Abstract

New features of the phenomenon of interference stabilization of Rydberg atoms are found to exist. The main of them are: (i) dynamical stabilization, which means that in case of pulses with a smooth envelope the time-dependent residual probability for an atom to survive in bound states remains almost constant in the middle part of a pulse (at the strongest fields); (ii) existence of the strong-field stabilization of the after-pulse residual probability in case of pulses longer than the classical Kepler period; and (iii) pulsation of the time-dependent Rydberg wave packet formed in the process of photoionization.

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References

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  1. M. V. Fedorov and A. M. Movsesian, "Field-Induced Effects of Narrowing of Photoelectron Spectra and Stabilization of Rydberg Atoms," J. Phys. B 21, L155 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. V. Fedorov, Atomic and Free Electrons in a Strong Light Field, World Scientific (Singapore-New Jersey-London- Hong Kong, 1997).
  3. J. Hoogenraad, R. B. Vrijen and L. D. Noordam, "Ionization Suppression of Rydberg Atoms by Short Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. A 50, 4133 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. V. Fedorov, M.-M. Tegranchi and S. M. Fedorov, "Interference Stabilization of Rydberg Atoms: Numerical Calculations and Physical Models," J. Phys. B 29, 2907-2924 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Parzynski and A. Woiczik, "Interference Stabilization of Rydberg Atoms: an Analytical Model with Migration of Population to higher l-States" Laser Phys. 7, 551 (1997).
  6. M. V. Fedorov, "Quasiclassical Atomic Electron in a Strong Light Field," J. Phys. B 27, 4145-4167 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. V. Tikhonova and M. V. Fedorov, "Quasicalassical Theory of Strong-Field Photoionization from Rydberg Levels of Atoms: Solution of the Initial-Value Problem," Laser Phys. 7, 574-582 (1997).
  8. M. V. Fedorov and O. V. Tikhonova, "Strong-Field Short-Pulse Photoionization of Rydberg Atoms: Interference Stabilization and Distribution of the Photoelectron Density in Space and Time," Phys. Rev. A 58 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. M. Popov, E. A. Volkova and O. V. Tikhonova, "Numerical Modeling of the Photoionization of Rydberg Atoms by the Field of an Electromagnetic Wave," Sov. Phys. JETP 86, 328 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Gavrila and J. Z. Kaminski, "Free-Free Transitions in Intense High-Frequency Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 613 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Gavrila, "Atomic Structure and Decay in High-Frequency Fields," in Atoms in Intense Laser Field, Ed. by M. Gavrila, (Academic Press, New York, 1992), p. 435.
  12. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics, (Pergamon Press, New York, 1977).
  13. Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, "Multiphoton Absorption Above Ionization Threshold by Atoms in Strong Laser Fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 486 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. B. Delone and M. V. Fedorov, "Above-Threshold Ionization," Progr. Quant. Electron. 13, 267 (1989); "Multiphoton Ionization of Atoms: New Effects," Sov Phys. USPEKHI 32, 500 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. V. Fedorov, M. Yu. Ivanov and A. M. Movsesian, "Strong-Field Photoionization of an Initially Excited Hydrogen Atom: Formation of Rydberg Wavepacket, its Structure and Trapping of Population at Rydberg Levels," J. Phys. B 23, 2245S-2257S (1990).
    [CrossRef]

Other (15)

M. V. Fedorov and A. M. Movsesian, "Field-Induced Effects of Narrowing of Photoelectron Spectra and Stabilization of Rydberg Atoms," J. Phys. B 21, L155 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Fedorov, Atomic and Free Electrons in a Strong Light Field, World Scientific (Singapore-New Jersey-London- Hong Kong, 1997).

J. Hoogenraad, R. B. Vrijen and L. D. Noordam, "Ionization Suppression of Rydberg Atoms by Short Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. A 50, 4133 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Fedorov, M.-M. Tegranchi and S. M. Fedorov, "Interference Stabilization of Rydberg Atoms: Numerical Calculations and Physical Models," J. Phys. B 29, 2907-2924 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Parzynski and A. Woiczik, "Interference Stabilization of Rydberg Atoms: an Analytical Model with Migration of Population to higher l-States" Laser Phys. 7, 551 (1997).

