518 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen, “Upconversion versus Pr-Deactivation for Efficient 3 μm Laser Operation in Er,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 1197–1208 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  19. L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, “Co-Doping Effects in Erbium3+- and Holmium3+-Doped ZBLAN Glasses,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 140, 25–30 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  20. These results were submitted for presentation at the Conference for Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) ’99 as a postdeadline paper on 4/26/99 (paper #CPD23, CLEO ’99, Baltimore, May 23–28, 1999).
  21. This fiber was obtained from Thorlabs, Inc., NJ, USA.
  22. Note that the lifetime values quoted here were based on our own measurements in Er-doped ZBLAN fibers and as such show small deviations from other values reported in the literature for similar ZBLAN bulk samples and fibers and related fluoride hosts (see references 6,10,13,18).
  23. V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Fluorescence from Highly-Doped Erbium Fluorozirconate Glasses Pumped at 800 nm,” Opt. Commn. 132, 73–76 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Cross-Sections of Excited-State Absorption at 800 nm in Erbium-Doped ZBLAN Fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 23–28 (1998).
    [Crossref]

1998 (2)

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, “980nm-Diode-Pumped Continuous Wave Mid-IR (2.7 μm) Fiber Laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2331–2333 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Cross-Sections of Excited-State Absorption at 800 nm in Erbium-Doped ZBLAN Fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 23–28 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

R. Moosdorf, F. C. Schoebel, and W. Hort, “Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization: Morphology, Pathophysiology and Historical Background of Indirect Myocardial Revascularization,” Z. Kardiologie 86, 149–164 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, “The Route Toward a Diode-Pumped 1-W Erbium 3-μm Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1982–1990 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

A. Liu and K. Ueda, “The Absorption Characteristics of Circular, Offset, and Rectangular Double-Clad Fibers,” Opt. Commn. 132, 511–518 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Fluorescence from Highly-Doped Erbium Fluorozirconate Glasses Pumped at 800 nm,” Opt. Commn. 132, 73–76 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “150 mW Unsaturated Output Power at 3 μm from a Single-Mode-Fiber Erbium Cascade Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564–3566 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, “Cutting and Skin-Ablative Properties of Pulsed Mid-Infrared Laser Surgery,” J. Derm. Surg. & Oncol. 20, 112–118 (1994).

1993 (4)

K. F. Gibson and W. G. Kernohan, “Lasers in Medicine: A Review,” J. Med. Engg. and Tech. 17, 51–57 (1993).
[Crossref]

O. Kermani, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, and G. K. Krieglstein, “Internal Ablative Sinostomy Using a Fiber Delivered Q-Switched CTE:YAG Laser (2.69 μm),” Intl. Ophthalmology 17, 211–215 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, and Y. Miyajima, “Wide-Band Erbium-Doped Fluoride Fiber Optical Amplifier at 2.7 μm with Fluoride Fiber Wavelength-Division Multiplex Coupler,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L62–L64 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. Bedö, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “The Effective Absorption Coefficient in Double-Clad Fibers,” Opt. Commn. 99, 331–335 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen, “Upconversion versus Pr-Deactivation for Efficient 3 μm Laser Operation in Er,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 1197–1208 (1992).
[Crossref]

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, “Co-Doping Effects in Erbium3+- and Holmium3+-Doped ZBLAN Glasses,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 140, 25–30 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Energy Transfer in Er3+/Pr3+-Doped Fluoride Glass Fibres and Application to Lasing at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 445–447 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, “Continuous-Wave Lasing on a Self-Terminating Transition,” Electron. Lett. 28, 14–16 (1989).

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, “Rare Earth Doped IR Fiber Lasers for Medical Applications,” Proc. SPIE 1048, 129–132 (1989).

1987 (1)

G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, “CW and Pulsed 2.8 μm Laser Emission from Diode-Pumped Er3+:LiYF4 at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1553–1555 (1987).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, and K. J. Linden, “Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy: An Invited Review,” Opt. Engg. 19, 945–960 (1980).

Allain, J. Y.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Energy Transfer in Er3+/Pr3+-Doped Fluoride Glass Fibres and Application to Lasing at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 445–447 (1991).
[Crossref]

Allen, R.

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, “Rare Earth Doped IR Fiber Lasers for Medical Applications,” Proc. SPIE 1048, 129–132 (1989).

