Abstract

Initial data, capabilities and limitations conclusions, and diagnostic usefulness recommendations derived from application of our endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) system to the imaging of the mucous membranes of human internal organs are presented herein based on in vivo study of more than 100 patients. These data suggest that EOCT can provide, non-invasively and innocuously, such significant clinical diagnostic information as the following: identification and localization of informative internal biopsy sites; structural characterization of normal and abnormal internal mucosal tissues; guidance in the rendering of surgical and non-surgical treatments; and monitoring of the functional states (both normal and abnormal) of internal orgarns and post-operative recovery processes in the same. This investigation demonstrated that OCT data is more informative for organs with epithelial tissues separated from their underlying stroma by a smooth basal membrane; therefore, this report focuses on the EOCT study of three such internal organs - the larynx, the bladder, and the uterine cervix. Additionally reported herein, for the first time, is the laparascopic OCT examination of the mucosal lining of the abdomen.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. A. M. Sergeev, F. I. Feldchtein, G. V. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, V. M. Gelikonov, I. A. Kuznetzova, L. B. Snopova, N. M. Shakhova, A. N. Denisenko, and V. Almazov, "Integrated endoscopic OCT system and in-vivo images of human internal organs," Proc. SPIE 3251, 36-46 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Schaefer E. Charles, Childhood Encopresis and Enuresis: Causes and Therapy, (Jason Aronson Inc., 1995).
  17. A. I. Paches, Tumors of head and neck, (Moscow, De-Jure, 1996).
  18. V. M. Zagrebin, L. P. Soloveva, I. A. Gulidov, and A. S. Sysoev, "Pathomorphosis of laryngeal cancer after neutron and gamma-neutron therapy using fast neutrons of the reactor," Arkh. Patol. 58, 7-14 (1996).
  19. R. Cartier, Practical colposcopy, (Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stutgart, New York, 1984).
  20. E. V. Kokhanevich, K. P. Ganina, V. V. Sumenko, Colpocervicoscopy, (Kiev, Visha shkola, 1997).
  21. W. N. Prilepskaya, S. I. Rogovskaya, E. A. Masevitina, Colposcopy (a practical guide) (Moscow, Gaeotar Medicine, 1997).
  22. V. C. Wright, G. M. Lickrish, R. M. Shier, Basic and advanced colposcopy (Biomedical Communications, Inc., 1995), Part I, II.

Other

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18, 1864-1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, "In vivo optical coherence tomography," Amer. J. Ophthalm. 116, 113-114 (1993).

J. M. Shmitt, A. Knuttel, R. F. Bonner, "Low coherence interferometry for imaging microstructures within optically turbid tissues," Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, Technical Digest, 190-193 (1994).

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, K. I. Pravdenko, D. V. Shabanov, N. D. Gladkova, V. V. Pochinko, V. A. Zhegalov, G. I. Dmitriev, I. R. Vazina, G. A. Petrova, N. K. Nikulin, "In vivo optical coherence tomography of human skin microstructure," Proc. SPIE 2328, 144-150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Colston, M. J. Everett, L. B. Da Silva, L. L. Otis, and H. Nathel, "Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing periodontal disease," Proc. SPIE 2973, 216-220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Colston, M. J. Everett, L. B. Da Silva, L. L. Otis, P. Stroeve, and H. Nathel, "Imaging of hard- and soft-tissue structure in the oral cavity by optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 37, 3582-3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Warren, J. N. Miller, G. V. Gelikonov, V. M. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, A. M. Sergeev, N. M. Beach, M. D. Moores, and D. H. Reitze, "Imaging and characterization of dental structure using optical coherence tomography," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, OSA Technical digest series, 6, 128 (1998).

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, K. I. Pravdenko, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, V. V. Pochinko, G. A. Petrova, and N. K. Nikulin, "High-spatial resolution optical coherence tomography of human skin and mucous membranes," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, OSA Technical digest series 15, 349 (1995).

