Abstract

Mismatched boundary conditions such as air-sample interface introduce artifacts that obscure internal information in the reconstructed laser computed tomographic (CT) images. Here, we demonstrate enhancement of target structure in the laser CT images by correcting the projection data using the experimentally determined angle dependence of sample surface attenuation. The images reconstructed with the corrected projection data are shown to have improved image contrast. Our proposed correction to laser CT reconstruction is effective for visualizing internal structure with small variations in the attenuation coefficients that would otherwise be masked by the dominant surface attenuation.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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1998 (1)

K. Fukuchi, B. Devaraj, M. Usa, M. Kobayashi, K. P. Chan, and H. Inaba, “High sensitivity spectroscopic measurement of optical transmission characteristics of a biological tissue phantom “Intralipid-10%” using optical heterodyne detection method,” Kogaku (Japanese J. Optics),  27, 40–47 (1998), (in japanese).

1997 (5)

K. P. Chan, B. Devaraj, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “Coherent detection techniques in optical imaging of tissues,” Phys. in Med. and Bio.,  42, 855–867 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Humio Inaba, “Photonic Sensing Technology is Opening New Frontiers in Biophotonics,” Opt. Rev.,  4, 1–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Colak, D. G. Papaioannou, G. W.’t Hooft, M. B. van der Mark, H. Schomberg, J. C. J. Paasschens, J. B. M. Melissen, and N. A. A. J. van Asten, “Tomographic image reconstruction from optical projections in light-diffusing media,” Appl. Opt.,  36, 180–213 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott A. Walker, Sergio Fantini and Enrico Gratton, “Image reconstruction by backprojection from frequency-domain optical measurements in highly scattering media,” Appl. Opt.,  39, 170–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. McMackin, R. J. Hugo, R. E. Pierson, and C. R. Truman, “High speed optical tomography system for imaging dynamic transparent media,” Opt. Express,  1, 302–311 (1997). http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/source/pdf/2360.pdf
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics on Advantages in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration,  2, OSA, Washington, DC, (1996).

B. Devaraj, M. Usa, Kin Pui Chan, T. Akatsuka, and H. Inaba, “Recent Advances in Coherent Detection Imaging (CDI) in Biomedicine: Laser Tomography of Human Tissues In Vivo and In Vitro,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quant. Electron.,  2, 1008–1016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Devaraj, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, Y. Watanabe, T. Yuasa, T. Akatsuka, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “In vivo laser computed tomographic imaging of human fingers by coherent detection imaging method using different wavelengths in near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  69, 3671–3673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. Inaba, “Coherent detection imaging for medical laser tomography,” in Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, SPIE Institutes for Advanced Optical Technologies, G. Müller, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, S. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. Masters, S. Svanberg, and P. van der Zee, Eds, (SPIE Opt. Eng. Press, Bellingham, WA, 1993), Vol.  IS11, 317–347.

1991 (2)

1986 (1)

R. Koslover and R. McWilliams, “Measurement of multidimensional ion velocity distributions by optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum,  57, 2441–2448 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

R. J. Santotro, H. G. Semerjian, P. J. Emmerman, and R. Goulard, “Optical tomography for flow field diagnostics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer,  24, 1139–1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

Akatsuka, T.

B. Devaraj, M. Usa, Kin Pui Chan, T. Akatsuka, and H. Inaba, “Recent Advances in Coherent Detection Imaging (CDI) in Biomedicine: Laser Tomography of Human Tissues In Vivo and In Vitro,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quant. Electron.,  2, 1008–1016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Devaraj, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, Y. Watanabe, T. Yuasa, T. Akatsuka, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “In vivo laser computed tomographic imaging of human fingers by coherent detection imaging method using different wavelengths in near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  69, 3671–3673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics on Advantages in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration,  2, OSA, Washington, DC, (1996).

Beiting, Edward J.

Bennett, Keith E.

Byer, R. L.

Byer, Robert L.

Chan, K. P.

K. Fukuchi, B. Devaraj, M. Usa, M. Kobayashi, K. P. Chan, and H. Inaba, “High sensitivity spectroscopic measurement of optical transmission characteristics of a biological tissue phantom “Intralipid-10%” using optical heterodyne detection method,” Kogaku (Japanese J. Optics),  27, 40–47 (1998), (in japanese).

K. P. Chan, B. Devaraj, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “Coherent detection techniques in optical imaging of tissues,” Phys. in Med. and Bio.,  42, 855–867 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Devaraj, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, Y. Watanabe, T. Yuasa, T. Akatsuka, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “In vivo laser computed tomographic imaging of human fingers by coherent detection imaging method using different wavelengths in near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  69, 3671–3673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Devaraj, K. Fukuchi, K. P. Chan, M. Usa, Y. Tanno, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, and H. Inaba, “Spectroscopic measurement of transmission characteristics of tissue-like phantoms,” in CLEO/Pacific Rim ‘95 Tech. Dig. Ser., (OSA ,Washington, DC, 1995), 126–127.

