Abstract

Amplification in free-electron lasers exploiting media with periodically modulated refractive indices is studied in the regime of a large modulation. The conditions for realization of the large-modulation regime in a superlattice-like medium are established. The maximized gain, the corresponding saturation field and efficiency, as well as the optimal electron energy and propagation direction are determined. It is shown that the large-modulation regime makes it possible to extend significantly the operation frequency domain of the FEL employing a low-relativistic electron beam. Relationship with the Cherenkov and stimulated resonance-transition-radiation FELs is discussed. This research is partially supported by RFBR grant 97-02-17783.

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  1. K. R. Chen and J. M. Dawson, "Ion-ripple laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 29-32 (1992).
  2. R. N. Agrawal and V. K. Tripathi, "Ion-acoustic-wave pumped free-electron laser," IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 23, 788-791, (1995).
  3. K. Nakajima, M. Kando, T. Kawakubo, T. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, "A table-top X-ray FEL based on laser wakefield accelerator-undulator system," Nucl. Instr. & Meth. Phys. Res. A 375, 593-596 (1996).
  4. V. A. Bazylev, T. J. Schep, A. V. Tulupov, "Short-Wavelength Free-Electron Lasers with Periodic Plasma Structures," J. of Phys. D - Appl. Phys. 27, 2466-2469 (1994).
  5. V. A. Bazylev, V. Goloviznin, M. M. Pitatelev, A. V. Tulupov, T. J. Schep, "On the possibility of construction of plasma undulators," Nucl. Instr. & Meth. Phys. Res. A 358, 433-436 (1995).
  6. N. I. Karbushev, "Free-electron lasers with static and dynamic plasma wigglers," Nucl. Instr. & Meth. Phys. Res. A 358, 437-440 (1995).
  7. M. V. Fedorov, E. A. Shapiro, "Free-electron lasers based on media with periodically modulated refractive index," Laser Physics 5, 735-739 (1995).
  8. A. I. Artemyev, M. V. Fedorov, J. K. McIver, E. A. Shapiro, "Nonlinear theory of a free- electron laser exploiting media with periodically modulated refractive index," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 34, 24-31 (1998).
  9. M. A. Piestrup, P. F. Finman, "The prospects of an X-ray free-electron laser using stimulated resonance transition radiation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19, 357-364 (1983).
  10. M. B. Reid, M. A. Piestrup, "Resonance transition radiation X-Ray laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 27, 2440-2455 (1991).
  11. G. Bekefi, J. S. Wurtele, I. H. Deutsch, "Free-electron laser radiation induced by a periodic dielectric medium," Phys. Rev. A 34, 1228-1236 (1986).
  12. A. E. Kaplan, S. Datta, "Extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray emission and amplification by nonrelativistic electron beams traversing a superlattice," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 661-663 (1984).
  13. M. S. Dubovikov, "Transition radiation and Bragg resonances," Phys. Rev. A 50, 2068-2074 (1994).
  14. C. S. Liu, V. K. Tripathi, "Short-wavelength free-electron laser operation in a periodic dielectric,", IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 23, 459-464 (1995).
  15. C. I. Pincus, M. A. Piestrup, D. G. Boyers, Q. Li, J. L. Harris, X. K. Maruyama, D. M.Skopik, R. M.Silzer, H. S. Caplan, "Measurements of X-ray emission from photoabsorption-edge transition radiation," Phys. Rev. A 43, 2387-2396 (1991).
  16. M. A. Piestrup, D. G. Boyers, C. I. Pincus, J. L. Harris, X. K. Maruyama, J. C. Bergstrom, H. S. Caplan, R. M. Silzer, D. M. Skopik, "Quasi-monochromatic X-ray source using photo- absorption-edge transition radiation," Phys. Rev. A 43, 3653-3661 (1991).
  17. C. K. Gary, R. H. Pantell, M. Ozcan, M. A. Piestrup, D. G. Boyers, "Optimization of the channeling radiation source crystal to produce intense quasimonochromatic X rays," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2995-3002 (1991).
  18. R. B. Fiorito, D. W. Rule, X. K. Maruyama, K. L. DiNova, S. J. Evertson, M. J. Osborne, S. Snyder, H. Rietdyk, M. A. Piestrup, A. H. Ho, "Observation of Higher-order Parametric X-ray spectra in mosaic graphite and single silicon crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 704-707 (1993).
  19. A. E. Kaplan, C. T. Law, P. L. Shkolnikov, "X-ray narrow-line transition radiation source based on low-energy electron beams traversing a multilayer nanostructure," Phys. Rev. E 52, 6795- 6808 (1995).
  20. H.C. Lihn, P. Kung., C. Settakron, H. Wiedemann, D. Bocek, M. Hernandez, "Observation of stimulated transition radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4163-4166 (1996).
  21. K. F. Casey, C. Yech, Z. A. Kaprielian, "Cherenkov radiation in inhomogeneous periodic media," Phys. Rev. B 140, 768-775 (1965).
  22. B. Pardo, J. M. Andre, "Transition radiation from periodic stratified structure," Phys. Rev. A 40, 1918-1925 (1989).
  23. W. Becker, J. K. McIver, "Classical theory of stimulated Cerenkov radiation," Phys. Rev. A 31, 783-789 (1985).
  24. M. V. Fedorov, "Atomic and free electrons in a strong light field," World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, New Jersey, London, Hong Kong (1997).
  25. V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Artemyev, M. V. Fedorov, J. K. McIver, E. A. Shapiro, "Gas-plasma and superlattice free-electron lasers exploiting a medium with periodically modulated refractive index," Laser and Particle Beams, to appear in (1998).
  26. A. Belliger, "Whats wrong with CIRFEL?", http://viper.princeton.edu/~prebys/belliger.pdf, December 7, 1997.

