Abstract

The problem of three-dimensional visualization of a human lens in vivo has been solved by a technique of volume rendering a transformed series of 60 rotated Scheimpflug (a dual slit reflected light microscope) digital images. The data set was obtained by rotating the Scheimpflug camera about the optic axis of the lens in 3 degree increments. The transformed set of optical sections were first aligned to correct for small eye movements, and then rendered into a volume reconstruction with volume rendering computer graphics techniques. To help visualize the distribution of lens opacities (cataracts) in the living, human lens the intensity of light scattering was pseudocolor coded and the cataract opacities were displayed as a movie.

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References

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  1. N. S. Jaffe, J. Horwitz, Lens and Cataract, Vol. 3, Textbook of Ophthalmology, S. M. Podos, M. Yanoff, eds. (Gower Medical Publishing, New York, 1992).
  2. N. A. P. Brown, A. J. Bron, Lens disorders: a clinical manual of cataract diagnosis, (Butterworth- Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, 1996).
  3. G. Q. Xiao, G. S. Kino, B. R. Masters, "Observation of the rabbit cornea and lens with a new real-time confocal scanning optical microscope," Scanning 12, 161-166 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. R. Masters, "Two and three-dimensional visualization of the living cornea and ocular lens," Machine Vision and Applications 4, 227-232 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. R. Masters, "Confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of thick, transparent, vital tissue," Scanning Microscopy 6, 71-79 (1992).
  6. B. R . Masters, "Confocal microscopy of the in situ crystalline lens," J. Microsc. 165, 159-167 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. R. Masters, "Three-dimensional confocal microscopy of the lens," Ophthalmic Res 28(2), 115-119 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. R. Masters, G. F. J. M. Vrensen, B. Willekens, J. Van Marle, "Confocal light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the human eye lens," Exp. Eye Res. 64 (3), 371-377 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Brown, "Macrophotography of the anterior segment of the eye," Br. J. Ophthal. 54, 697-701 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. J. Bron, K. Matsuda, "Specular microscopy of the human lens," Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. UK, 101, 163-169 (1981).
  11. A. J. Bron, "Specular microscopy of human and animal lenses in vivo and vitro," Ophthalmology 2, 229-232 (1985).
  12. M. Ayaki, W. Tung, J. K. Wolfe, T. Shinohara, N. Ibaraki, H. Oharazawa, K. Ohara, L. T. Chylack, Jr.,"New non-contact specular microscope for lens epithelium visualization," Exp. Eye Res. 65, 143-146 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. H. Massig, M. Preissier, A. R. Wegener, G. Gaida, "Real-Time Confocal Laser Scan Microscope for Examination and Diagnosis of the Eye In Vivo," Appl. Opt. 33, 690-694 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. O. Hockwin, K. Sasaki, S. Lerman, "Evaluating cataract development with the Scheimpflug camera," in Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology, B. R. Masters, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990), 282-318
  15. V. Dragomirescu, O. Hockwin, H. R. Koch, K. Sasaki, "Development of a new equipment for rotating slit image photography according to Scheimpflug's principle," Interdis. Top. Gerontol 13, 1-13 (1978).
  16. Y. Emori, Y. Yasuda, H. Fukuda, K. Sasaki, "Application of image processing technique for analyzing the optical system of the eye," in Advances in Diagnostic Visual Optics, A. Fiorentini, D. L. Guyton, I. M. Siegel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), 55-60.
  17. Y. Sakamoto, K. Sasaki, "Computed tomographic images and three dimensional expression of crystalline lens findings from multiple slices of Scheimpflug slit images," Ophthalmic Res 27 (suppl 1), 94-99 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Levoy, "Display of Surfaces from Volume Data," PhD dissertation, (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1989).
  19. B. R. Masters, K. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, Y. Emori, S. Senft, M. Foster, "Three-dimensional volume visualization of the in vivo human ocular lens showing localization of the cataract," Ophthalmic Res, 28(2), 120-126 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. R. Masters, S. L. Senft, "Transformation of a set of slices rotated on a common axis to a set of z-slices: application to three-dimensional visualization of the in vivo human lens," Comput. Med. Imag. Graph. 21(3), 145-151 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. R. Masters, "Optical tomography of the in vivo human lens: three-dimensional visualization of cataracts," J. Biomed. Optics, 1(3), 289-295 (1997).
  22. B. R. Masters, "Three-dimensional visualization of human cataract in vivo," German J Ophthalmol, 5(6), 532- 536 (1997).