Chan, Kin Pui

B. Devaraj, M. Usa, Kin Pui Chan, T. Akatsuka, and H. Inaba, “Recent Advances in Coherent Detection Imaging (CDI) in Biomedicine: Laser Tomography of Human Tissues In Vivo and In Vitro,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quant. Electron.,  2, 1008–1016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Colak, S. B.

Devaraj, B.

K. Fukuchi, B. Devaraj, M. Usa, M. Kobayashi, K. P. Chan, and H. Inaba, “High sensitivity spectroscopic measurement of optical transmission characteristics of a biological tissue phantom “Intralipid-10%” using optical heterodyne detection method,” Kogaku (Japanese J. Optics),  27, 40–47 (1998), (in japanese).

K. P. Chan, B. Devaraj, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “Coherent detection techniques in optical imaging of tissues,” Phys. in Med. and Bio.,  42, 855–867 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Devaraj, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, Y. Watanabe, T. Yuasa, T. Akatsuka, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “In vivo laser computed tomographic imaging of human fingers by coherent detection imaging method using different wavelengths in near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  69, 3671–3673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Devaraj, M. Usa, Kin Pui Chan, T. Akatsuka, and H. Inaba, “Recent Advances in Coherent Detection Imaging (CDI) in Biomedicine: Laser Tomography of Human Tissues In Vivo and In Vitro,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quant. Electron.,  2, 1008–1016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Devaraj, K. Fukuchi, K. P. Chan, M. Usa, Y. Tanno, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, and H. Inaba, “Spectroscopic measurement of transmission characteristics of tissue-like phantoms,” in CLEO/Pacific Rim ‘95 Tech. Dig. Ser., (OSA ,Washington, DC, 1995), 126–127.

Emmerman, P. J.

R. J. Santotro, H. G. Semerjian, P. J. Emmerman, and R. Goulard, “Optical tomography for flow field diagnostics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer,  24, 1139–1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Faris, Gregory W.

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics on Advantages in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration,  2, OSA, Washington, DC, (1996).

Fukuchi, K.

K. Fukuchi, B. Devaraj, M. Usa, M. Kobayashi, K. P. Chan, and H. Inaba, “High sensitivity spectroscopic measurement of optical transmission characteristics of a biological tissue phantom “Intralipid-10%” using optical heterodyne detection method,” Kogaku (Japanese J. Optics),  27, 40–47 (1998), (in japanese).

B. Devaraj, K. Fukuchi, K. P. Chan, M. Usa, Y. Tanno, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, and H. Inaba, “Spectroscopic measurement of transmission characteristics of tissue-like phantoms,” in CLEO/Pacific Rim ‘95 Tech. Dig. Ser., (OSA ,Washington, DC, 1995), 126–127.

Goulard, R.

R. J. Santotro, H. G. Semerjian, P. J. Emmerman, and R. Goulard, “Optical tomography for flow field diagnostics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer,  24, 1139–1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hooft, G. W.’t

Hugo, R. J.

Inaba, H.

K. Fukuchi, B. Devaraj, M. Usa, M. Kobayashi, K. P. Chan, and H. Inaba, “High sensitivity spectroscopic measurement of optical transmission characteristics of a biological tissue phantom “Intralipid-10%” using optical heterodyne detection method,” Kogaku (Japanese J. Optics),  27, 40–47 (1998), (in japanese).

K. P. Chan, B. Devaraj, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “Coherent detection techniques in optical imaging of tissues,” Phys. in Med. and Bio.,  42, 855–867 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Devaraj, M. Usa, Kin Pui Chan, T. Akatsuka, and H. Inaba, “Recent Advances in Coherent Detection Imaging (CDI) in Biomedicine: Laser Tomography of Human Tissues In Vivo and In Vitro,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quant. Electron.,  2, 1008–1016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Devaraj, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, Y. Watanabe, T. Yuasa, T. Akatsuka, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “In vivo laser computed tomographic imaging of human fingers by coherent detection imaging method using different wavelengths in near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  69, 3671–3673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Inaba, “Coherent detection imaging for medical laser tomography,” in Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, SPIE Institutes for Advanced Optical Technologies, G. Müller, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, S. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. Masters, S. Svanberg, and P. van der Zee, Eds, (SPIE Opt. Eng. Press, Bellingham, WA, 1993), Vol.  IS11, 317–347.

B. Devaraj, K. Fukuchi, K. P. Chan, M. Usa, Y. Tanno, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, and H. Inaba, “Spectroscopic measurement of transmission characteristics of tissue-like phantoms,” in CLEO/Pacific Rim ‘95 Tech. Dig. Ser., (OSA ,Washington, DC, 1995), 126–127.

