Abstract

We report the demonstration of high power (660 mW) CW operation of a diode-pumped mid-IR Er fiber laser. This was achieved by using efficient depopulation of the lower laser level via enhanced cross-relaxation between Er ions and energy transfer to Pr ions (at doping densities much higher than those used previously in Er:ZBLAN), along with optimal pumping of such lasers via custom-designed double-clad fluoride fibers.

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References

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  1. L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, "Rare Earth Doped IR Fiber Lasers for Medical Applications," Proc. SPIE 1048, 129- 132 (1989).
  2. K. F. Gibson and W. G. Kernohan, "Lasers in Medicine: A Review," J. Med. Eng. and Tech. 17, 51-57 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Kermani, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer and G. K. Krieglstein, "Internal Ablative Sinostomy Using a Fiber Delivered Q-Switched CTE:YAG Laser (2.69 mm)," Intl. Ophthalmology 17, 211-215 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann and R. Hibst, "Cutting and Skin-Ablative Properties of Pulsed Mid-Infrared Laser Surgery," J. Derm. Surg. & Oncol. 20, 112-118 (1994).
  5. R. Moosdorf, F. C. Schoebel and W. Hort, "Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization: Morphology, Pathophysiology and Historical Background of Indirect Myocardial Revascularization," Z. Kardiologie 86, 149- 164 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Pollnau, "The Route Toward a Diode-Pumped 1-W Erbium 3-mm Fiber Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1982-1990 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan and R. K. Jain, "980nm-Diode-Pumped Continuous Wave Mid-IR (2.7 mm) Fiber Laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 2331-2333 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler and K. J. Linden, "Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy: An Invited Review," Opt. Eng. 19, 945-960 (1980).
  9. T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai and Y. Miyajima, "Wide-Band Erbium-Doped Fluoride Fiber Optical Amplifier at 2.7 mm with Fluoride Fiber Wavelength-Division Multiplex Coupler," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L62-L64 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie and H. Poignant, "Energy Transfer in Er 3+ /Pr 3+ -Doped Fluoride Glass Fibres and Application to Lasing at 2.7 mm," Electron. Lett. 27, 445-447 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea M. Bunea, W. L?thy and H. P. Weber, "150 mW Unsaturated Output Power at 3 mm from a Single-Mode-Fiber Erbium Cascade Laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564-3566 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. J. Kintz, R. Allen and L. Esterowitz, "CW and Pulsed 2.8 mm Laser Emission from Diode-Pumped Er 3+ :LiYF4 at Room Temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1553-1555 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, "Continuous-Wave Lasing on a Self-Terminating Transition," Electron. Lett. 28, 14-16 (1989).
  14. X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta and R. K. Jain, "Mirror-Free, High Power (~140mW) Diode-Pumped 2.7 �m CW Fiber Laser," Postdeadline paper, CLEO Europe '98 Technical Digest (1998).
  15. B. Srinivasan, G. Monnom and R. K. Jain, "Indirect Measurement of the Magnitude of Ion Clustering at High Doping Densities in Er:ZBLAN Fibers," to be published.
  16. S. Bed�, W. L?thy and H. P. Weber, "The Effective Absorption Coefficient in Double-Clad Fibers," Opt. Commn. 99, 331-335 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Liu and K. Ueda, "The Absorption Characteristics of Circular, Offset, and Rectangular Double-Clad Fibers," Opt. Commn. 132, 511-518 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen, "Upconversion versus Pr-Deactivation for Efficient 3 mm Laser Operation in Er," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 1197-1208 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West and H. T�bben, "Co-Doping Effects in Erbium 3+ - and Holmium 3+ -Doped ZBLAN Glasses," J. Non-Crystalline Solids 140, 25-30 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. These results were submitted for presentation at the Conference for Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) '99 as a postdeadline paper on 4/26/99 (paper #CPD23, CLEO '99, Baltimore, May 23-28, 1999).
  21. This fiber was obtained from Thorlabs, Inc., NJ, USA.
  22. Note that the lifetime values quoted here were based on our own measurements in Er-doped ZBLAN fibers and as such show small deviations from other values reported in the literature for similar ZBLAN bulk samples and fibers and related fluoride hosts (see references 6,10,13,18).
  23. V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman and D. R. MacFarlane, "Fluorescence from Highly-Doped Erbium Fluorozirconate Glasses Pumped at 800 nm," Opt. Commn. 132, 73-76 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. L?thy and H. P. Weber, "Cross-Sections of Excited-State Absorption at 800 nm in Erbium-Doped ZBLAN Fiber," Appl. Phys. B 67, 23-28 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

Other

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, "Rare Earth Doped IR Fiber Lasers for Medical Applications," Proc. SPIE 1048, 129- 132 (1989).