G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, “CW and Pulsed 2.8 μm Laser Emission from Diode-Pumped Er3+:LiYF4 at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1553–1555 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bedö, S.

S. Bedö, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “The Effective Absorption Coefficient in Double-Clad Fibers,” Opt. Commn. 99, 331–335 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bogdanov, V. K.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Fluorescence from Highly-Doped Erbium Fluorozirconate Glasses Pumped at 800 nm,” Opt. Commn. 132, 73–76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Booth, D. J.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Fluorescence from Highly-Doped Erbium Fluorozirconate Glasses Pumped at 800 nm,” Opt. Commn. 132, 73–76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bunea, G.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “150 mW Unsaturated Output Power at 3 μm from a Single-Mode-Fiber Erbium Cascade Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564–3566 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bunea, M.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “150 mW Unsaturated Output Power at 3 μm from a Single-Mode-Fiber Erbium Cascade Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564–3566 (1995).
[Crossref]

Butler, J. F.

R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, and K. J. Linden, “Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy: An Invited Review,” Opt. Engg. 19, 945–960 (1980).

Eng, R. S.

R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, and K. J. Linden, “Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy: An Invited Review,” Opt. Engg. 19, 945–960 (1980).

Ertmer, W.

O. Kermani, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, and G. K. Krieglstein, “Internal Ablative Sinostomy Using a Fiber Delivered Q-Switched CTE:YAG Laser (2.69 μm),” Intl. Ophthalmology 17, 211–215 (1993).
[Crossref]

Esterowitz, L.

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, “Rare Earth Doped IR Fiber Lasers for Medical Applications,” Proc. SPIE 1048, 129–132 (1989).

G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, “CW and Pulsed 2.8 μm Laser Emission from Diode-Pumped Er3+:LiYF4 at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1553–1555 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ghisler, Ch.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Cross-Sections of Excited-State Absorption at 800 nm in Erbium-Doped ZBLAN Fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 23–28 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “150 mW Unsaturated Output Power at 3 μm from a Single-Mode-Fiber Erbium Cascade Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564–3566 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gibbs, W. E. K.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Fluorescence from Highly-Doped Erbium Fluorozirconate Glasses Pumped at 800 nm,” Opt. Commn. 132, 73–76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gibson, K. F.

K. F. Gibson and W. G. Kernohan, “Lasers in Medicine: A Review,” J. Med. Engg. and Tech. 17, 51–57 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gupta, S.

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, “Mirror-Free, High Power (~140mW) Diode-Pumped 2.7 μm CW Fiber Laser,” Postdeadline paper, CLEO Europe ’98 Technical Digest (1998).

Hartmann, A.

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, “Cutting and Skin-Ablative Properties of Pulsed Mid-Infrared Laser Surgery,” J. Derm. Surg. & Oncol. 20, 112–118 (1994).

Hibst, R.

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, “Cutting and Skin-Ablative Properties of Pulsed Mid-Infrared Laser Surgery,” J. Derm. Surg. & Oncol. 20, 112–118 (1994).

Hort, W.

R. Moosdorf, F. C. Schoebel, and W. Hort, “Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization: Morphology, Pathophysiology and Historical Background of Indirect Myocardial Revascularization,” Z. Kardiologie 86, 149–164 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jain, R. K.

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, “980nm-Diode-Pumped Continuous Wave Mid-IR (2.7 μm) Fiber Laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2331–2333 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, “Mirror-Free, High Power (~140mW) Diode-Pumped 2.7 μm CW Fiber Laser,” Postdeadline paper, CLEO Europe ’98 Technical Digest (1998).

B. Srinivasan, G. Monnom, and R. K. Jain, “Indirect Measurement of the Magnitude of Ion Clustering at High Doping Densities in Er:ZBLAN Fibers,” to be published.

Javorniczky, J. S.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Fluorescence from Highly-Doped Erbium Fluorozirconate Glasses Pumped at 800 nm,” Opt. Commn. 132, 73–76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jenssen, H. P.

D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen, “Upconversion versus Pr-Deactivation for Efficient 3 μm Laser Operation in Er,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 1197–1208 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kaufmann, R.

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, “Cutting and Skin-Ablative Properties of Pulsed Mid-Infrared Laser Surgery,” J. Derm. Surg. & Oncol. 20, 112–118 (1994).

Kermani, O.