Inaba, Humio

Humio Inaba, “Photonic Sensing Technology is Opening New Frontiers in Biophotonics,” Opt. Rev.,  4, 1–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

K. Fukuchi, B. Devaraj, M. Usa, M. Kobayashi, K. P. Chan, and H. Inaba, “High sensitivity spectroscopic measurement of optical transmission characteristics of a biological tissue phantom “Intralipid-10%” using optical heterodyne detection method,” Kogaku (Japanese J. Optics),  27, 40–47 (1998), (in japanese).

B. Devaraj, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, Y. Watanabe, T. Yuasa, T. Akatsuka, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “In vivo laser computed tomographic imaging of human fingers by coherent detection imaging method using different wavelengths in near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  69, 3671–3673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Devaraj, K. Fukuchi, K. P. Chan, M. Usa, Y. Tanno, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, and H. Inaba, “Spectroscopic measurement of transmission characteristics of tissue-like phantoms,” in CLEO/Pacific Rim ‘95 Tech. Dig. Ser., (OSA ,Washington, DC, 1995), 126–127.

Koslover, R.

R. Koslover and R. McWilliams, “Measurement of multidimensional ion velocity distributions by optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum,  57, 2441–2448 (1986).
[CrossRef]

McMackin, L.

McWilliams, R.

R. Koslover and R. McWilliams, “Measurement of multidimensional ion velocity distributions by optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum,  57, 2441–2448 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Melissen, J. B. M.

Mose, C. J. M.

Paasschens, J. C. J.

Papaioannou, D. G.

Pierson, R. E.

Prahl, S. A.

Santotro, R. J.

R. J. Santotro, H. G. Semerjian, P. J. Emmerman, and R. Goulard, “Optical tomography for flow field diagnostics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer,  24, 1139–1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schomberg, H.

Semerjian, H. G.

R. J. Santotro, H. G. Semerjian, P. J. Emmerman, and R. Goulard, “Optical tomography for flow field diagnostics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer,  24, 1139–1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shepp, L. A.

Stuck, B. W.

Takeda, M.

B. Devaraj, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, Y. Watanabe, T. Yuasa, T. Akatsuka, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “In vivo laser computed tomographic imaging of human fingers by coherent detection imaging method using different wavelengths in near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  69, 3671–3673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Devaraj, K. Fukuchi, K. P. Chan, M. Usa, Y. Tanno, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, and H. Inaba, “Spectroscopic measurement of transmission characteristics of tissue-like phantoms,” in CLEO/Pacific Rim ‘95 Tech. Dig. Ser., (OSA ,Washington, DC, 1995), 126–127.

Tanno, Y.

B. Devaraj, K. Fukuchi, K. P. Chan, M. Usa, Y. Tanno, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, and H. Inaba, “Spectroscopic measurement of transmission characteristics of tissue-like phantoms,” in CLEO/Pacific Rim ‘95 Tech. Dig. Ser., (OSA ,Washington, DC, 1995), 126–127.

Truman, C. R.

Usa, M.

K. Fukuchi, B. Devaraj, M. Usa, M. Kobayashi, K. P. Chan, and H. Inaba, “High sensitivity spectroscopic measurement of optical transmission characteristics of a biological tissue phantom “Intralipid-10%” using optical heterodyne detection method,” Kogaku (Japanese J. Optics),  27, 40–47 (1998), (in japanese).

B. Devaraj, M. Usa, Kin Pui Chan, T. Akatsuka, and H. Inaba, “Recent Advances in Coherent Detection Imaging (CDI) in Biomedicine: Laser Tomography of Human Tissues In Vivo and In Vitro,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quant. Electron.,  2, 1008–1016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Devaraj, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, Y. Watanabe, T. Yuasa, T. Akatsuka, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “In vivo laser computed tomographic imaging of human fingers by coherent detection imaging method using different wavelengths in near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  69, 3671–3673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Devaraj, K. Fukuchi, K. P. Chan, M. Usa, Y. Tanno, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, and H. Inaba, “Spectroscopic measurement of transmission characteristics of tissue-like phantoms,” in CLEO/Pacific Rim ‘95 Tech. Dig. Ser., (OSA ,Washington, DC, 1995), 126–127.

van Asten, N. A. A. J.

van der Mark, M. B.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Marle, J.

van Staveren, H. J.

Walker, Scott A.

Scott A. Walker, Sergio Fantini and Enrico Gratton, “Image reconstruction by backprojection from frequency-domain optical measurements in highly scattering media,” Appl. Opt.,  39, 170–179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

B. Devaraj, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, Y. Watanabe, T. Yuasa, T. Akatsuka, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “In vivo laser computed tomographic imaging of human fingers by coherent detection imaging method using different wavelengths in near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  69, 3671–3673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, David C.

