Abstract

The problem of three-dimensional visualization of a human lens in vivo has been solved by a technique of volume rendering a transformed series of 60 rotated Scheimpflug (a dual slit reflected light microscope) digital images. The data set was obtained by rotating the Scheimpflug camera about the optic axis of the lens in 3 degree increments. The transformed set of optical sections were first aligned to correct for small eye movements, and then rendered into a volume reconstruction with volume rendering computer graphics techniques. To help visualize the distribution of lens opacities (cataracts) in the living, human lens the intensity of light scattering was pseudocolor coded and the cataract opacities were displayed as a movie.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. S. Jaffe and J. Horwitz, Lens and Cataract, Vol. 3, Textbook of Ophthalmology,S. M. Podos and M. Yanoff, eds. (Gower Medical Publishing, New York, 1992).
  2. N. A. P. Brown and A. J. Bron, Lens disorders: a clinical manual of cataract diagnosis, (Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, 1996).
  3. G. Q. Xiao, G. S. Kino, and B. R. Masters, “Observation of the rabbit cornea and lens with a new real-time confocal scanning optical microscope,” Scanning 12, 161–166 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. R. Masters, “Two and three-dimensional visualization of the living cornea and ocular lens,” Machine Vision and Applications 4, 227–232 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. R. Masters, “Confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of thick, transparent, vital tissue,” Scanning Microscopy 6, 71–79 (1992).
  6. B. R. Masters, “Confocal microscopy of the in situ crystalline lens,” J. Microsc. 165, 159–167 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional confocal microscopy of the lens,” Ophthalmic Res 28(2), 115–119 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. R. Masters, G. F. J. M. Vrensen, B. Willekens, and J. Van Marle, “Confocal light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the human eye lens,” Exp. Eye Res. 64 (3), 371–377 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. N. Brown, “Macrophotography of the anterior segment of the eye,” Br. J. Ophthal. 54, 697–701 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. J. Bron and K. Matsuda, “Specular microscopy of the human lens,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. UK, 101, 163–169 (1981).
  11. A. J. Bron, “Specular microscopy of human and animal lenses in vivo and vitro,” Ophthalmology 2, 229–232 (1985).
  12. M. Ayaki, W. Tung, J. K. Wolfe, T. Shinohara, N. Ibaraki, H. Oharazawa, K. Ohara, and L. T. Chylack, “New non-contact specular microscope for lens epithelium visualization,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 143–146 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. H. Massig, M. Preissier, A. R. Wegener, and G. Gaida, “Real-Time Confocal Laser Scan Microscope for Examination and Diagnosis of the Eye In Vivo,” Appl. Opt. 33, 690–694 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. O. Hockwin, K. Sasaki, and S. Lerman, “Evaluating cataract development with the Scheimpflug camera,” in Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology, B. R. Masters, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990), 282–318.
  15. V. Dragomirescu, O. Hockwin, H. R. Koch, and K. Sasaki, “Development of a new equipment for rotating slit image photography according to Scheimpflug’s principle,” Interdis. Top. Gerontol 13, 1–13 (1978).
  16. Y. Emori, Y. Yasuda, H. Fukuda, and K. Sasaki, “Application of image processing technique for analyzing the optical system of the eye,” in Advances in Diagnostic Visual Optics,A. Fiorentini, D. L. Guyton, and I. M. Siegel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), 55–60.
  17. Y. Sakamoto and K. Sasaki, “Computed tomographic images and three dimensional expression of crystalline lens findings from multiple slices of Scheimpflug slit images,” Ophthalmic Res 27 (suppl 1), 94–99 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Levoy, “Display of Surfaces from Volume Data,” PhD dissertation, (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1989).
  19. B. R. Masters, K. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, Y. Emori, S. Senft, and M. Foster, “Three-dimensional volume visualization of the in vivo human ocular lens showing localization of the cataract,” Ophthalmic Res, 28(2), 120–126 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  20. B. R. Masters and S. L. Senft, “Transformation of a set of slices rotated on a common axis to a set of z-slices: application to three-dimensional visualization of the in vivo human lens,” Comput. Med. Imag. Graph. 21(3), 145–151 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  21. B. R. Masters, “Optical tomography of the in vivo human lens: three-dimensional visualization of cataracts,” J. Biomed. Optics, 1(3), 289–295 (1997).
  22. B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional visualization of human cataract in vivo,” German J Ophthalmol, 5(6), 532–536 (1997).

