Abstract

A brief overview of nonlinear microscopy in biomedicine is presented. Some of the main results of the contributions of the Focus Issue are also briefly discussed.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, M., “Image formation in two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Optik 86, 104–106 (1990).
  3. S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Enhancing the axial resolution in the far-field light microscopy: two-photon 4-Pi confocal fluorescence microscopy,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 675–81 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biologicalnonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10763–10768 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. V. E. Centonze and J. G. White, “Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging,” Biophys J. 75, 2015–2024 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. Mertz, C. Xu, and W. W. Webb, “Single-molecule detection by two-photon excited fluorescence”, Opt. Lett.,  20, 2532–2534 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Scanning Two-Photon Fluctuation Correlation Spectroscopy: Particle Counting Measurement for Detection of Molecular Aggregation,” Biophys. J. 71, 410–420 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. T. French, P. T. C. So, D. J. Weaver, T. Coelho-Sampaio, E. Gratton E, E. W. Voss, and J. Carrero, “Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing,” J. Microsc. 185, 339–353 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Sytsma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. De Grauw, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation,” J. Microsc. 191, 39 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. W. M. Yu, P. T. C. So, T. French, and E. Gratton, “Fluorescence Polarization of Cell Membrane - A Two- Photon Scanning Microscopy Approach,” Biophys. J. 70, 626–636 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. R. G. Summers, D. W. Piston, K. M. Harris, and J. B. Morrill, “The orientation of first cleavage in the sea urchin embryo, Lytechinus variegatus, does not specify the axes of bilateral symmetry,” Dev. Biol. 175, 177–183 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. A. Wohler, J. S. Simske, E. M. Williams-Masson, J. D. Hardin JD, and J. G. White, “Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis,” Curr. Biol. 8, 1087–1090 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. Piston, B. R. Masters, and W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensionally resolved NAD(P)H cellular metabolic redox imaging of the in situ cornea with two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy,” J. Micros. 178, 20–27, (1995).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, “Multi-Photon Excitation Fluorescence Microscopy and Spectroscopy of In Vivo Human Skin,” Biophys. J. 72, 2405–2412 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, I. E. Kochevar, B. R. Masters, and E. Gratton, “Two-Photon Fluorescence and Confocal Reflected Light Imaging of Thick Tissue Structures,” SPIE 3260, 46–57 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, H. Malak, M. Schrader, P. Engelhardt, H. Kano, and S. W. Hell, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of DNA labeled with DAPI and Hoechst 33342 using three-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 72, 567–78 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. D. L. Wokosin, V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, S. N. Hird, S. Sepsenwol, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, and A. I. Ferguson, “Multi-photon excitation imaging with an all-solid-state laser,” Proc. of Optical Diagnostics of Living Cells and Biofluids, SPIE 2678, 38–49 (1996).
  20. S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation,” Science 275, 530–532 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. K. Svoboda, W. Denk W, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, “In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons,” Nature 385,161–165 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. P. Lipp and E. Niggli, “Fundamental calcium release events revealed by two-photon excitation photolysis of caged calcium in Guinea-pig cardiac myocytes,” J. Physiol. (London) 508, 801–809 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  23. G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Squier, T. Norris, A. C. Bliton, W. H. Wade, and B. Athey, “Real-time two-photon confocal microscopy using a femtosecond, amplified Ti:sapphire system,” J. Microsc. 181, 253 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. Bewersdorf, R. Pick, and S. W. Hell, “Mulitfocal multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23, 655 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. J. Booth and S. W. Hell, “Continuous wave excitation two-photon fluorescence microscopy exemplified with the 647-nm ArKr laser line,” J. Microsc. 190, 298–304 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. Muller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191, 266–274 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (9)

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. E. Centonze and J. G. White, “Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging,” Biophys J. 75, 2015–2024 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sytsma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. De Grauw, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation,” J. Microsc. 191, 39 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. A. Wohler, J. S. Simske, E. M. Williams-Masson, J. D. Hardin JD, and J. G. White, “Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis,” Curr. Biol. 8, 1087–1090 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, I. E. Kochevar, B. R. Masters, and E. Gratton, “Two-Photon Fluorescence and Confocal Reflected Light Imaging of Thick Tissue Structures,” SPIE 3260, 46–57 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Lipp and E. Niggli, “Fundamental calcium release events revealed by two-photon excitation photolysis of caged calcium in Guinea-pig cardiac myocytes,” J. Physiol. (London) 508, 801–809 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Bewersdorf, R. Pick, and S. W. Hell, “Mulitfocal multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23, 655 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. J. Booth and S. W. Hell, “Continuous wave excitation two-photon fluorescence microscopy exemplified with the 647-nm ArKr laser line,” J. Microsc. 190, 298–304 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Muller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191, 266–274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (5)

