Abstract

A brief overview of nonlinear microscopy in biomedicine is presented. Some of the main results of the contributions of the Focus Issue are also briefly discussed.

© Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. J. R., Sheppard, and M. Gu, M., "Image formation in two-photon fluorescence microscopy," Optik 86, 104-106 (1990).
  3. S. W. Hell, S. Lindek and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Enhancing the axial resolution in the far-field light microscopy: two-photon 4-Pi confocal fluorescence microscopy," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 675-81 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. W. Webb, "Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biologicalnonlinear microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10763-10768 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, "Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging," Biophys J. 75, 2015-2024 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Mertz, C. Xu and W. W. Webb, "Single-molecule detection by two-photon excited fluorescence", Opt. Lett., 20, 2532-2534 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, W. W. Mantulin and E. Gratton, "Scanning Two-Photon Fluctuation Correlation Spectroscopy: Particle Counting Measurement for Detection of Molecular Aggregation," Biophys. J. 71, 410-420 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. French, P. T. C. So, D. J. Weaver Jr, T. Coelho-Sampaio, E. Gratton E, E. W.Voss Jr. and J. Carrero, "Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing," J. Microsc. 185, 339-353 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Sytsma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. De Grauw, H. C. Gerritsen, "Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation," J. Microsc. 191, 39 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. M. Yu, P. T. C. So, T. French and E. Gratton, "Fluorescence Polarization of Cell Membrane - A Two- Photon Scanning Microscopy Approach," Biophys. J. 70, 626-636 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. G. Summers, D. W. Piston, K. M. Harris and J. B. Morrill, "The orientation of first cleavage in the sea urchin embryo, Lytechinus variegatus, does not specify the axes of bilateral symmetry," Dev. Biol. 175, 177-183 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. A. Wohler, J. S. Simske, E. M. Williams-Masson, J. D. Hardin JD and J. G. White, "Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis," Curr. Biol. 8, 1087-1090 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Piston, B. R. Masters, and W. W. Webb, "Three-dimensionally resolved NAD(P)H cellular metabolic redox imaging of the in situ cornea with two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy," J. Micros. 178, 20-27, (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, "Multi-Photon Excitation Fluorescence Microscopy and Spectroscopy of In Vivo Human Skin," Biophys. J. 72, 2405-2412 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, I. E. Kochevar, B. R. Masters and E. Gratton, "Two-Photon Fluorescence and Confocal Reflected Light Imaging of Thick Tissue Structures," SPIE 3260, 46-57 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb and R. Anderson, "In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest Dermatol. 104, 946-952 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, H. Malak, M. Schrader, P. Engelhardt, H. Kano and S. W. Hell, "Time- resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of DNA labeled with DAPI and Hoechst 33342 using three-photon excitation," Biophys. J. 72, 567-78 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. L. Wokosin, V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, S. N. Hird, S. Sepsenwol, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker and A. I. Ferguson, "Multi-photon excitation imaging with an all-solid-state laser," Proc. of Optical Diagnostics of Living Cells and Biofluids, SPIE 2678, 38-49 (1996).
  20. S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel and W. W. Webb, "Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation," Science 275, 530-532 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Svoboda, W. Denk W, D. Kleinfeld and D. W. Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature 385,161-165 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. Lipp and E. Niggli, "Fundamental calcium release events revealed by two-photon excitation photolysis of caged calcium in Guinea-pig cardiac myocytes," J. Physiol. (London) 508, 801-809 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Squier, T. Norris, A. C. Bliton, W. H. Wade and B. Athey, "Real-time two-photon confocal microscopy using a femtosecond, amplified Ti:sapphire system," J. Microsc. 181, 253 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Bewersdorf, R. Pick, and S. W. Hell, "Mulitfocal multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 655 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. J. Booth and S. W. Hell, "Continuous wave excitation two-photon fluorescence microscopy exemplified with the 647-nm ArKr laser line," J. Microsc. 190, 298-304 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Muller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson and G. J. Brakenhoff, "3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation," J. Microsc. 191, 266-274 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. R., Sheppard, and M. Gu, M., "Image formation in two-photon fluorescence microscopy," Optik 86, 104-106 (1990).