Other

K. R. Chen and J. M. Dawson, "Ion-ripple laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 29-32 (1992).

R. N. Agrawal and V. K. Tripathi, "Ion-acoustic-wave pumped free-electron laser," IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 23, 788-791, (1995).

K. Nakajima, M. Kando, T. Kawakubo, T. Nakanishi, A. Ogata, "A table-top X-ray FEL based on laser wakefield accelerator-undulator system," Nucl. Instr. & Meth. Phys. Res. A 375, 593-596 (1996).

V. A. Bazylev, T. J. Schep, A. V. Tulupov, "Short-Wavelength Free-Electron Lasers with Periodic Plasma Structures," J. of Phys. D - Appl. Phys. 27, 2466-2469 (1994).

V. A. Bazylev, V. Goloviznin, M. M. Pitatelev, A. V. Tulupov, T. J. Schep, "On the possibility of construction of plasma undulators," Nucl. Instr. & Meth. Phys. Res. A 358, 433-436 (1995).

N. I. Karbushev, "Free-electron lasers with static and dynamic plasma wigglers," Nucl. Instr. & Meth. Phys. Res. A 358, 437-440 (1995).

M. V. Fedorov, E. A. Shapiro, "Free-electron lasers based on media with periodically modulated refractive index," Laser Physics 5, 735-739 (1995).

A. I. Artemyev, M. V. Fedorov, J. K. McIver, E. A. Shapiro, "Nonlinear theory of a free- electron laser exploiting media with periodically modulated refractive index," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 34, 24-31 (1998).

M. A. Piestrup, P. F. Finman, "The prospects of an X-ray free-electron laser using stimulated resonance transition radiation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19, 357-364 (1983).

M. B. Reid, M. A. Piestrup, "Resonance transition radiation X-Ray laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 27, 2440-2455 (1991).

G. Bekefi, J. S. Wurtele, I. H. Deutsch, "Free-electron laser radiation induced by a periodic dielectric medium," Phys. Rev. A 34, 1228-1236 (1986).

A. E. Kaplan, S. Datta, "Extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray emission and amplification by nonrelativistic electron beams traversing a superlattice," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 661-663 (1984).

M. S. Dubovikov, "Transition radiation and Bragg resonances," Phys. Rev. A 50, 2068-2074 (1994).

C. S. Liu, V. K. Tripathi, "Short-wavelength free-electron laser operation in a periodic dielectric,", IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 23, 459-464 (1995).

C. I. Pincus, M. A. Piestrup, D. G. Boyers, Q. Li, J. L. Harris, X. K. Maruyama, D. M.Skopik, R. M.Silzer, H. S. Caplan, "Measurements of X-ray emission from photoabsorption-edge transition radiation," Phys. Rev. A 43, 2387-2396 (1991).

M. A. Piestrup, D. G. Boyers, C. I. Pincus, J. L. Harris, X. K. Maruyama, J. C. Bergstrom, H. S. Caplan, R. M. Silzer, D. M. Skopik, "Quasi-monochromatic X-ray source using photo- absorption-edge transition radiation," Phys. Rev. A 43, 3653-3661 (1991).

C. K. Gary, R. H. Pantell, M. Ozcan, M. A. Piestrup, D. G. Boyers, "Optimization of the channeling radiation source crystal to produce intense quasimonochromatic X rays," J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2995-3002 (1991).

R. B. Fiorito, D. W. Rule, X. K. Maruyama, K. L. DiNova, S. J. Evertson, M. J. Osborne, S. Snyder, H. Rietdyk, M. A. Piestrup, A. H. Ho, "Observation of Higher-order Parametric X-ray spectra in mosaic graphite and single silicon crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 704-707 (1993).

A. E. Kaplan, C. T. Law, P. L. Shkolnikov, "X-ray narrow-line transition radiation source based on low-energy electron beams traversing a multilayer nanostructure," Phys. Rev. E 52, 6795- 6808 (1995).

H.C. Lihn, P. Kung., C. Settakron, H. Wiedemann, D. Bocek, M. Hernandez, "Observation of stimulated transition radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4163-4166 (1996).

K. F. Casey, C. Yech, Z. A. Kaprielian, "Cherenkov radiation in inhomogeneous periodic media," Phys. Rev. B 140, 768-775 (1965).

B. Pardo, J. M. Andre, "Transition radiation from periodic stratified structure," Phys. Rev. A 40, 1918-1925 (1989).

W. Becker, J. K. McIver, "Classical theory of stimulated Cerenkov radiation," Phys. Rev. A 31, 783-789 (1985).

M. V. Fedorov, "Atomic and free electrons in a strong light field," World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, New Jersey, London, Hong Kong (1997).

V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Artemyev, M. V. Fedorov, J. K. McIver, E. A. Shapiro, "Gas-plasma and superlattice free-electron lasers exploiting a medium with periodically modulated refractive index," Laser and Particle Beams, to appear in (1998).

A. Belliger, "Whats wrong with CIRFEL?", http://viper.princeton.edu/~prebys/belliger.pdf, December 7, 1997.

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