O. Kermani, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, and G. K. Krieglstein, “Internal Ablative Sinostomy Using a Fiber Delivered Q-Switched CTE:YAG Laser (2.69 μm),” Intl. Ophthalmology 17, 211–215 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kernohan, W. G.

K. F. Gibson and W. G. Kernohan, “Lasers in Medicine: A Review,” J. Med. Engg. and Tech. 17, 51–57 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kintz, G. J.

G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, “CW and Pulsed 2.8 μm Laser Emission from Diode-Pumped Er3+:LiYF4 at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1553–1555 (1987).
[Crossref]

Knowles, D. S.

D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen, “Upconversion versus Pr-Deactivation for Efficient 3 μm Laser Operation in Er,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 1197–1208 (1992).
[Crossref]

Komukai, T.

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, and Y. Miyajima, “Wide-Band Erbium-Doped Fluoride Fiber Optical Amplifier at 2.7 μm with Fluoride Fiber Wavelength-Division Multiplex Coupler,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L62–L64 (1993).
[Crossref]

Krieglstein, G. K.

O. Kermani, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, and G. K. Krieglstein, “Internal Ablative Sinostomy Using a Fiber Delivered Q-Switched CTE:YAG Laser (2.69 μm),” Intl. Ophthalmology 17, 211–215 (1993).
[Crossref]

Linden, K. J.

R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, and K. J. Linden, “Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy: An Invited Review,” Opt. Engg. 19, 945–960 (1980).

Liu, A.

A. Liu and K. Ueda, “The Absorption Characteristics of Circular, Offset, and Rectangular Double-Clad Fibers,” Opt. Commn. 132, 511–518 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lubatschowski, H.

O. Kermani, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, and G. K. Krieglstein, “Internal Ablative Sinostomy Using a Fiber Delivered Q-Switched CTE:YAG Laser (2.69 μm),” Intl. Ophthalmology 17, 211–215 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lüthy, W.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Cross-Sections of Excited-State Absorption at 800 nm in Erbium-Doped ZBLAN Fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 23–28 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “150 mW Unsaturated Output Power at 3 μm from a Single-Mode-Fiber Erbium Cascade Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564–3566 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Bedö, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “The Effective Absorption Coefficient in Double-Clad Fibers,” Opt. Commn. 99, 331–335 (1993).
[Crossref]

MacFarlane, D. R.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Fluorescence from Highly-Doped Erbium Fluorozirconate Glasses Pumped at 800 nm,” Opt. Commn. 132, 73–76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Miniscalco, W. J.

R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, “Continuous-Wave Lasing on a Self-Terminating Transition,” Electron. Lett. 28, 14–16 (1989).

Miyajima, Y.

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, and Y. Miyajima, “Wide-Band Erbium-Doped Fluoride Fiber Optical Amplifier at 2.7 μm with Fluoride Fiber Wavelength-Division Multiplex Coupler,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L62–L64 (1993).
[Crossref]

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Energy Transfer in Er3+/Pr3+-Doped Fluoride Glass Fibres and Application to Lasing at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 445–447 (1991).
[Crossref]

Monnom, G.

B. Srinivasan, G. Monnom, and R. K. Jain, “Indirect Measurement of the Magnitude of Ion Clustering at High Doping Densities in Er:ZBLAN Fibers,” to be published.

Moosdorf, R.

R. Moosdorf, F. C. Schoebel, and W. Hort, “Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization: Morphology, Pathophysiology and Historical Background of Indirect Myocardial Revascularization,” Z. Kardiologie 86, 149–164 (1997).
[Crossref]

Newman, P. J.

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Fluorescence from Highly-Doped Erbium Fluorozirconate Glasses Pumped at 800 nm,” Opt. Commn. 132, 73–76 (1996).
[Crossref]

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Energy Transfer in Er3+/Pr3+-Doped Fluoride Glass Fibres and Application to Lasing at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 445–447 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Cross-Sections of Excited-State Absorption at 800 nm in Erbium-Doped ZBLAN Fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 23–28 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, “The Route Toward a Diode-Pumped 1-W Erbium 3-μm Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1982–1990 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “150 mW Unsaturated Output Power at 3 μm from a Single-Mode-Fiber Erbium Cascade Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564–3566 (1995).
[Crossref]

Poppe, E.

