Abstract

We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 543–545 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. K. F. Leinfelder and J. E. Lemons, Clinical Restorative Materials and Techniques. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988).
  12. J. F. Cvar and G. Ryge, Criteria for the clinical evaluation of dental restoration materials. (US Dept HEW PHS, Dental Health Center: San Francisco, 1971).
  13. L. Moss-Salentijn and M. Hendricks-Klyvert, Dental and Oral Tissues. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1990).

1998 (2)

1996 (2)

1995 (3)

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, and J. S. Duker, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opth. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fried, R. E. Glena, J. D. B. Featherstone, and W. Seka, “Nature of light scattering in dental enamel and dentin at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1278–1285 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

L. Moss-Salentijn and M. Hendricks-Klyvert, Dental and Oral Tissues. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1990).

Attstrom, R.

L. Mayfield, G. Bratthall, and R. Attstrom, “Periodontal probe precision using four different periodontal probes,” J. Clin. Periodontology 23, 76–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, R. F.

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Bratthall, G.

L. Mayfield, G. Bratthall, and R. Attstrom, “Periodontal probe precision using four different periodontal probes,” J. Clin. Periodontology 23, 76–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colston, B. W.

Cvar, J. F.

J. F. Cvar and G. Ryge, Criteria for the clinical evaluation of dental restoration materials. (US Dept HEW PHS, Dental Health Center: San Francisco, 1971).

Da Silva, L. B.

Duker, J. S.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, and J. S. Duker, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opth. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Everett, M. J.

Featherstone, J. D. B.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fried, D.

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21, 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glena, R. E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, and J. S. Duker, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opth. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. Swanson, and J. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendricks-Klyvert, M.

L. Moss-Salentijn and M. Hendricks-Klyvert, Dental and Oral Tissues. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1990).

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. Swanson, and J. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leinfelder, K. F.

K. F. Leinfelder and J. E. Lemons, Clinical Restorative Materials and Techniques. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988).

Lemons, J. E.

K. F. Leinfelder and J. E. Lemons, Clinical Restorative Materials and Techniques. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988).

Lin, C.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayfield, L.

L. Mayfield, G. Bratthall, and R. Attstrom, “Periodontal probe precision using four different periodontal probes,” J. Clin. Periodontology 23, 76–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moss-Salentijn, L.

L. Moss-Salentijn and M. Hendricks-Klyvert, Dental and Oral Tissues. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1990).

Nathel, H.

Otis, L. L.

Pihlstrom, B. L.

B. L. Pihlstrom, “Measurement of attachment level in clinical trials - probing methods,” J. Periodontology 63, 1072–1077 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, and J. S. Duker, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opth. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryge, G.

J. F. Cvar and G. Ryge, Criteria for the clinical evaluation of dental restoration materials. (US Dept HEW PHS, Dental Health Center: San Francisco, 1971).

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoenenberger, K.

Seka, W.

Shuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

Stinson, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroeve, P.

Swanson, E.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Weissman, N. J.

Wong, C.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, and J. S. Duker, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opth. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yadlowsky, M. J.

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Opth. (1)

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, C. Wong, and J. S. Duker, “Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Opth. 113, 1019–1029 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dermatology (1)

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Periodontology (1)

L. Mayfield, G. Bratthall, and R. Attstrom, “Periodontal probe precision using four different periodontal probes,” J. Clin. Periodontology 23, 76–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Periodontology (1)

B. L. Pihlstrom, “Measurement of attachment level in clinical trials - probing methods,” J. Periodontology 63, 1072–1077 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

K. F. Leinfelder and J. E. Lemons, Clinical Restorative Materials and Techniques. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988).

J. F. Cvar and G. Ryge, Criteria for the clinical evaluation of dental restoration materials. (US Dept HEW PHS, Dental Health Center: San Francisco, 1971).

L. Moss-Salentijn and M. Hendricks-Klyvert, Dental and Oral Tissues. (Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1990).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the in vivo dental OCT System.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Generation of B-Scan from A-Scans. Click to view movie. Real time acquisition corresponds to 5 A-Scans per second resulting in an acquisition period of 45 seconds for the B-Scan. [Media 1]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photograph of dental OCT handpiece.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Cartoon of dental tissue, (b) OCT image of anterior tooth, and (c) OCT image of posterior tooth.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OCT images of extracted tooth showing (a) artifacts present in enamel layer due to birefringence and (b) elimination of these artifacts using a birefringence insensitive OCT system.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

OCT image of dental composite restoration from the (a) occlusal surface and the (b) midfacial surface.

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