1997 (5)

B. R. Masters, G. F. J. M. Vrensen, B. Willekens, and J. Van Marle, “Confocal light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the human eye lens,” Exp. Eye Res. 64 (3), 371–377 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Ayaki, W. Tung, J. K. Wolfe, T. Shinohara, N. Ibaraki, H. Oharazawa, K. Ohara, and L. T. Chylack, “New non-contact specular microscope for lens epithelium visualization,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 143–146 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Masters and S. L. Senft, “Transformation of a set of slices rotated on a common axis to a set of z-slices: application to three-dimensional visualization of the in vivo human lens,” Comput. Med. Imag. Graph. 21(3), 145–151 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. R. Masters, “Optical tomography of the in vivo human lens: three-dimensional visualization of cataracts,” J. Biomed. Optics, 1(3), 289–295 (1997).

B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional visualization of human cataract in vivo,” German J Ophthalmol, 5(6), 532–536 (1997).

1996 (2)

B. R. Masters, K. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, Y. Emori, S. Senft, and M. Foster, “Three-dimensional volume visualization of the in vivo human ocular lens showing localization of the cataract,” Ophthalmic Res, 28(2), 120–126 (1996).
[Crossref]

B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional confocal microscopy of the lens,” Ophthalmic Res 28(2), 115–119 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

Y. Sakamoto and K. Sasaki, “Computed tomographic images and three dimensional expression of crystalline lens findings from multiple slices of Scheimpflug slit images,” Ophthalmic Res 27 (suppl 1), 94–99 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1992 (2)

B. R. Masters, “Confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of thick, transparent, vital tissue,” Scanning Microscopy 6, 71–79 (1992).

B. R. Masters, “Confocal microscopy of the in situ crystalline lens,” J. Microsc. 165, 159–167 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

B. R. Masters, “Two and three-dimensional visualization of the living cornea and ocular lens,” Machine Vision and Applications 4, 227–232 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

G. Q. Xiao, G. S. Kino, and B. R. Masters, “Observation of the rabbit cornea and lens with a new real-time confocal scanning optical microscope,” Scanning 12, 161–166 (1990).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

A. J. Bron, “Specular microscopy of human and animal lenses in vivo and vitro,” Ophthalmology 2, 229–232 (1985).

1981 (1)

A. J. Bron and K. Matsuda, “Specular microscopy of the human lens,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. UK, 101, 163–169 (1981).

1978 (1)

V. Dragomirescu, O. Hockwin, H. R. Koch, and K. Sasaki, “Development of a new equipment for rotating slit image photography according to Scheimpflug’s principle,” Interdis. Top. Gerontol 13, 1–13 (1978).

1970 (1)

N. Brown, “Macrophotography of the anterior segment of the eye,” Br. J. Ophthal. 54, 697–701 (1970).
[Crossref]

Ayaki, M.

M. Ayaki, W. Tung, J. K. Wolfe, T. Shinohara, N. Ibaraki, H. Oharazawa, K. Ohara, and L. T. Chylack, “New non-contact specular microscope for lens epithelium visualization,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 143–146 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bron, A. J.

A. J. Bron, “Specular microscopy of human and animal lenses in vivo and vitro,” Ophthalmology 2, 229–232 (1985).

A. J. Bron and K. Matsuda, “Specular microscopy of the human lens,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. UK, 101, 163–169 (1981).