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, H. Malak, M. Schrader, P. Engelhardt, H. Kano, and S. W. Hell, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of DNA labeled with DAPI and Hoechst 33342 using three-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 72, 567–78 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation,” Science 275, 530–532 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, W. Denk W, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, “In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons,” Nature 385,161–165 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. French, P. T. C. So, D. J. Weaver, T. Coelho-Sampaio, E. Gratton E, E. W. Voss, and J. Carrero, “Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing,” J. Microsc. 185, 339–353 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, “Multi-Photon Excitation Fluorescence Microscopy and Spectroscopy of In Vivo Human Skin,” Biophys. J. 72, 2405–2412 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (7)

W. M. Yu, P. T. C. So, T. French, and E. Gratton, “Fluorescence Polarization of Cell Membrane - A Two- Photon Scanning Microscopy Approach,” Biophys. J. 70, 626–636 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Summers, D. W. Piston, K. M. Harris, and J. B. Morrill, “The orientation of first cleavage in the sea urchin embryo, Lytechinus variegatus, does not specify the axes of bilateral symmetry,” Dev. Biol. 175, 177–183 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mertz, C. Xu, and W. W. Webb, “Single-molecule detection by two-photon excited fluorescence”, Opt. Lett.,  20, 2532–2534 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Scanning Two-Photon Fluctuation Correlation Spectroscopy: Particle Counting Measurement for Detection of Molecular Aggregation,” Biophys. J. 71, 410–420 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biologicalnonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10763–10768 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Wokosin, V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, S. N. Hird, S. Sepsenwol, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, and A. I. Ferguson, “Multi-photon excitation imaging with an all-solid-state laser,” Proc. of Optical Diagnostics of Living Cells and Biofluids, SPIE 2678, 38–49 (1996).

G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Squier, T. Norris, A. C. Bliton, W. H. Wade, and B. Athey, “Real-time two-photon confocal microscopy using a femtosecond, amplified Ti:sapphire system,” J. Microsc. 181, 253 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

W. Piston, B. R. Masters, and W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensionally resolved NAD(P)H cellular metabolic redox imaging of the in situ cornea with two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy,” J. Micros. 178, 20–27, (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Enhancing the axial resolution in the far-field light microscopy: two-photon 4-Pi confocal fluorescence microscopy,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 675–81 (1994).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, M., “Image formation in two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Optik 86, 104–106 (1990).

Albota, M.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Athey, B.

G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Squier, T. Norris, A. C. Bliton, W. H. Wade, and B. Athey, “Real-time two-photon confocal microscopy using a femtosecond, amplified Ti:sapphire system,” J. Microsc. 181, 253 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beljonne, D.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berland, K. M.

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Scanning Two-Photon Fluctuation Correlation Spectroscopy: Particle Counting Measurement for Detection of Molecular Aggregation,” Biophys. J. 71, 410–420 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bewersdorf, J.

Bliton, A. C.

G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Squier, T. Norris, A. C. Bliton, W. H. Wade, and B. Athey, “Real-time two-photon confocal microscopy using a femtosecond, amplified Ti:sapphire system,” J. Microsc. 181, 253 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, M. J.

M. J. Booth and S. W. Hell, “Continuous wave excitation two-photon fluorescence microscopy exemplified with the 647-nm ArKr laser line,” J. Microsc. 190, 298–304 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

M. Muller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191, 266–274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Squier, T. Norris, A. C. Bliton, W. H. Wade, and B. Athey, “Real-time two-photon confocal microscopy using a femtosecond, amplified Ti:sapphire system,” J. Microsc. 181, 253 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bredas, J. L.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrero, J.

T. French, P. T. C. So, D. J. Weaver, T. Coelho-Sampaio, E. Gratton E, E. W. Voss, and J. Carrero, “Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing,” J. Microsc. 185, 339–353 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Centonze, V. E.