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Enhancing the axial resolution in the far-field light microscopy: two-photon 4-Pi confocal fluorescence microscopy," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 675-81 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. W. Webb, "Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biologicalnonlinear microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10763-10768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Bredas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D., McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, "Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging," Biophys J. 75, 2015-2024 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mertz, C. Xu and W. W. Webb, "Single-molecule detection by two-photon excited fluorescence", Opt. Lett., 20, 2532-2534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, C. Y. Dong, W. W. Mantulin and E. Gratton, "Scanning Two-Photon Fluctuation Correlation Spectroscopy: Particle Counting Measurement for Detection of Molecular Aggregation," Biophys. J. 71, 410-420 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. French, P. T. C. So, D. J. Weaver Jr, T. Coelho-Sampaio, E. Gratton E, E. W.Voss Jr. and J. Carrero, "Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing," J. Microsc. 185, 339-353 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sytsma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. De Grauw, H. C. Gerritsen, "Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation," J. Microsc. 191, 39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Yu, P. T. C. So, T. French and E. Gratton, "Fluorescence Polarization of Cell Membrane - A Two- Photon Scanning Microscopy Approach," Biophys. J. 70, 626-636 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Summers, D. W. Piston, K. M. Harris and J. B. Morrill, "The orientation of first cleavage in the sea urchin embryo, Lytechinus variegatus, does not specify the axes of bilateral symmetry," Dev. Biol. 175, 177-183 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Wohler, J. S. Simske, E. M. Williams-Masson, J. D. Hardin JD and J. G. White, "Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis," Curr. Biol. 8, 1087-1090 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Piston, B. R. Masters, and W. W. Webb, "Three-dimensionally resolved NAD(P)H cellular metabolic redox imaging of the in situ cornea with two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy," J. Micros. 178, 20-27, (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, "Multi-Photon Excitation Fluorescence Microscopy and Spectroscopy of In Vivo Human Skin," Biophys. J. 72, 2405-2412 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, I. E. Kochevar, B. R. Masters and E. Gratton, "Two-Photon Fluorescence and Confocal Reflected Light Imaging of Thick Tissue Structures," SPIE 3260, 46-57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb and R. Anderson, "In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest Dermatol. 104, 946-952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, H. Malak, M. Schrader, P. Engelhardt, H. Kano and S. W. Hell, "Time- resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of DNA labeled with DAPI and Hoechst 33342 using three-photon excitation," Biophys. J. 72, 567-78 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Wokosin, V. E. Centonze, J. G. White, S. N. Hird, S. Sepsenwol, G. P. A. Malcolm, G. T. Maker and A. I. Ferguson, "Multi-photon excitation imaging with an all-solid-state laser," Proc. of Optical Diagnostics of Living Cells and Biofluids, SPIE 2678, 38-49 (1996).

S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel and W. W. Webb, "Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation," Science 275, 530-532 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, W. Denk W, D. Kleinfeld and D. W. Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature 385,161-165 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lipp and E. Niggli, "Fundamental calcium release events revealed by two-photon excitation photolysis of caged calcium in Guinea-pig cardiac myocytes," J. Physiol. (London) 508, 801-809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Squier, T. Norris, A. C. Bliton, W. H. Wade and B. Athey, "Real-time two-photon confocal microscopy using a femtosecond, amplified Ti:sapphire system," J. Microsc. 181, 253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bewersdorf, R. Pick, and S. W. Hell, "Mulitfocal multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 655 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Booth and S. W. Hell, "Continuous wave excitation two-photon fluorescence microscopy exemplified with the 647-nm ArKr laser line," J. Microsc. 190, 298-304 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Muller, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson and G. J. Brakenhoff, "3D microscopy of transparent objects using third-harmonic generation," J. Microsc. 191, 266-274 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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