N. A. P. Brown and A. J. Bron, Lens disorders: a clinical manual of cataract diagnosis, (Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, 1996).

Brown, N.

N. Brown, “Macrophotography of the anterior segment of the eye,” Br. J. Ophthal. 54, 697–701 (1970).
[Crossref]

Brown, N. A. P.

N. A. P. Brown and A. J. Bron, Lens disorders: a clinical manual of cataract diagnosis, (Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, 1996).

Chylack, L. T.

M. Ayaki, W. Tung, J. K. Wolfe, T. Shinohara, N. Ibaraki, H. Oharazawa, K. Ohara, and L. T. Chylack, “New non-contact specular microscope for lens epithelium visualization,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 143–146 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dragomirescu, V.

V. Dragomirescu, O. Hockwin, H. R. Koch, and K. Sasaki, “Development of a new equipment for rotating slit image photography according to Scheimpflug’s principle,” Interdis. Top. Gerontol 13, 1–13 (1978).

Emori, Y.

B. R. Masters, K. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, Y. Emori, S. Senft, and M. Foster, “Three-dimensional volume visualization of the in vivo human ocular lens showing localization of the cataract,” Ophthalmic Res, 28(2), 120–126 (1996).
[Crossref]

Y. Emori, Y. Yasuda, H. Fukuda, and K. Sasaki, “Application of image processing technique for analyzing the optical system of the eye,” in Advances in Diagnostic Visual Optics,A. Fiorentini, D. L. Guyton, and I. M. Siegel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), 55–60.

Foster, M.

B. R. Masters, K. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, Y. Emori, S. Senft, and M. Foster, “Three-dimensional volume visualization of the in vivo human ocular lens showing localization of the cataract,” Ophthalmic Res, 28(2), 120–126 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, H.

Y. Emori, Y. Yasuda, H. Fukuda, and K. Sasaki, “Application of image processing technique for analyzing the optical system of the eye,” in Advances in Diagnostic Visual Optics,A. Fiorentini, D. L. Guyton, and I. M. Siegel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), 55–60.

Gaida, G.

Hockwin, O.

V. Dragomirescu, O. Hockwin, H. R. Koch, and K. Sasaki, “Development of a new equipment for rotating slit image photography according to Scheimpflug’s principle,” Interdis. Top. Gerontol 13, 1–13 (1978).

O. Hockwin, K. Sasaki, and S. Lerman, “Evaluating cataract development with the Scheimpflug camera,” in Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology, B. R. Masters, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990), 282–318.

Horwitz, J.

N. S. Jaffe and J. Horwitz, Lens and Cataract, Vol. 3, Textbook of Ophthalmology,S. M. Podos and M. Yanoff, eds. (Gower Medical Publishing, New York, 1992).

Ibaraki, N.

M. Ayaki, W. Tung, J. K. Wolfe, T. Shinohara, N. Ibaraki, H. Oharazawa, K. Ohara, and L. T. Chylack, “New non-contact specular microscope for lens epithelium visualization,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 143–146 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaffe, N. S.

N. S. Jaffe and J. Horwitz, Lens and Cataract, Vol. 3, Textbook of Ophthalmology,S. M. Podos and M. Yanoff, eds. (Gower Medical Publishing, New York, 1992).

Kino, G. S.

G. Q. Xiao, G. S. Kino, and B. R. Masters, “Observation of the rabbit cornea and lens with a new real-time confocal scanning optical microscope,” Scanning 12, 161–166 (1990).
[Crossref]

Koch, H. R.

V. Dragomirescu, O. Hockwin, H. R. Koch, and K. Sasaki, “Development of a new equipment for rotating slit image photography according to Scheimpflug’s principle,” Interdis. Top. Gerontol 13, 1–13 (1978).

Kojima, M.