V. E. Centonze and J. G. White, “Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging,” Biophys J. 75, 2015–2024 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Wokosin, V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, S. N. Hird, S. Sepsenwol, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, and A. I. Ferguson, “Multi-photon excitation imaging with an all-solid-state laser,” Proc. of Optical Diagnostics of Living Cells and Biofluids, SPIE 2678, 38–49 (1996).

Coelho-Sampaio, T.

T. French, P. T. C. So, D. J. Weaver, T. Coelho-Sampaio, E. Gratton E, E. W. Voss, and J. Carrero, “Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing,” J. Microsc. 185, 339–353 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denk W, W.

K. Svoboda, W. Denk W, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, “In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons,” Nature 385,161–165 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, C. Y.

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Scanning Two-Photon Fluctuation Correlation Spectroscopy: Particle Counting Measurement for Detection of Molecular Aggregation,” Biophys. J. 71, 410–420 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ehrlich, J. E.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engelhardt, P.

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, H. Malak, M. Schrader, P. Engelhardt, H. Kano, and S. W. Hell, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of DNA labeled with DAPI and Hoechst 33342 using three-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 72, 567–78 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esterowitz, D.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferguson, A. I.

D. L. Wokosin, V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, S. N. Hird, S. Sepsenwol, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, and A. I. Ferguson, “Multi-photon excitation imaging with an all-solid-state laser,” Proc. of Optical Diagnostics of Living Cells and Biofluids, SPIE 2678, 38–49 (1996).

French, T.

T. French, P. T. C. So, D. J. Weaver, T. Coelho-Sampaio, E. Gratton E, E. W. Voss, and J. Carrero, “Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing,” J. Microsc. 185, 339–353 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Yu, P. T. C. So, T. French, and E. Gratton, “Fluorescence Polarization of Cell Membrane - A Two- Photon Scanning Microscopy Approach,” Biophys. J. 70, 626–636 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, J. Y.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerritsen, H. C.

J. Sytsma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. De Grauw, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation,” J. Microsc. 191, 39 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gratton, E.

K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, I. E. Kochevar, B. R. Masters, and E. Gratton, “Two-Photon Fluorescence and Confocal Reflected Light Imaging of Thick Tissue Structures,” SPIE 3260, 46–57 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, “Multi-Photon Excitation Fluorescence Microscopy and Spectroscopy of In Vivo Human Skin,” Biophys. J. 72, 2405–2412 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Yu, P. T. C. So, T. French, and E. Gratton, “Fluorescence Polarization of Cell Membrane - A Two- Photon Scanning Microscopy Approach,” Biophys. J. 70, 626–636 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Scanning Two-Photon Fluctuation Correlation Spectroscopy: Particle Counting Measurement for Detection of Molecular Aggregation,” Biophys. J. 71, 410–420 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gratton E, E.

T. French, P. T. C. So, D. J. Weaver, T. Coelho-Sampaio, E. Gratton E, E. W. Voss, and J. Carrero, “Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing,” J. Microsc. 185, 339–353 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grauw, C. J. De

J. Sytsma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. De Grauw, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation,” J. Microsc. 191, 39 (1998).
[Crossref]

Grossman, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, I.

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, H. Malak, M. Schrader, P. Engelhardt, H. Kano, and S. W. Hell, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of DNA labeled with DAPI and Hoechst 33342 using three-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 72, 567–78 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M., M.

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, M., “Image formation in two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Optik 86, 104–106 (1990).

Hardin JD, J. D.

W. A. Wohler, J. S. Simske, E. M. Williams-Masson, J. D. Hardin JD, and J. G. White, “Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis,” Curr. Biol. 8, 1087–1090 (1998).
[Crossref]

Harris, K. M.

R. G. Summers, D. W. Piston, K. M. Harris, and J. B. Morrill, “The orientation of first cleavage in the sea urchin embryo, Lytechinus variegatus, does not specify the axes of bilateral symmetry,” Dev. Biol. 175, 177–183 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heikal, A. A.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

M. J. Booth and S. W. Hell, “Continuous wave excitation two-photon fluorescence microscopy exemplified with the 647-nm ArKr laser line,” J. Microsc. 190, 298–304 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bewersdorf, R. Pick, and S. W. Hell, “Mulitfocal multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23, 655 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, H. Malak, M. Schrader, P. Engelhardt, H. Kano, and S. W. Hell, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of DNA labeled with DAPI and Hoechst 33342 using three-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 72, 567–78 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Enhancing the axial resolution in the far-field light microscopy: two-photon 4-Pi confocal fluorescence microscopy,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 675–81 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hess, S. E.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hird, S. N.

