Abstract

Experimental results on 1D and 2D phase-locking of laser diode arrays are presented. Attention is paid to the employment of the arrays consisting of wide aperture lasers diodes. Selection of the “in-phase” supermode, preferable for most of the cases, is attained in the external quarter Talbot (Lc=ZT/4=d2/2λ) cavity due to the output mirror tilt at the angle φm=λ/2d. Analysis of the parameters that influence on the phase-locking is given. Our experiments confirm theoretical predictions of the system stability and adequate selectivity for the laser diode array fill factor (FF) FF=0.6.

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References

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  1. J. K. Butler, D.E. Ackley and D. Botez, "Coupled-mode analysis of phase-locked injection laser arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 293 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Botez, "Array-mode far-field patterns for phase-locked diode laser arrays: coupled mode theory versus simple diffraction theory," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electron. 21, N.11, 1752 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. A. Golubentsev, V. V. Likhanskii and A. P. Napartovich, "Theory of phase synchronization of laser sets," Sov. Phys. JETP 66, 676 (1987).
  4. D. E. Ackley, "Single longitudinal mode operation of high power multiple-stripe injection lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 152 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Botez and J. C. Connolly, "High-power phase-locked arrays of index-guided diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1096 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D.R. Scifres, R. A. Sprague, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, "Focusing of a 7700-A high power phased array semiconductor laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1121 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Yaeli, W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, P.S. Cross, R. L. Thornton and R. D. Burnham, "Array mode selection utilizing an external cavity configuration," Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 89 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. R. Leger, "Lateral mode control of an AlGaAs laser array in a Talbot cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett., 55, 334 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. X. D Amato, E. T. Siebert, C. Rouchoudhri, "Coherent operation of an array of diode lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 816 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott and W. B. Veldkamp, "Coherent addition of AlGaAs lasers using microlenses and diffractive coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1771 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer and D. Scifres, "High-power, cw, diffraction limited, AlGaAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2586 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Mehuys, W. Streifer, R. Waarts, D. Welch, "Modal analysis of linear Talbot-cavity semiconductor lasers," Opt. Lett. 16, 823 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. I. Kislov, A. A. Kazakov, Yu. P. Koval, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky and A. M. Prokhorov, "Investigation of linear and two-dimensional arrays of semiconductor laser diodes in an external cavity," Quantum Electron. 27, 850 (1997). (Translated from Russian Kvantovaya Electronica).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. I. Kislov, A. A. Kazakov, Yu. P. Koval, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky and A. M. Prokhorov, "Spatial phase-locking of linear arrays of 4 and 12 wide aperture semiconductor laser diodes in an external cavity," Quantum Electron. 28, 257 (1998). (Translated from Russian Kvantovaya Electronica).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. I. Kislov, A. A. Kazakov, Yu. P. Koval, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky and A. M. Prokhorov, "Phase-locking of eight wide-aperture semiconductor laser diodes in one-dimensional and two-dimensional configurations in an external Talbot cavity," Quantum Electron. 28, 344 (1998). (Translated from Russian Kvantovaya Electronica).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. F. Glova, N. N. Elkin, A. Yu. Lysikov and A. P. Napartovich, "External Talbot cavity with in-phase mode selection," Quantum Electron. (in Russian) 23, 630 (1996).
  17. O. R. Kachurin, F. V. Lebedev, M. A. Napartovich, M. E. Khlynov, "Control of the phased laser array radiation pattern," Quantum Electron. (in Russian) 18, 387 (1991).
  18. I. M. Beldyugin, M. V. Zolotarev, I. V. Shinkareva, "An effect of noise and spread of resonant frequencies on phase-locking of optically coupled lasers," Quantum Electron. (in Russian) 18, 1493 (1991).
  19. J. W. Cassarly, J. C. Ehlert, J. M. Finlan, K. M. Flood, R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, "Intracavity phase correction of an external Talbot cavity laser with the use of liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 17, 607 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Sanders, R. Waarts, D. Nam, D. Welch and D. Scifres, J. Ehlert, W. Cassarly, J. Finlan, K. Flood, "High-power coherent two-dimensional semiconductor laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1478 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. V. Apollonov, V. I. Kislov, A. M. Prokhorov, "Phase-locking of a semiconductor diode array in an external cavity," Quantum Electron. (in Russian) 23, 1081 (1996).

Other (21)

J. K. Butler, D.E. Ackley and D. Botez, "Coupled-mode analysis of phase-locked injection laser arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 293 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, "Array-mode far-field patterns for phase-locked diode laser arrays: coupled mode theory versus simple diffraction theory," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electron. 21, N.11, 1752 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Golubentsev, V. V. Likhanskii and A. P. Napartovich, "Theory of phase synchronization of laser sets," Sov. Phys. JETP 66, 676 (1987).