B. R. Masters, K. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, Y. Emori, S. Senft, and M. Foster, “Three-dimensional volume visualization of the in vivo human ocular lens showing localization of the cataract,” Ophthalmic Res, 28(2), 120–126 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lerman, S.

O. Hockwin, K. Sasaki, and S. Lerman, “Evaluating cataract development with the Scheimpflug camera,” in Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology, B. R. Masters, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990), 282–318.

Levoy, M.

M. Levoy, “Display of Surfaces from Volume Data,” PhD dissertation, (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1989).

Marle, J. Van

B. R. Masters, G. F. J. M. Vrensen, B. Willekens, and J. Van Marle, “Confocal light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the human eye lens,” Exp. Eye Res. 64 (3), 371–377 (1997).
[Crossref]

Massig, J. H.

Masters, B. R.

B. R. Masters, “Optical tomography of the in vivo human lens: three-dimensional visualization of cataracts,” J. Biomed. Optics, 1(3), 289–295 (1997).

B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional visualization of human cataract in vivo,” German J Ophthalmol, 5(6), 532–536 (1997).

B. R. Masters and S. L. Senft, “Transformation of a set of slices rotated on a common axis to a set of z-slices: application to three-dimensional visualization of the in vivo human lens,” Comput. Med. Imag. Graph. 21(3), 145–151 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. R. Masters, G. F. J. M. Vrensen, B. Willekens, and J. Van Marle, “Confocal light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the human eye lens,” Exp. Eye Res. 64 (3), 371–377 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional confocal microscopy of the lens,” Ophthalmic Res 28(2), 115–119 (1996).
[Crossref]

B. R. Masters, K. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, Y. Emori, S. Senft, and M. Foster, “Three-dimensional volume visualization of the in vivo human ocular lens showing localization of the cataract,” Ophthalmic Res, 28(2), 120–126 (1996).
[Crossref]

B. R. Masters, “Confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of thick, transparent, vital tissue,” Scanning Microscopy 6, 71–79 (1992).

B. R. Masters, “Confocal microscopy of the in situ crystalline lens,” J. Microsc. 165, 159–167 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Masters, “Two and three-dimensional visualization of the living cornea and ocular lens,” Machine Vision and Applications 4, 227–232 (1991).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xiao, G. S. Kino, and B. R. Masters, “Observation of the rabbit cornea and lens with a new real-time confocal scanning optical microscope,” Scanning 12, 161–166 (1990).
[Crossref]

Matsuda, K.

A. J. Bron and K. Matsuda, “Specular microscopy of the human lens,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. UK, 101, 163–169 (1981).

Ohara, K.

M. Ayaki, W. Tung, J. K. Wolfe, T. Shinohara, N. Ibaraki, H. Oharazawa, K. Ohara, and L. T. Chylack, “New non-contact specular microscope for lens epithelium visualization,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 143–146 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oharazawa, H.

M. Ayaki, W. Tung, J. K. Wolfe, T. Shinohara, N. Ibaraki, H. Oharazawa, K. Ohara, and L. T. Chylack, “New non-contact specular microscope for lens epithelium visualization,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 143–146 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Preissier, M.

Sakamoto, Y.

B. R. Masters, K. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, Y. Emori, S. Senft, and M. Foster, “Three-dimensional volume visualization of the in vivo human ocular lens showing localization of the cataract,” Ophthalmic Res, 28(2), 120–126 (1996).
[Crossref]

Y. Sakamoto and K. Sasaki, “Computed tomographic images and three dimensional expression of crystalline lens findings from multiple slices of Scheimpflug slit images,” Ophthalmic Res 27 (suppl 1), 94–99 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, K.