D. L. Wokosin, V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, S. N. Hird, S. Sepsenwol, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, and A. I. Ferguson, “Multi-photon excitation imaging with an all-solid-state laser,” Proc. of Optical Diagnostics of Living Cells and Biofluids, SPIE 2678, 38–49 (1996).

Kano, H.

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, H. Malak, M. Schrader, P. Engelhardt, H. Kano, and S. W. Hell, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of DNA labeled with DAPI and Hoechst 33342 using three-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 72, 567–78 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. H.

K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, I. E. Kochevar, B. R. Masters, and E. Gratton, “Two-Photon Fluorescence and Confocal Reflected Light Imaging of Thick Tissue Structures,” SPIE 3260, 46–57 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kleinfeld, D.

K. Svoboda, W. Denk W, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, “In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons,” Nature 385,161–165 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kochevar, I. E.

K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, I. E. Kochevar, B. R. Masters, and E. Gratton, “Two-Photon Fluorescence and Confocal Reflected Light Imaging of Thick Tissue Structures,” SPIE 3260, 46–57 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kogej, T.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, H. Malak, M. Schrader, P. Engelhardt, H. Kano, and S. W. Hell, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of DNA labeled with DAPI and Hoechst 33342 using three-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 72, 567–78 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levin, M. D.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindek, S.

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Enhancing the axial resolution in the far-field light microscopy: two-photon 4-Pi confocal fluorescence microscopy,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 675–81 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lipp, P.

P. Lipp and E. Niggli, “Fundamental calcium release events revealed by two-photon excitation photolysis of caged calcium in Guinea-pig cardiac myocytes,” J. Physiol. (London) 508, 801–809 (1998).
[Crossref]

Maiti, S.

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation,” Science 275, 530–532 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maker, G. T.

D. L. Wokosin, V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, S. N. Hird, S. Sepsenwol, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, and A. I. Ferguson, “Multi-photon excitation imaging with an all-solid-state laser,” Proc. of Optical Diagnostics of Living Cells and Biofluids, SPIE 2678, 38–49 (1996).

Malak, H.

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, H. Malak, M. Schrader, P. Engelhardt, H. Kano, and S. W. Hell, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of DNA labeled with DAPI and Hoechst 33342 using three-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 72, 567–78 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malcolm, G. P. A.

D. L. Wokosin, V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, S. N. Hird, S. Sepsenwol, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, and A. I. Ferguson, “Multi-photon excitation imaging with an all-solid-state laser,” Proc. of Optical Diagnostics of Living Cells and Biofluids, SPIE 2678, 38–49 (1996).

Mantulin, W. W.

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Scanning Two-Photon Fluctuation Correlation Spectroscopy: Particle Counting Measurement for Detection of Molecular Aggregation,” Biophys. J. 71, 410–420 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marder, S. R.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masters, B. R.

K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, I. E. Kochevar, B. R. Masters, and E. Gratton, “Two-Photon Fluorescence and Confocal Reflected Light Imaging of Thick Tissue Structures,” SPIE 3260, 46–57 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, “Multi-Photon Excitation Fluorescence Microscopy and Spectroscopy of In Vivo Human Skin,” Biophys. J. 72, 2405–2412 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Piston, B. R. Masters, and W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensionally resolved NAD(P)H cellular metabolic redox imaging of the in situ cornea with two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy,” J. Micros. 178, 20–27, (1995).
[Crossref]

McCord-Maughon, D.,

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mertz, J.

Morrill, J. B.

R. G. Summers, D. W. Piston, K. M. Harris, and J. B. Morrill, “The orientation of first cleavage in the sea urchin embryo, Lytechinus variegatus, does not specify the axes of bilateral symmetry,” Dev. Biol. 175, 177–183 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muller, M.

M. Muller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191, 266–274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niggli, E.

P. Lipp and E. Niggli, “Fundamental calcium release events revealed by two-photon excitation photolysis of caged calcium in Guinea-pig cardiac myocytes,” J. Physiol. (London) 508, 801–809 (1998).
[Crossref]

Norris, T.

