Abstract

We illustrate the propagation of light in a new type of coupling mask for lensless optical lithography. Our investigation shows how the different elements comprising such masks contribute to the definition of an optical path that allows the exposure of features in the 100-nm-size range in the photoresist.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Schmid, H. Biebuck, B. Michel, and O.J.F. Martin, “Light-coupling masks for lensless, sub-wavelength optical lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2379–2381 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Schmid, H. Biebuck, B. Michel, O.J.F. Martin, and N.B. Piller, “Light-coupling masks: an alternative, lensless approach to high-resolution optical contact lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B in press (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Special issue on optical lithography, IBM J. Res. Develop.41(1/2) (1997).
  4. H.A. Biebuyck, N.B. Larsen, E. Delamarche, and B. Michel, “Lithography beyond light: micro-contact printing with monolayer resists,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 41, 159–170 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N.B. Piller and O.J.F. Martin, “Increasing the performances of the coupled-dipole approximation: A spectral approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 1126–1137 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O.J.F. Martin and N.B. Piller, “Electromagnetic scattering in polarizable backgrounds,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 3909–3915 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.F. Olivier Martin home page: http://www.ifh.ee.ethz.ch/˜martin
  8. IBM Zurich Research Laboratory home page: http://www.zurich.ibm.com

1998 (3)

H. Schmid, H. Biebuck, B. Michel, and O.J.F. Martin, “Light-coupling masks for lensless, sub-wavelength optical lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2379–2381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N.B. Piller and O.J.F. Martin, “Increasing the performances of the coupled-dipole approximation: A spectral approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 1126–1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O.J.F. Martin and N.B. Piller, “Electromagnetic scattering in polarizable backgrounds,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 3909–3915 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H.A. Biebuyck, N.B. Larsen, E. Delamarche, and B. Michel, “Lithography beyond light: micro-contact printing with monolayer resists,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 41, 159–170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biebuck, H.

H. Schmid, H. Biebuck, B. Michel, and O.J.F. Martin, “Light-coupling masks for lensless, sub-wavelength optical lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2379–2381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmid, H. Biebuck, B. Michel, O.J.F. Martin, and N.B. Piller, “Light-coupling masks: an alternative, lensless approach to high-resolution optical contact lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B in press (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biebuyck, H.A.

H.A. Biebuyck, N.B. Larsen, E. Delamarche, and B. Michel, “Lithography beyond light: micro-contact printing with monolayer resists,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 41, 159–170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Delamarche, E.

H.A. Biebuyck, N.B. Larsen, E. Delamarche, and B. Michel, “Lithography beyond light: micro-contact printing with monolayer resists,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 41, 159–170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, N.B.

H.A. Biebuyck, N.B. Larsen, E. Delamarche, and B. Michel, “Lithography beyond light: micro-contact printing with monolayer resists,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 41, 159–170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O.J.F.

N.B. Piller and O.J.F. Martin, “Increasing the performances of the coupled-dipole approximation: A spectral approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 1126–1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O.J.F. Martin and N.B. Piller, “Electromagnetic scattering in polarizable backgrounds,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 3909–3915 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmid, H. Biebuck, B. Michel, and O.J.F. Martin, “Light-coupling masks for lensless, sub-wavelength optical lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2379–2381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmid, H. Biebuck, B. Michel, O.J.F. Martin, and N.B. Piller, “Light-coupling masks: an alternative, lensless approach to high-resolution optical contact lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B in press (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michel, B.

H. Schmid, H. Biebuck, B. Michel, and O.J.F. Martin, “Light-coupling masks for lensless, sub-wavelength optical lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2379–2381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H.A. Biebuyck, N.B. Larsen, E. Delamarche, and B. Michel, “Lithography beyond light: micro-contact printing with monolayer resists,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 41, 159–170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmid, H. Biebuck, B. Michel, O.J.F. Martin, and N.B. Piller, “Light-coupling masks: an alternative, lensless approach to high-resolution optical contact lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B in press (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, J.F.

J.F. Olivier Martin home page: http://www.ifh.ee.ethz.ch/˜martin

Piller, N.B.

O.J.F. Martin and N.B. Piller, “Electromagnetic scattering in polarizable backgrounds,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 3909–3915 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N.B. Piller and O.J.F. Martin, “Increasing the performances of the coupled-dipole approximation: A spectral approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 1126–1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmid, H. Biebuck, B. Michel, O.J.F. Martin, and N.B. Piller, “Light-coupling masks: an alternative, lensless approach to high-resolution optical contact lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B in press (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, H.

H. Schmid, H. Biebuck, B. Michel, and O.J.F. Martin, “Light-coupling masks for lensless, sub-wavelength optical lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2379–2381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmid, H. Biebuck, B. Michel, O.J.F. Martin, and N.B. Piller, “Light-coupling masks: an alternative, lensless approach to high-resolution optical contact lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B in press (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Schmid, H. Biebuck, B. Michel, and O.J.F. Martin, “Light-coupling masks for lensless, sub-wavelength optical lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2379–2381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Develop. (1)

H.A. Biebuyck, N.B. Larsen, E. Delamarche, and B. Michel, “Lithography beyond light: micro-contact printing with monolayer resists,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 41, 159–170 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

N.B. Piller and O.J.F. Martin, “Increasing the performances of the coupled-dipole approximation: A spectral approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 1126–1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

O.J.F. Martin and N.B. Piller, “Electromagnetic scattering in polarizable backgrounds,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 3909–3915 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J.F. Olivier Martin home page: http://www.ifh.ee.ethz.ch/˜martin

IBM Zurich Research Laboratory home page: http://www.zurich.ibm.com

H. Schmid, H. Biebuck, B. Michel, O.J.F. Martin, and N.B. Piller, “Light-coupling masks: an alternative, lensless approach to high-resolution optical contact lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B in press (1998).
[CrossRef]

Special issue on optical lithography, IBM J. Res. Develop.41(1/2) (1997).

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (1602 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1308 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (1412 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (1499 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view of a light-coupling mask (LCM) and its operation. The areas to be exposed in the photoresist correspond to protrusions on the mask surface, to which the light is guided. A thin gold layer can be deposited on the noncontacting portions of the mask to enhance the contrast.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Light propagation through an LCM defined only by air gaps. The width of the protrusion is 100 nm and its height 60 nm. The figure shows the field intensity map and the Quicktime movie an animation of the field propagation in the structure (evolution of the electric field amplitude as a function of time; each frame represents a 10° change in the phase of the field). The arrows represent the time-averaged Poynting vector. [Media 1]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Contribution of a 10-nm-thick gold layer to the light propagation in an LCM. The figure shows the field intensity map and the Quicktime movie an animation of the field propagation in the structure (evolution of the electric field amplitude as a function of time; each frame represents a 10° change in the phase of the field). The arrows represent the time-averaged Poynting vector. [Media 2]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Same situation as in Fig. 3, but for a 60-nm-thick gold layer. [Media 3]

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Light propagation through an LCM where the protrusion is defined by a 60-nm-thick air gap with a 10-nm gold metal layer. The figure shows the field intensity map and the Quicktime movie an animation of the field propagation in the structure (evolution of the electric field amplitude as a function of time; each frame represents a 10° change in the phase of the field). The arrows represent the time-averaged Poynting vector. [Media 4]

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