B. R. Masters, K. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, Y. Emori, S. Senft, and M. Foster, “Three-dimensional volume visualization of the in vivo human ocular lens showing localization of the cataract,” Ophthalmic Res, 28(2), 120–126 (1996).
[Crossref]

Y. Sakamoto and K. Sasaki, “Computed tomographic images and three dimensional expression of crystalline lens findings from multiple slices of Scheimpflug slit images,” Ophthalmic Res 27 (suppl 1), 94–99 (1995).
[Crossref]

V. Dragomirescu, O. Hockwin, H. R. Koch, and K. Sasaki, “Development of a new equipment for rotating slit image photography according to Scheimpflug’s principle,” Interdis. Top. Gerontol 13, 1–13 (1978).

O. Hockwin, K. Sasaki, and S. Lerman, “Evaluating cataract development with the Scheimpflug camera,” in Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology, B. R. Masters, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990), 282–318.

Y. Emori, Y. Yasuda, H. Fukuda, and K. Sasaki, “Application of image processing technique for analyzing the optical system of the eye,” in Advances in Diagnostic Visual Optics,A. Fiorentini, D. L. Guyton, and I. M. Siegel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), 55–60.

Senft, S.

B. R. Masters, K. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, Y. Emori, S. Senft, and M. Foster, “Three-dimensional volume visualization of the in vivo human ocular lens showing localization of the cataract,” Ophthalmic Res, 28(2), 120–126 (1996).
[Crossref]

Senft, S. L.

B. R. Masters and S. L. Senft, “Transformation of a set of slices rotated on a common axis to a set of z-slices: application to three-dimensional visualization of the in vivo human lens,” Comput. Med. Imag. Graph. 21(3), 145–151 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shinohara, T.

M. Ayaki, W. Tung, J. K. Wolfe, T. Shinohara, N. Ibaraki, H. Oharazawa, K. Ohara, and L. T. Chylack, “New non-contact specular microscope for lens epithelium visualization,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 143–146 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tung, W.

M. Ayaki, W. Tung, J. K. Wolfe, T. Shinohara, N. Ibaraki, H. Oharazawa, K. Ohara, and L. T. Chylack, “New non-contact specular microscope for lens epithelium visualization,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 143–146 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vrensen, G. F. J. M.

B. R. Masters, G. F. J. M. Vrensen, B. Willekens, and J. Van Marle, “Confocal light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the human eye lens,” Exp. Eye Res. 64 (3), 371–377 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wegener, A. R.

Willekens, B.

B. R. Masters, G. F. J. M. Vrensen, B. Willekens, and J. Van Marle, “Confocal light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the human eye lens,” Exp. Eye Res. 64 (3), 371–377 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wolfe, J. K.

M. Ayaki, W. Tung, J. K. Wolfe, T. Shinohara, N. Ibaraki, H. Oharazawa, K. Ohara, and L. T. Chylack, “New non-contact specular microscope for lens epithelium visualization,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 143–146 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, G. Q.

G. Q. Xiao, G. S. Kino, and B. R. Masters, “Observation of the rabbit cornea and lens with a new real-time confocal scanning optical microscope,” Scanning 12, 161–166 (1990).
[Crossref]

Yasuda, Y.

Y. Emori, Y. Yasuda, H. Fukuda, and K. Sasaki, “Application of image processing technique for analyzing the optical system of the eye,” in Advances in Diagnostic Visual Optics,A. Fiorentini, D. L. Guyton, and I. M. Siegel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), 55–60.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Br. J. Ophthal. (1)

N. Brown, “Macrophotography of the anterior segment of the eye,” Br. J. Ophthal. 54, 697–701 (1970).
[Crossref]

Comput. Med. Imag. Graph. (1)

B. R. Masters and S. L. Senft, “Transformation of a set of slices rotated on a common axis to a set of z-slices: application to three-dimensional visualization of the in vivo human lens,” Comput. Med. Imag. Graph. 21(3), 145–151 (1997).
[Crossref]

Exp. Eye Res. (2)

M. Ayaki, W. Tung, J. K. Wolfe, T. Shinohara, N. Ibaraki, H. Oharazawa, K. Ohara, and L. T. Chylack, “New non-contact specular microscope for lens epithelium visualization,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 143–146 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Masters, G. F. J. M. Vrensen, B. Willekens, and J. Van Marle, “Confocal light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the human eye lens,” Exp. Eye Res. 64 (3), 371–377 (1997).
[Crossref]

German J Ophthalmol, (1)

B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional visualization of human cataract in vivo,” German J Ophthalmol, 5(6), 532–536 (1997).