G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Squier, T. Norris, A. C. Bliton, W. H. Wade, and B. Athey, “Real-time two-photon confocal microscopy using a femtosecond, amplified Ti:sapphire system,” J. Microsc. 181, 253 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perry, J. W.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pick, R.

Piston, D. W.

R. G. Summers, D. W. Piston, K. M. Harris, and J. B. Morrill, “The orientation of first cleavage in the sea urchin embryo, Lytechinus variegatus, does not specify the axes of bilateral symmetry,” Dev. Biol. 175, 177–183 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piston, W.

W. Piston, B. R. Masters, and W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensionally resolved NAD(P)H cellular metabolic redox imaging of the in situ cornea with two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy,” J. Micros. 178, 20–27, (1995).
[Crossref]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rockel, H.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rumi, M.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schrader, M.

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, H. Malak, M. Schrader, P. Engelhardt, H. Kano, and S. W. Hell, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of DNA labeled with DAPI and Hoechst 33342 using three-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 72, 567–78 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sepsenwol, S.

D. L. Wokosin, V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, S. N. Hird, S. Sepsenwol, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, and A. I. Ferguson, “Multi-photon excitation imaging with an all-solid-state laser,” Proc. of Optical Diagnostics of Living Cells and Biofluids, SPIE 2678, 38–49 (1996).

Shear, J. B.

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation,” Science 275, 530–532 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biologicalnonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10763–10768 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, M., “Image formation in two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Optik 86, 104–106 (1990).

Simske, J. S.

W. A. Wohler, J. S. Simske, E. M. Williams-Masson, J. D. Hardin JD, and J. G. White, “Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis,” Curr. Biol. 8, 1087–1090 (1998).
[Crossref]

So, P. T. C.

K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, I. E. Kochevar, B. R. Masters, and E. Gratton, “Two-Photon Fluorescence and Confocal Reflected Light Imaging of Thick Tissue Structures,” SPIE 3260, 46–57 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, “Multi-Photon Excitation Fluorescence Microscopy and Spectroscopy of In Vivo Human Skin,” Biophys. J. 72, 2405–2412 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. French, P. T. C. So, D. J. Weaver, T. Coelho-Sampaio, E. Gratton E, E. W. Voss, and J. Carrero, “Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing,” J. Microsc. 185, 339–353 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Scanning Two-Photon Fluctuation Correlation Spectroscopy: Particle Counting Measurement for Detection of Molecular Aggregation,” Biophys. J. 71, 410–420 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Yu, P. T. C. So, T. French, and E. Gratton, “Fluorescence Polarization of Cell Membrane - A Two- Photon Scanning Microscopy Approach,” Biophys. J. 70, 626–636 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Squier, J.

M. Muller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191, 266–274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Squier, T. Norris, A. C. Bliton, W. H. Wade, and B. Athey, “Real-time two-photon confocal microscopy using a femtosecond, amplified Ti:sapphire system,” J. Microsc. 181, 253 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Enhancing the axial resolution in the far-field light microscopy: two-photon 4-Pi confocal fluorescence microscopy,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 675–81 (1994).
[Crossref]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramaniam, G.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Summers, R. G.

R. G. Summers, D. W. Piston, K. M. Harris, and J. B. Morrill, “The orientation of first cleavage in the sea urchin embryo, Lytechinus variegatus, does not specify the axes of bilateral symmetry,” Dev. Biol. 175, 177–183 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda, W. Denk W, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, “In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons,” Nature 385,161–165 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sytsma, J.

J. Sytsma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. De Grauw, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation,” J. Microsc. 191, 39 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tank, D. W.

K. Svoboda, W. Denk W, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, “In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons,” Nature 385,161–165 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voss, E. W.

T. French, P. T. C. So, D. J. Weaver, T. Coelho-Sampaio, E. Gratton E, E. W. Voss, and J. Carrero, “Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing,” J. Microsc. 185, 339–353 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vroom, J. M.

J. Sytsma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. De Grauw, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation,” J. Microsc. 191, 39 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wade, W. H.

G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Squier, T. Norris, A. C. Bliton, W. H. Wade, and B. Athey, “Real-time two-photon confocal microscopy using a femtosecond, amplified Ti:sapphire system,” J. Microsc. 181, 253 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weaver, D. J.