M. V. Fedorov, "Quasiclassical Atomic Electron in a Strong Light Field," J. Phys. B 27, 4145-4167 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Tikhonova and M. V. Fedorov, "Quasicalassical Theory of Strong-Field Photoionization from Rydberg Levels of Atoms: Solution of the Initial-Value Problem," Laser Phys. 7, 574-582 (1997).

M. V. Fedorov and O. V. Tikhonova, "Strong-Field Short-Pulse Photoionization of Rydberg Atoms: Interference Stabilization and Distribution of the Photoelectron Density in Space and Time," Phys. Rev. A 58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Popov, E. A. Volkova and O. V. Tikhonova, "Numerical Modeling of the Photoionization of Rydberg Atoms by the Field of an Electromagnetic Wave," Sov. Phys. JETP 86, 328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Gavrila and J. Z. Kaminski, "Free-Free Transitions in Intense High-Frequency Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Gavrila, "Atomic Structure and Decay in High-Frequency Fields," in Atoms in Intense Laser Field, Ed. by M. Gavrila, (Academic Press, New York, 1992), p. 435.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics, (Pergamon Press, New York, 1977).

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, "Multiphoton Absorption Above Ionization Threshold by Atoms in Strong Laser Fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 486 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Delone and M. V. Fedorov, "Above-Threshold Ionization," Progr. Quant. Electron. 13, 267 (1989); "Multiphoton Ionization of Atoms: New Effects," Sov Phys. USPEKHI 32, 500 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Fedorov, M. Yu. Ivanov and A. M. Movsesian, "Strong-Field Photoionization of an Initially Excited Hydrogen Atom: Formation of Rydberg Wavepacket, its Structure and Trapping of Population at Rydberg Levels," J. Phys. B 23, 2245S-2257S (1990).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Raman-type transitions described by Eqs. (1), (2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The total residual probability to find an atom in bound states vs. time t (in Kepler periods) for rectangular (blue) and smooth (red) pulses; in both cases ε0 max corresponds to V = 3; the green curve is the envelope (4) of a smooth pulse.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The time-dependent partial residual probabilities wl vs. time t (in Kepler periods) for l = 0, 2, 4, and 6 (red, blue, green, and yellow), τ = 5tK , and V = 0.2 (a), 0.9 (b), and 3.6 (c).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The after-pulse residual probability wres (τ) vs. the field-strength parameter V (3) for τ = 0.3tK (red), tK (blue), 5tK (green), and 7tK (purple).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The movie describing evolution of the Rydberg wave packet created in the process of ionization during the time when the field is on: the radial and angular (in the left upper corner) distributions of the electron density (8). [Media 1]

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The average size of the strong-field driven wave packet (red) and the time-dependent rate of ionization (blue).

Equations (10)

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i C ˙ nl ( t ) E n C nl ( t ) = i 2 ε 0 2 ( t ) ε 0 max 2 n l Γ nl ; n l C n l ( t ) ,
Γ nl ; n l = π V 2 ( nn ) 3 2 [ β l δ l , l 2 + β l + 2 δ l , l + 2 + β ˜ l δ l , l ] ,
V = ε 0 max ω 5 3 Γ ( 2 / 3 ) π 2 7 3 3 1 3 0.59 ε 0 max ω 5 3 ,
β l = 4 l ( l 1 ) ( 2 l 1 ) ( 2 l + 1 ) ( 2 l 3 ) , β ˜ l = 4 4 l 3 + 6 l 2 1 ( 4 l 2 1 ) ( 2 l + 3 ) ,
ε 0 ( t ) = ε 0 max sin 2 ( π t τ ) ,
C nl ( 0 ) = δ n , n 0 δ l , 0 .
w res ( t ) = nl C nl ( t ) 2 ,
w l ( t ) = n C nl ( t ) 2 .
ρ ( r , t ) = r 2 0 π nl C nl ( t ) ψ nl ( r ) 2 d Ω ,
ρ ( θ , t ) = 2 π sin ( θ ) 0 r 2 dr nl C nl ( t ) ψ nl ( r ) 2 ,

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