K. F. Gibson and W. G. Kernohan, "Lasers in Medicine: A Review," J. Med. Eng. and Tech. 17, 51-57 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Kermani, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer and G. K. Krieglstein, "Internal Ablative Sinostomy Using a Fiber Delivered Q-Switched CTE:YAG Laser (2.69 mm)," Intl. Ophthalmology 17, 211-215 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann and R. Hibst, "Cutting and Skin-Ablative Properties of Pulsed Mid-Infrared Laser Surgery," J. Derm. Surg. & Oncol. 20, 112-118 (1994).

R. Moosdorf, F. C. Schoebel and W. Hort, "Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization: Morphology, Pathophysiology and Historical Background of Indirect Myocardial Revascularization," Z. Kardiologie 86, 149- 164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, "The Route Toward a Diode-Pumped 1-W Erbium 3-mm Fiber Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1982-1990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan and R. K. Jain, "980nm-Diode-Pumped Continuous Wave Mid-IR (2.7 mm) Fiber Laser," Electron. Lett. 34, 2331-2333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler and K. J. Linden, "Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy: An Invited Review," Opt. Eng. 19, 945-960 (1980).

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai and Y. Miyajima, "Wide-Band Erbium-Doped Fluoride Fiber Optical Amplifier at 2.7 mm with Fluoride Fiber Wavelength-Division Multiplex Coupler," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L62-L64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie and H. Poignant, "Energy Transfer in Er 3+ /Pr 3+ -Doped Fluoride Glass Fibres and Application to Lasing at 2.7 mm," Electron. Lett. 27, 445-447 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea M. Bunea, W. L?thy and H. P. Weber, "150 mW Unsaturated Output Power at 3 mm from a Single-Mode-Fiber Erbium Cascade Laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564-3566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kintz, R. Allen and L. Esterowitz, "CW and Pulsed 2.8 mm Laser Emission from Diode-Pumped Er 3+ :LiYF4 at Room Temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1553-1555 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, "Continuous-Wave Lasing on a Self-Terminating Transition," Electron. Lett. 28, 14-16 (1989).

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta and R. K. Jain, "Mirror-Free, High Power (~140mW) Diode-Pumped 2.7 �m CW Fiber Laser," Postdeadline paper, CLEO Europe '98 Technical Digest (1998).

B. Srinivasan, G. Monnom and R. K. Jain, "Indirect Measurement of the Magnitude of Ion Clustering at High Doping Densities in Er:ZBLAN Fibers," to be published.

S. Bed�, W. L?thy and H. P. Weber, "The Effective Absorption Coefficient in Double-Clad Fibers," Opt. Commn. 99, 331-335 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu and K. Ueda, "The Absorption Characteristics of Circular, Offset, and Rectangular Double-Clad Fibers," Opt. Commn. 132, 511-518 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen, "Upconversion versus Pr-Deactivation for Efficient 3 mm Laser Operation in Er," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 1197-1208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West and H. T�bben, "Co-Doping Effects in Erbium 3+ - and Holmium 3+ -Doped ZBLAN Glasses," J. Non-Crystalline Solids 140, 25-30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

These results were submitted for presentation at the Conference for Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) '99 as a postdeadline paper on 4/26/99 (paper #CPD23, CLEO '99, Baltimore, May 23-28, 1999).

This fiber was obtained from Thorlabs, Inc., NJ, USA.

Note that the lifetime values quoted here were based on our own measurements in Er-doped ZBLAN fibers and as such show small deviations from other values reported in the literature for similar ZBLAN bulk samples and fibers and related fluoride hosts (see references 6,10,13,18).

V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman and D. R. MacFarlane, "Fluorescence from Highly-Doped Erbium Fluorozirconate Glasses Pumped at 800 nm," Opt. Commn. 132, 73-76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. L?thy and H. P. Weber, "Cross-Sections of Excited-State Absorption at 800 nm in Erbium-Doped ZBLAN Fiber," Appl. Phys. B 67, 23-28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Dominant energy transfer pathways between laser levels in Er and resonantly-matched energy levels in Pr (k1 = 0.15×103 s-1 and k2 = 0.93×103 s-1 for our 20,000/5,000 ppm Er/Pr:ZBLAN fiber)

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Schematic diagram of diode-pumped double-clad fiber laser

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Photograph of the experimental setup shown schematically in Fig. 2

Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Role of the excited state absorption (of 791 nm) from the upper laser level (4I11/2) in generation of green (544 nm) upconversion fluorescence in the Er-doped fiber

Figure 5.
Figure 5.

CW 2.7 μm output power vs. absorbed 791 nm pump power for our Er/Pr:ZBLAN fiber

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