Other (22)

N. S. Jaffe, J. Horwitz, Lens and Cataract, Vol. 3, Textbook of Ophthalmology, S. M. Podos, M. Yanoff, eds. (Gower Medical Publishing, New York, 1992).

N. A. P. Brown, A. J. Bron, Lens disorders: a clinical manual of cataract diagnosis, (Butterworth- Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, 1996).

G. Q. Xiao, G. S. Kino, B. R. Masters, "Observation of the rabbit cornea and lens with a new real-time confocal scanning optical microscope," Scanning 12, 161-166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Masters, "Two and three-dimensional visualization of the living cornea and ocular lens," Machine Vision and Applications 4, 227-232 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Masters, "Confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of thick, transparent, vital tissue," Scanning Microscopy 6, 71-79 (1992).

B. R . Masters, "Confocal microscopy of the in situ crystalline lens," J. Microsc. 165, 159-167 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Masters, "Three-dimensional confocal microscopy of the lens," Ophthalmic Res 28(2), 115-119 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Masters, G. F. J. M. Vrensen, B. Willekens, J. Van Marle, "Confocal light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the human eye lens," Exp. Eye Res. 64 (3), 371-377 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Brown, "Macrophotography of the anterior segment of the eye," Br. J. Ophthal. 54, 697-701 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Bron, K. Matsuda, "Specular microscopy of the human lens," Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. UK, 101, 163-169 (1981).

A. J. Bron, "Specular microscopy of human and animal lenses in vivo and vitro," Ophthalmology 2, 229-232 (1985).

M. Ayaki, W. Tung, J. K. Wolfe, T. Shinohara, N. Ibaraki, H. Oharazawa, K. Ohara, L. T. Chylack, Jr.,"New non-contact specular microscope for lens epithelium visualization," Exp. Eye Res. 65, 143-146 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Massig, M. Preissier, A. R. Wegener, G. Gaida, "Real-Time Confocal Laser Scan Microscope for Examination and Diagnosis of the Eye In Vivo," Appl. Opt. 33, 690-694 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Hockwin, K. Sasaki, S. Lerman, "Evaluating cataract development with the Scheimpflug camera," in Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology, B. R. Masters, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990), 282-318

V. Dragomirescu, O. Hockwin, H. R. Koch, K. Sasaki, "Development of a new equipment for rotating slit image photography according to Scheimpflug's principle," Interdis. Top. Gerontol 13, 1-13 (1978).

Y. Emori, Y. Yasuda, H. Fukuda, K. Sasaki, "Application of image processing technique for analyzing the optical system of the eye," in Advances in Diagnostic Visual Optics, A. Fiorentini, D. L. Guyton, I. M. Siegel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), 55-60.

Y. Sakamoto, K. Sasaki, "Computed tomographic images and three dimensional expression of crystalline lens findings from multiple slices of Scheimpflug slit images," Ophthalmic Res 27 (suppl 1), 94-99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Levoy, "Display of Surfaces from Volume Data," PhD dissertation, (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1989).

B. R. Masters, K. Sasaki, Y. Sakamoto, M. Kojima, Y. Emori, S. Senft, M. Foster, "Three-dimensional volume visualization of the in vivo human ocular lens showing localization of the cataract," Ophthalmic Res, 28(2), 120-126 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Masters, S. L. Senft, "Transformation of a set of slices rotated on a common axis to a set of z-slices: application to three-dimensional visualization of the in vivo human lens," Comput. Med. Imag. Graph. 21(3), 145-151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Masters, "Optical tomography of the in vivo human lens: three-dimensional visualization of cataracts," J. Biomed. Optics, 1(3), 289-295 (1997).

B. R. Masters, "Three-dimensional visualization of human cataract in vivo," German J Ophthalmol, 5(6), 532- 536 (1997).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The principle of the Scheimpflug camera. The plane containing the slit beam and the plane containing the image plane meet at one point (S), with the corresponding angles identical. The corresponding angles are the angles between the objective plane, which contains the camera objective (L), and the planes containing the slit beam and the image. A Scheimpflug image of the ocular lens is formed in the image plane by the camera objective.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Movie of three-dimensional human lens in vivo [Media 1]

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