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, “980nm-Diode-Pumped Continuous Wave Mid-IR (2.7 μm) Fiber Laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2331–2333 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pulaski, P.

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, “Mirror-Free, High Power (~140mW) Diode-Pumped 2.7 μm CW Fiber Laser,” Postdeadline paper, CLEO Europe ’98 Technical Digest (1998).

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, “Continuous-Wave Lasing on a Self-Terminating Transition,” Electron. Lett. 28, 14–16 (1989).

Schoebel, F. C.

R. Moosdorf, F. C. Schoebel, and W. Hort, “Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization: Morphology, Pathophysiology and Historical Background of Indirect Myocardial Revascularization,” Z. Kardiologie 86, 149–164 (1997).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, B.

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, “980nm-Diode-Pumped Continuous Wave Mid-IR (2.7 μm) Fiber Laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2331–2333 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, “Mirror-Free, High Power (~140mW) Diode-Pumped 2.7 μm CW Fiber Laser,” Postdeadline paper, CLEO Europe ’98 Technical Digest (1998).

B. Srinivasan, G. Monnom, and R. K. Jain, “Indirect Measurement of the Magnitude of Ion Clustering at High Doping Densities in Er:ZBLAN Fibers,” to be published.

Többen, H.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, “Co-Doping Effects in Erbium3+- and Holmium3+-Doped ZBLAN Glasses,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 140, 25–30 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ueda, K.

A. Liu and K. Ueda, “The Absorption Characteristics of Circular, Offset, and Rectangular Double-Clad Fibers,” Opt. Commn. 132, 511–518 (1996).
[Crossref]

Weber, H. P.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Cross-Sections of Excited-State Absorption at 800 nm in Erbium-Doped ZBLAN Fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 23–28 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “150 mW Unsaturated Output Power at 3 μm from a Single-Mode-Fiber Erbium Cascade Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564–3566 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Bedö, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “The Effective Absorption Coefficient in Double-Clad Fibers,” Opt. Commn. 99, 331–335 (1993).
[Crossref]

West, G. F.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, “Co-Doping Effects in Erbium3+- and Holmium3+-Doped ZBLAN Glasses,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 140, 25–30 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wetenkamp, L.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, “Co-Doping Effects in Erbium3+- and Holmium3+-Doped ZBLAN Glasses,” J. Non-Crystalline Solids 140, 25–30 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, and Y. Miyajima, “Wide-Band Erbium-Doped Fluoride Fiber Optical Amplifier at 2.7 μm with Fluoride Fiber Wavelength-Division Multiplex Coupler,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L62–L64 (1993).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, “Mirror-Free, High Power (~140mW) Diode-Pumped 2.7 μm CW Fiber Laser,” Postdeadline paper, CLEO Europe ’98 Technical Digest (1998).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

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Other (5)

These results were submitted for presentation at the Conference for Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) ’99 as a postdeadline paper on 4/26/99 (paper #CPD23, CLEO ’99, Baltimore, May 23–28, 1999).

This fiber was obtained from Thorlabs, Inc., NJ, USA.

Note that the lifetime values quoted here were based on our own measurements in Er-doped ZBLAN fibers and as such show small deviations from other values reported in the literature for similar ZBLAN bulk samples and fibers and related fluoride hosts (see references 6,10,13,18).

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, “Mirror-Free, High Power (~140mW) Diode-Pumped 2.7 μm CW Fiber Laser,” Postdeadline paper, CLEO Europe ’98 Technical Digest (1998).

B. Srinivasan, G. Monnom, and R. K. Jain, “Indirect Measurement of the Magnitude of Ion Clustering at High Doping Densities in Er:ZBLAN Fibers,” to be published.

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Figures (5)

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Dominant energy transfer pathways between laser levels in Er and resonantly-matched energy levels in Pr (k1 = 0.15×103 s-1 and k2 = 0.93×103 s-1 for our 20,000/5,000 ppm Er/Pr:ZBLAN fiber)

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Schematic diagram of diode-pumped double-clad fiber laser

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Photograph of the experimental setup shown schematically in Fig. 2

Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Role of the excited state absorption (of 791 nm) from the upper laser level (4I11/2) in generation of green (544 nm) upconversion fluorescence in the Er-doped fiber

Figure 5.
Figure 5.

CW 2.7 μm output power vs. absorbed 791 nm pump power for our Er/Pr:ZBLAN fiber

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