Abstract

We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

© Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Mayfield, G. Bratthall and R. Attstrom, "Periodontal probe precision using four different periodontal probes," J. Clin. Periodontology 23, 76-82 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. L. Pihlstrom, "Measurement of attachment level in clinical trials - probing methods," J. Periodontology 63, 1072-1077 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong and J. S. Duker, "Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography," Arch. Opth. 113, 1019-1029 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky and R. F. Bonner, "Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy," Dermatology 191, 93-98 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern and J. G. Fujimoto, "Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 21, 543-545 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. W. Colston, M. J. Everett, L. B. Da Silva, L. L. Otis, P. Stroeve and H. Nathel, "Imaging of hard and soft tissue structure in the oral cavity by optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 37, 3582-3585 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Fried, R. E. Glena, J. D. B. Featherstone, and W. Seka, "Nature of light scattering in dental enamel and dentin at visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 34, 1278-1285 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. J. Everett, K. Schoenenberger, B. W. Colston and L. B. Da Silva, "Birefringence characterization of biological tissue using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 23, 228-230 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. Swanson and J. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903-908 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. F. Leinfelder and J. E. Lemons, Clinical Restorative Materials and Techniques. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988).
  12. J. F. Cvar and G. Ryge, Criteria for the clinical evaluation of dental restoration materials. (US Dept HEW PHS, Dental Health Center: San Francisco, 1971).
  13. L. Moss-Salentijn and M. Hendricks-Klyvert, Dental and Oral Tissues. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1990).
  14. K. F. Leinfelder and J. E. Lemons, Clinical Restorative Materials and Techniques. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988).

Other (14)

L. Mayfield, G. Bratthall and R. Attstrom, "Periodontal probe precision using four different periodontal probes," J. Clin. Periodontology 23, 76-82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Pihlstrom, "Measurement of attachment level in clinical trials - probing methods," J. Periodontology 63, 1072-1077 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong and J. S. Duker, "Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography," Arch. Opth. 113, 1019-1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky and R. F. Bonner, "Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy," Dermatology 191, 93-98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern and J. G. Fujimoto, "Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 21, 543-545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Colston, M. J. Everett, L. B. Da Silva, L. L. Otis, P. Stroeve and H. Nathel, "Imaging of hard and soft tissue structure in the oral cavity by optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 37, 3582-3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Fried, R. E. Glena, J. D. B. Featherstone, and W. Seka, "Nature of light scattering in dental enamel and dentin at visible and near-infrared wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 34, 1278-1285 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Everett, K. Schoenenberger, B. W. Colston and L. B. Da Silva, "Birefringence characterization of biological tissue using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 23, 228-230 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. Swanson and J. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Leinfelder and J. E. Lemons, Clinical Restorative Materials and Techniques. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988).

J. F. Cvar and G. Ryge, Criteria for the clinical evaluation of dental restoration materials. (US Dept HEW PHS, Dental Health Center: San Francisco, 1971).

L. Moss-Salentijn and M. Hendricks-Klyvert, Dental and Oral Tissues. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1990).

K. F. Leinfelder and J. E. Lemons, Clinical Restorative Materials and Techniques. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the in vivo dental OCT System.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Generation of B-Scan from A-Scans. Click to view movie. Real time acquisition corresponds to 5 A-Scans per second resulting in an acquisition period of 45 seconds for the B-Scan. [Media 1]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photograph of dental OCT handpiece.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Cartoon of dental tissue, (b) OCT image of anterior tooth, and (c) OCT image of posterior tooth.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OCT images of extracted tooth showing (a) artifacts present in enamel layer due to birefringence and (b) elimination of these artifacts using a birefringence insensitive OCT system.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

OCT image of dental composite restoration from the (a) occlusal surface and the (b) midfacial surface.

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