D. E. Ackley, "Single longitudinal mode operation of high power multiple-stripe injection lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez and J. C. Connolly, "High-power phase-locked arrays of index-guided diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1096 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D.R. Scifres, R. A. Sprague, W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, "Focusing of a 7700-A high power phased array semiconductor laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1121 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Yaeli, W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, P.S. Cross, R. L. Thornton and R. D. Burnham, "Array mode selection utilizing an external cavity configuration," Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 89 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Leger, "Lateral mode control of an AlGaAs laser array in a Talbot cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett., 55, 334 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. X. D Amato, E. T. Siebert, C. Rouchoudhri, "Coherent operation of an array of diode lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 816 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott and W. B. Veldkamp, "Coherent addition of AlGaAs lasers using microlenses and diffractive coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer and D. Scifres, "High-power, cw, diffraction limited, AlGaAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2586 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Mehuys, W. Streifer, R. Waarts, D. Welch, "Modal analysis of linear Talbot-cavity semiconductor lasers," Opt. Lett. 16, 823 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. I. Kislov, A. A. Kazakov, Yu. P. Koval, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky and A. M. Prokhorov, "Investigation of linear and two-dimensional arrays of semiconductor laser diodes in an external cavity," Quantum Electron. 27, 850 (1997). (Translated from Russian Kvantovaya Electronica).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. I. Kislov, A. A. Kazakov, Yu. P. Koval, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky and A. M. Prokhorov, "Spatial phase-locking of linear arrays of 4 and 12 wide aperture semiconductor laser diodes in an external cavity," Quantum Electron. 28, 257 (1998). (Translated from Russian Kvantovaya Electronica).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. I. Kislov, A. A. Kazakov, Yu. P. Koval, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky and A. M. Prokhorov, "Phase-locking of eight wide-aperture semiconductor laser diodes in one-dimensional and two-dimensional configurations in an external Talbot cavity," Quantum Electron. 28, 344 (1998). (Translated from Russian Kvantovaya Electronica).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Glova, N. N. Elkin, A. Yu. Lysikov and A. P. Napartovich, "External Talbot cavity with in-phase mode selection," Quantum Electron. (in Russian) 23, 630 (1996).

O. R. Kachurin, F. V. Lebedev, M. A. Napartovich, M. E. Khlynov, "Control of the phased laser array radiation pattern," Quantum Electron. (in Russian) 18, 387 (1991).

I. M. Beldyugin, M. V. Zolotarev, I. V. Shinkareva, "An effect of noise and spread of resonant frequencies on phase-locking of optically coupled lasers," Quantum Electron. (in Russian) 18, 1493 (1991).

J. W. Cassarly, J. C. Ehlert, J. M. Finlan, K. M. Flood, R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, "Intracavity phase correction of an external Talbot cavity laser with the use of liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 17, 607 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sanders, R. Waarts, D. Nam, D. Welch and D. Scifres, J. Ehlert, W. Cassarly, J. Finlan, K. Flood, "High-power coherent two-dimensional semiconductor laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Apollonov, V. I. Kislov, A. M. Prokhorov, "Phase-locking of a semiconductor diode array in an external cavity," Quantum Electron. (in Russian) 23, 1081 (1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

Experimental setup. 1-laser diode array, 2-cylindrical lens, 3-cavity output mirror, R=50%, 4-lens (F=10 ñì), 5-videocamera, 6-monitor, 7-oscilloscope

Fig.2.
Fig.2.

Far field pattern of the “out-of-phase” supermode.

Fig.3 (a).
Fig.3 (a).

Far field pattern of the “in-phase” supermode for independent generation of the 2 laser diode arrays in a quarter-Talbot cavity.

Fig.3 (b).
Fig.3 (b).

Far field pattern of the “in-phase” supermode for 2D phase-locking of the 2 laser diode arrays in a quarter-Talbot cavity.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ γ ( δ L c z T ) 2 ( 1 2 π FF 2 ) 2
δ γ N 4 ( φ m / θ ) 2
δγ / γ ( 2 πFF ) 2 ( φ m γ / d ) 2
δ λ p Talbot 1 2 λ 2 2 L c ( NM β P n 2 ( G 0 NM ) )
δ λ p ne λ 2 2 L c M cos ( πv N + 1 )
δ λ p ne λ 2 2 L c M
γ γ e δ φ 2 / 2
γ 2 γ 0 2 e ( πNΔ / 8 dp ) 2
Δ < 1 10 N d

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