Abstract

Photoinduced long-period gratings are shown as versatile sensors for temperature, axial strain and index of refraction measurements. The principle of operation of such devices is discussed and the application to simultaneous temperature and strain is demonstrated.

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References

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  1. J. Dakin and B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components (Artech House, Boston, 1988).
  2. D. A. Krohn, Fiber Optic Sensors (Instrument Society of America, North Carolina, 1992).
  3. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey and W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Applications to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phy. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. Johnson and I. Skinner, "Efficient narrowband LP 01 <->LP 02 mode convertors fabricated in photosensitive fiber: Spectral response," Elect. Lett. 27, 682 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina and F. J. Leonberger, "Fiber optic temperature and strain sensors," in Conf. on Fiber Optic Sensors II, Proc. SPIE 798, 104 (1987).
  7. A. D. Kersey and T. A. Berkoff, "Fiber-optic Bragg-grating differential-temperature sensor," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 4, 1183 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, S. J. Hewlett and J. D. Love, "Wavelength shifts in fiber Bragg gratings due to changes in the cladding properties," in Topical Meeting on Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMB4, 225
  9. M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie and J. P. Dakin, "Discrimination between temperature and strain effects using dual wavelength fiber grating sensors," Elect. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe and T. E. Ergodan, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 58 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. Bhatia, D. Campbell, R.O. Claus and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement with long-period gratings," Opt. Lett. 22, 648 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. B. Judkins, J. R. Pedrazzani, D. J. DiGiovanni and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Temperature-insensitive long-period fiber gratings," in Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper PD1.
  14. V. Bhatia, Properties and sensing applications of long-period gratings (Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 1996).
  15. A. A. Abramov, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler and T. A. Strasser, "Temperature-sensitive long-period fiber gratings for wideband tunable filters," in Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) ThJ5.
  16. V. Bhatia, D. Campbell, T. DAlberto, G. Ten Eyck, D. Sherr, K. A. Murphy and R. O. Claus, "Standard optical fiber long-period gratings with reduced temperature-sensitivity for strain and refractive index sensing," in Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997) paper FB1
  17. V. Bhatia, D. K. Campbell, D. Sherr, T. G. DAlberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy and R.O. Claus, "Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period grating sensors for smart structures," Opt. Eng. 36, 1872 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

Other

J. Dakin and B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components (Artech House, Boston, 1988).

D. A. Krohn, Fiber Optic Sensors (Instrument Society of America, North Carolina, 1992).

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey and W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Applications to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phy. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. Johnson and I. Skinner, "Efficient narrowband LP 01 <->LP 02 mode convertors fabricated in photosensitive fiber: Spectral response," Elect. Lett. 27, 682 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina and F. J. Leonberger, "Fiber optic temperature and strain sensors," in Conf. on Fiber Optic Sensors II, Proc. SPIE 798, 104 (1987).

A. D. Kersey and T. A. Berkoff, "Fiber-optic Bragg-grating differential-temperature sensor," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 4, 1183 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, S. J. Hewlett and J. D. Love, "Wavelength shifts in fiber Bragg gratings due to changes in the cladding properties," in Topical Meeting on Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides, OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PMB4, 225

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie and J. P. Dakin, "Discrimination between temperature and strain effects using dual wavelength fiber grating sensors," Elect. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, J. E. Sipe and T. E. Ergodan, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Bhatia, D. Campbell, R.O. Claus and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement with long-period gratings," Opt. Lett. 22, 648 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Judkins, J. R. Pedrazzani, D. J. DiGiovanni and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Temperature-insensitive long-period fiber gratings," in Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), postdeadline paper PD1.

V. Bhatia, Properties and sensing applications of long-period gratings (Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 1996).

A. A. Abramov, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler and T. A. Strasser, "Temperature-sensitive long-period fiber gratings for wideband tunable filters," in Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999) ThJ5.

V. Bhatia, D. Campbell, T. DAlberto, G. Ten Eyck, D. Sherr, K. A. Murphy and R. O. Claus, "Standard optical fiber long-period gratings with reduced temperature-sensitivity for strain and refractive index sensing," in Optical Fiber Communication, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997) paper FB1

V. Bhatia, D. K. Campbell, D. Sherr, T. G. DAlberto, N. A. Zabaronick, G. A. Ten Eyck, K. A. Murphy and R.O. Claus, "Temperature-insensitive and strain-insensitive long-period grating sensors for smart structures," Opt. Eng. 36, 1872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Shift in a band of a long-period grating with temperature. The spectra correspond to temperatures of 22.7 °C, 49.1 °C, 74.0 °C, 100.9 °C, 127.3 °C and 149.7 °C from left to right [14]. The resonant wavelength shifts from 1607.8 nm at 22.7 °C to 1619.6 nm at 149.7 °C.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Shift in the peak loss wavelengths (with respect to that at 31.2 °C) with temperature for various resonance bands of a long-period grating [14]. The location of the bands A, B, C and D are 1608.6 nm, 1332.9 nm, 1219.7 nm and 1159.6 nm, respectively at 31.2 °C. The experimental data (symbols) are and approximated by linear curve fits. The dashed line (E) is the shift for a Bragg grating at 1550 nm with a temperature coefficient 1.3 nm/100 °C.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Shift in the peak loss wavelengths with strain for various resonance bands of a long-period grating [14]. The dashed line (E) is the shift for a Bragg grating with coefficient 11.55 nm/%ε.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental shift in the four resonance bands of a long-period grating as a function of the index of the ambient medium [14]. The bands at 1496.6 nm (A), 1329.3 nm (B), 1243.8 nm (C) and 1192.1 nm (D) were used for the experiment. The shifts are measured with respect to the locations at n3=1.0. The indices of the oils are calculated at the corresponding resonant wavelengths of the bands.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Change in transmission through a grating for increasing (circles) and decreasing (squares) temperature [14]. The resonance band for the grating under test is centered at 1294 nm (50 °C) while the laser diode is located at 1312 nm. The transmission is normalized to 0 dB at 50 °C. Inset shows the grating spectra in steps of 50 °C.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison between measured (symbols) and actual (lines) values of (a) temperature (b) strain using a long-period grating [14]. The average rate of temperature change was -1.08 °C/min.

Equations (6)

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λ ( m ) = ( n eff n cl , m ) Λ
dT = d ( δ n eff ) ( d n eff dT d n cl dT ) + Λ d Λ 1 L dL dT
= d ( δ n eff ) ( d n eff d n cl ) + Λ d Λ
d n 3 = d n cl d n cl d n 3
A Δ T + B Δ ε = Δ λ 1
T + D Δ ε = Δ λ 2

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