T. French, P. T. C. So, D. J. Weaver, T. Coelho-Sampaio, E. Gratton E, E. W. Voss, and J. Carrero, “Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing,” J. Microsc. 185, 339–353 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation,” Science 275, 530–532 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biologicalnonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10763–10768 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mertz, C. Xu, and W. W. Webb, “Single-molecule detection by two-photon excited fluorescence”, Opt. Lett.,  20, 2532–2534 (1996).
[Crossref]

W. Piston, B. R. Masters, and W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensionally resolved NAD(P)H cellular metabolic redox imaging of the in situ cornea with two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy,” J. Micros. 178, 20–27, (1995).
[Crossref]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, J. G.

V. E. Centonze and J. G. White, “Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging,” Biophys J. 75, 2015–2024 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Wohler, J. S. Simske, E. M. Williams-Masson, J. D. Hardin JD, and J. G. White, “Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis,” Curr. Biol. 8, 1087–1090 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. L. Wokosin, V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, S. N. Hird, S. Sepsenwol, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, and A. I. Ferguson, “Multi-photon excitation imaging with an all-solid-state laser,” Proc. of Optical Diagnostics of Living Cells and Biofluids, SPIE 2678, 38–49 (1996).

Williams, R. M.

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation,” Science 275, 530–532 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biologicalnonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10763–10768 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams-Masson, E. M.

W. A. Wohler, J. S. Simske, E. M. Williams-Masson, J. D. Hardin JD, and J. G. White, “Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis,” Curr. Biol. 8, 1087–1090 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wilson, K. R.

M. Muller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation,” J. Microsc. 191, 266–274 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wohler, W. A.

W. A. Wohler, J. S. Simske, E. M. Williams-Masson, J. D. Hardin JD, and J. G. White, “Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis,” Curr. Biol. 8, 1087–1090 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wokosin, D. L.

D. L. Wokosin, V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, S. N. Hird, S. Sepsenwol, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker, and A. I. Ferguson, “Multi-photon excitation imaging with an all-solid-state laser,” Proc. of Optical Diagnostics of Living Cells and Biofluids, SPIE 2678, 38–49 (1996).

Wu, X. L.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biologicalnonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10763–10768 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mertz, C. Xu, and W. W. Webb, “Single-molecule detection by two-photon excited fluorescence”, Opt. Lett.,  20, 2532–2534 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yu, W. M.

W. M. Yu, P. T. C. So, T. French, and E. Gratton, “Fluorescence Polarization of Cell Membrane - A Two- Photon Scanning Microscopy Approach,” Biophys. J. 70, 626–636 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W.

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biologicalnonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10763–10768 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, “Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation,” Science 275, 530–532 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biophys J. (1)

V. E. Centonze and J. G. White, “Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging,” Biophys J. 75, 2015–2024 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (4)

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Scanning Two-Photon Fluctuation Correlation Spectroscopy: Particle Counting Measurement for Detection of Molecular Aggregation,” Biophys. J. 71, 410–420 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Yu, P. T. C. So, T. French, and E. Gratton, “Fluorescence Polarization of Cell Membrane - A Two- Photon Scanning Microscopy Approach,” Biophys. J. 70, 626–636 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, “Multi-Photon Excitation Fluorescence Microscopy and Spectroscopy of In Vivo Human Skin,” Biophys. J. 72, 2405–2412 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, H. Malak, M. Schrader, P. Engelhardt, H. Kano, and S. W. Hell, “Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of DNA labeled with DAPI and Hoechst 33342 using three-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 72, 567–78 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Biol. (1)

W. A. Wohler, J. S. Simske, E. M. Williams-Masson, J. D. Hardin JD, and J. G. White, “Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis,” Curr. Biol. 8, 1087–1090 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dev. Biol. (1)

R. G. Summers, D. W. Piston, K. M. Harris, and J. B. Morrill, “The orientation of first cleavage in the sea urchin embryo, Lytechinus variegatus, does not specify the axes of bilateral symmetry,” Dev. Biol. 175, 177–183 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest Dermatol. (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Micros. (1)

W. Piston, B. R. Masters, and W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensionally resolved NAD(P)H cellular metabolic redox imaging of the in situ cornea with two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy,” J. Micros. 178, 20–27, (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (5)

T. French, P. T. C. So, D. J. Weaver, T. Coelho-Sampaio, E. Gratton E, E. W. Voss, and J. Carrero, “Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing,” J. Microsc. 185, 339–353 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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