Yamada, M.

K. P. Chan, B. Devaraj, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “Coherent detection techniques in optical imaging of tissues,” Phys. in Med. and Bio.,  42, 855–867 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Devaraj, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, Y. Watanabe, T. Yuasa, T. Akatsuka, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “In vivo laser computed tomographic imaging of human fingers by coherent detection imaging method using different wavelengths in near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  69, 3671–3673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yuasa, T.

B. Devaraj, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, Y. Watanabe, T. Yuasa, T. Akatsuka, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “In vivo laser computed tomographic imaging of human fingers by coherent detection imaging method using different wavelengths in near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  69, 3671–3673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Devaraj, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, M. Usa, K. P. Chan, Y. Watanabe, T. Yuasa, T. Akatsuka, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “In vivo laser computed tomographic imaging of human fingers by coherent detection imaging method using different wavelengths in near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  69, 3671–3673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quant. Electron. (1)

B. Devaraj, M. Usa, Kin Pui Chan, T. Akatsuka, and H. Inaba, “Recent Advances in Coherent Detection Imaging (CDI) in Biomedicine: Laser Tomography of Human Tissues In Vivo and In Vitro,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quant. Electron.,  2, 1008–1016 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (1)

R. J. Santotro, H. G. Semerjian, P. J. Emmerman, and R. Goulard, “Optical tomography for flow field diagnostics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer,  24, 1139–1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Japanese J. Optics (1)

K. Fukuchi, B. Devaraj, M. Usa, M. Kobayashi, K. P. Chan, and H. Inaba, “High sensitivity spectroscopic measurement of optical transmission characteristics of a biological tissue phantom “Intralipid-10%” using optical heterodyne detection method,” Kogaku (Japanese J. Optics),  27, 40–47 (1998), (in japanese).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

Humio Inaba, “Photonic Sensing Technology is Opening New Frontiers in Biophotonics,” Opt. Rev.,  4, 1–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. in Med. and Bio. (1)

K. P. Chan, B. Devaraj, M. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “Coherent detection techniques in optical imaging of tissues,” Phys. in Med. and Bio.,  42, 855–867 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum (1)

R. Koslover and R. McWilliams, “Measurement of multidimensional ion velocity distributions by optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum,  57, 2441–2448 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. Inaba, “Coherent detection imaging for medical laser tomography,” in Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, SPIE Institutes for Advanced Optical Technologies, G. Müller, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, S. Arridge, J. Beuthan, E. Gratton, M. Kaschke, B. Masters, S. Svanberg, and P. van der Zee, Eds, (SPIE Opt. Eng. Press, Bellingham, WA, 1993), Vol.  IS11, 317–347.

B. Devaraj, K. Fukuchi, K. P. Chan, M. Usa, Y. Tanno, M. Takeda, M. Kobayashi, and H. Inaba, “Spectroscopic measurement of transmission characteristics of tissue-like phantoms,” in CLEO/Pacific Rim ‘95 Tech. Dig. Ser., (OSA ,Washington, DC, 1995), 126–127.

R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics on Advantages in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration,  2, OSA, Washington, DC, (1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Incident angle dependence in laser CT scan. I0 is incident intensity, Iin (φm ,rn ) is light intensity launched into sample, It (φm ,rn ) is transmitted intensity, θ is incident angle and R is the sample radius.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the coherent detection imaging system. L1 and L2 are collimated lenses. M1, M2, and M3 are mirrors. BS and PBS are beam splitter and polarizing beam splitter, respectively. AOM1 and AOM2 are acousto-optic modulators.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Attenuation due to changes in the incident angle of a 5 mm thick acrylic plate with ground surfaces.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic representation of the sample. The acrylic sample was 30 mm in diameter with a 12 mm in diameter hole filled with Intralipid-10% 20 ml/l. The outer surface of the sample was ground by sand paper to make the surface rough.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ r s ] = [ cos φ sin φ sin φ cos φ ] [ x y ]
I in φ m r n = α· I 0 ( 0 < α < 1 )
I t φ m r n = I in φ m r n · exp ( μ t ds )
10 log { I t φ m r n I 0 } = 10 log { α· exp ( μ t ds ) }
= 10 log ( α ) + 10 log { exp ( μ t ds ) }
f ( θ ) = 87 + 42 · exp ( θ 2 0.4 )
10 log ( α ) f ( θ )
10 log { exp ( μ t ds ) } = 10 log { I t φ m r n I 0 } f ( θ )
= 10 log { I t φ m r n I 0 } f { sin 1 ( r n R ) }
C = I t arg et I min I max I min ,

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