J. A. Izatt, H.-W. Wang, M. Kulkarni, K. Kobayashi, M. I. Canto, and M. V. Sivak, "Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues," OSA TOPS 2, 203 (1996).

Y. Pan, E. Lankenau, J. Welzel, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence - gated imaging of biological tissues," IEEE Journal of selected topics in Quantum Electronics 2, 1029-1034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, "In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa," Opt. Express 1, 432-440 (1997); http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/source/2788.htm.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Shakhova, I. A. Kuznetzova, N. D. Gladkova, L. B. Snopova, V. V. Pochinko, Yu. P. Chumakov, G. V. Gelikonov, V. M. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, and A. M. Sergeev, "Endoscopic OCT for imaging of uterine body and cervix pathologies," Proc. SPIE 3251, 59-66 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sergeev, F. I. Feldchtein, G. V. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, V. M. Gelikonov, I. A. Kuznetzova, L. B. Snopova, N. M. Shakhova, A. N. Denisenko, and V. Almazov, "Integrated endoscopic OCT system and in-vivo images of human internal organs," Proc. SPIE 3251, 36-46 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer E. Charles, Childhood Encopresis and Enuresis: Causes and Therapy, (Jason Aronson Inc., 1995).

A. I. Paches, Tumors of head and neck, (Moscow, De-Jure, 1996).

V. M. Zagrebin, L. P. Soloveva, I. A. Gulidov, and A. S. Sysoev, "Pathomorphosis of laryngeal cancer after neutron and gamma-neutron therapy using fast neutrons of the reactor," Arkh. Patol. 58, 7-14 (1996).

R. Cartier, Practical colposcopy, (Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stutgart, New York, 1984).

E. V. Kokhanevich, K. P. Ganina, V. V. Sumenko, Colpocervicoscopy, (Kiev, Visha shkola, 1997).

W. N. Prilepskaya, S. I. Rogovskaya, E. A. Masevitina, Colposcopy (a practical guide) (Moscow, Gaeotar Medicine, 1997).

V. C. Wright, G. M. Lickrish, R. M. Shier, Basic and advanced colposcopy (Biomedical Communications, Inc., 1995), Part I, II.

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Normal mucosa of the child’s urinary bladder.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The active stage of chronic catarrhal fibrous cystitis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The active stage of chronic cystic cystitis. a,b) subepithelial cysts; c) fibrin deposits; d) submucosal cyst.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Prolonged chronic cystitis in the remission stage. Arrow indicates sclerosed lamina propria.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The diversity of the normal mucosa of the larynx: a) anterior commissure; b) subglottic space; c) vocal fold; d) vestibular fold; e) posterior commissure; f) piriform sinus with mucous gland ducts; g) epiglottis; h) arytenoid cartilage.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transition from normal tissue (left) to carcinoma (right) of vocal fold.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Vocal nodule with submucosal edema.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Cyst of gland.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Mucosa of the vocal fold after a course of distant γ - therapy.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Normal transformation zone (cylindrical epithelium - left, metaplastic epithelium center, and normal stratified squamous epithelium - right).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

OCT tomografic (left) and microscopic (right) histologic view of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Tomogram of invasive cervical cancer.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Tomogram of transition from normal epithelium (left) to pathologic epithelium (right).

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Tomograms of the cervix under cryotherapy: a) before cryoapplication (normal epithelium - left, metaplastic epithelium - right); b) immediately after cryoapplication; c) two days later (zone of necrosis - right); d) six weeks later (normal epithelium seen as dark stripe).

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Tomograms of the cervix after electrosurgery: a) two weeks later (zone of necrosis - right); b) six weeks after (normal epithelium seen as an even stripe).

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Tomograms of the cervix after laser vaporization: a) two days after (zone of necrosis -right); b) three weeks after.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Tomograms of the cervix in hypoestrogenia (a) and hyperestrogenia (b).

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Tomograms of the cervix of non-pregnant (a) and pregnant (b) female patients.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Tomograms of the ovary (a), salpinx (b), and anterior abdominal wall (c).

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