Interdis. Top. Gerontol (1)

V. Dragomirescu, O. Hockwin, H. R. Koch, and K. Sasaki, “Development of a new equipment for rotating slit image photography according to Scheimpflug’s principle,” Interdis. Top. Gerontol 13, 1–13 (1978).

J. Biomed. Optics, (1)

B. R. Masters, “Optical tomography of the in vivo human lens: three-dimensional visualization of cataracts,” J. Biomed. Optics, 1(3), 289–295 (1997).

J. Microsc. (1)

B. R. Masters, “Confocal microscopy of the in situ crystalline lens,” J. Microsc. 165, 159–167 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Machine Vision and Applications (1)

B. R. Masters, “Two and three-dimensional visualization of the living cornea and ocular lens,” Machine Vision and Applications 4, 227–232 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmic Res (2)

B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional confocal microscopy of the lens,” Ophthalmic Res 28(2), 115–119 (1996).
[Crossref]

Y. Sakamoto and K. Sasaki, “Computed tomographic images and three dimensional expression of crystalline lens findings from multiple slices of Scheimpflug slit images,” Ophthalmic Res 27 (suppl 1), 94–99 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmic Res, (1)

B. R. Masters, K. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, Y. Emori, S. Senft, and M. Foster, “Three-dimensional volume visualization of the in vivo human ocular lens showing localization of the cataract,” Ophthalmic Res, 28(2), 120–126 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmology (1)

A. J. Bron, “Specular microscopy of human and animal lenses in vivo and vitro,” Ophthalmology 2, 229–232 (1985).

Scanning (1)

G. Q. Xiao, G. S. Kino, and B. R. Masters, “Observation of the rabbit cornea and lens with a new real-time confocal scanning optical microscope,” Scanning 12, 161–166 (1990).
[Crossref]

Scanning Microscopy (1)

B. R. Masters, “Confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of thick, transparent, vital tissue,” Scanning Microscopy 6, 71–79 (1992).

Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. UK, (1)

A. J. Bron and K. Matsuda, “Specular microscopy of the human lens,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. UK, 101, 163–169 (1981).

Other (5)

Y. Emori, Y. Yasuda, H. Fukuda, and K. Sasaki, “Application of image processing technique for analyzing the optical system of the eye,” in Advances in Diagnostic Visual Optics,A. Fiorentini, D. L. Guyton, and I. M. Siegel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), 55–60.

O. Hockwin, K. Sasaki, and S. Lerman, “Evaluating cataract development with the Scheimpflug camera,” in Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology, B. R. Masters, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990), 282–318.

N. S. Jaffe and J. Horwitz, Lens and Cataract, Vol. 3, Textbook of Ophthalmology,S. M. Podos and M. Yanoff, eds. (Gower Medical Publishing, New York, 1992).

N. A. P. Brown and A. J. Bron, Lens disorders: a clinical manual of cataract diagnosis, (Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, 1996).

M. Levoy, “Display of Surfaces from Volume Data,” PhD dissertation, (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1989).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (5587 KB)     

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The principle of the Scheimpflug camera. The plane containing the slit beam and the plane containing the image plane meet at one point (S), with the corresponding angles identical. The corresponding angles are the angles between the objective plane, which contains the camera objective (L), and the planes containing the slit beam and the image. A Scheimpflug image of the ocular lens is formed in the image plane by the camera objective.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Movie of three-dimensional human lens in vivo [Media 1]

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