Abstract

Adequate protection of digital copies of multimedia content - both audio and video - is a prerequisite to the distribution of this content over networks. Until recently digital audio and video content has been protected by its size: it is difficult to distribute and store without compression. Modern compression algorithms allow substantial bitrate reduction while maintaining high-fidelity reproduction. If distribution of these algorithms is controlled, cleartext uncompressed content is still protected by its size. However, once the compression algorithms are generally available cleartext content becomes extremely vulnerable to piracy. In this paper we explore the implications of this vulnerability and discuss the use of compression and watermarking in the control of piracy.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Bosi, K. Brandenburg, S. Quackenbush, L. Fielder, K. Akagiri, H. Fuchs, M. Dietz, J. Herre, G. Davidson, and Y. Oikawa, “ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding,” presented at the 101st Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, preprint 4382, Nov. 1996.
  2. D. Aucsmith, “Tamper Resistant Software,” in Proceedings of the First International Information Hiding Workshop, LNCS 1174, Springer-Verlag, Cambridge, U.K., 317–334, May/June, (1996).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Blaze, J. Feigenbaum, and J. Lacy, “Decentralized Trust Management,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 164–173 (1996).
  4. D. Boneh and J. Shaw, “Collusion-secure Fingerprinting for Digital Data,” Crypto ’95, LNCS 963, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 452–465 (1995).
  5. I. J. Cox and J.M.G. Linnartz, “Public Watermarks and Resistance to Tampering,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Image Processing, Santa Barbara CA, October (1997).
  6. F. Hartung and B. Girod, “Digital Watermarking of MPEG-2 Coded Video in the Bitstream Domain,” Proc. IEEE ICASSP, 2621–2624, April (1997).
  7. “Cryptolope Container Technology,” an IBM White Paper, http://www.cryptolope.ibm.com/white.htm.
  8. International Federation of Phonograph Industries, Request for Proposals.
  9. Proc. First International Information Hiding Workshop, LNCS 1174, Springer-Verlag, Cambridge, U.K., 207–226, May/June, (1996).
  10. J. Lacy, D. P. Maher, and J. H. Snyder, “Music on the Internet and the Intellectual Property Protection Problem,” Proc. International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Guimaraes, Portugal, July (1997).
  11. J. Lacy, S. Quackenbush, A. R. Reibman, D. Shur, and J. H. Snyder, “On combining watermarking with perceptual coding,” Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Sig. Proc., May (1998).
  12. O. Sibert, D. Bernstein, and D. Van Wie, “Securing the Content, Not the Wire, for Information Commerce,” http://www.intertrust.com/architecture/stc.html.
  13. J. Smith and B. Comisky, “Modulation and Information Hiding in Images,” Proc. First International Information Hiding Workshop, LNCS 1174, Springer-Verlag, Cambridge, U.K., 207–226, May/June, (1996).
    [Crossref]
  14. http://www.research.att.com/~srq/OpticsExpress

1997 (1)

F. Hartung and B. Girod, “Digital Watermarking of MPEG-2 Coded Video in the Bitstream Domain,” Proc. IEEE ICASSP, 2621–2624, April (1997).

Akagiri, K.

M. Bosi, K. Brandenburg, S. Quackenbush, L. Fielder, K. Akagiri, H. Fuchs, M. Dietz, J. Herre, G. Davidson, and Y. Oikawa, “ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding,” presented at the 101st Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, preprint 4382, Nov. 1996.

Aucsmith, D.

D. Aucsmith, “Tamper Resistant Software,” in Proceedings of the First International Information Hiding Workshop, LNCS 1174, Springer-Verlag, Cambridge, U.K., 317–334, May/June, (1996).
[Crossref]

Bernstein, D.

O. Sibert, D. Bernstein, and D. Van Wie, “Securing the Content, Not the Wire, for Information Commerce,” http://www.intertrust.com/architecture/stc.html.

Blaze, M.

M. Blaze, J. Feigenbaum, and J. Lacy, “Decentralized Trust Management,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 164–173 (1996).

Boneh, D.

D. Boneh and J. Shaw, “Collusion-secure Fingerprinting for Digital Data,” Crypto ’95, LNCS 963, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 452–465 (1995).

Bosi, M.

M. Bosi, K. Brandenburg, S. Quackenbush, L. Fielder, K. Akagiri, H. Fuchs, M. Dietz, J. Herre, G. Davidson, and Y. Oikawa, “ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding,” presented at the 101st Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, preprint 4382, Nov. 1996.

Brandenburg, K.

M. Bosi, K. Brandenburg, S. Quackenbush, L. Fielder, K. Akagiri, H. Fuchs, M. Dietz, J. Herre, G. Davidson, and Y. Oikawa, “ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding,” presented at the 101st Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, preprint 4382, Nov. 1996.

Comisky, B.

J. Smith and B. Comisky, “Modulation and Information Hiding in Images,” Proc. First International Information Hiding Workshop, LNCS 1174, Springer-Verlag, Cambridge, U.K., 207–226, May/June, (1996).
[Crossref]

Cox, I. J.

I. J. Cox and J.M.G. Linnartz, “Public Watermarks and Resistance to Tampering,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Image Processing, Santa Barbara CA, October (1997).

Davidson, G.

M. Bosi, K. Brandenburg, S. Quackenbush, L. Fielder, K. Akagiri, H. Fuchs, M. Dietz, J. Herre, G. Davidson, and Y. Oikawa, “ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding,” presented at the 101st Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, preprint 4382, Nov. 1996.

Dietz, M.

M. Bosi, K. Brandenburg, S. Quackenbush, L. Fielder, K. Akagiri, H. Fuchs, M. Dietz, J. Herre, G. Davidson, and Y. Oikawa, “ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding,” presented at the 101st Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, preprint 4382, Nov. 1996.

Feigenbaum, J.

M. Blaze, J. Feigenbaum, and J. Lacy, “Decentralized Trust Management,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 164–173 (1996).

Fielder, L.

M. Bosi, K. Brandenburg, S. Quackenbush, L. Fielder, K. Akagiri, H. Fuchs, M. Dietz, J. Herre, G. Davidson, and Y. Oikawa, “ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding,” presented at the 101st Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, preprint 4382, Nov. 1996.

Fuchs, H.

M. Bosi, K. Brandenburg, S. Quackenbush, L. Fielder, K. Akagiri, H. Fuchs, M. Dietz, J. Herre, G. Davidson, and Y. Oikawa, “ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding,” presented at the 101st Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, preprint 4382, Nov. 1996.

Girod, B.

F. Hartung and B. Girod, “Digital Watermarking of MPEG-2 Coded Video in the Bitstream Domain,” Proc. IEEE ICASSP, 2621–2624, April (1997).

Hartung, F.

F. Hartung and B. Girod, “Digital Watermarking of MPEG-2 Coded Video in the Bitstream Domain,” Proc. IEEE ICASSP, 2621–2624, April (1997).

Herre, J.

M. Bosi, K. Brandenburg, S. Quackenbush, L. Fielder, K. Akagiri, H. Fuchs, M. Dietz, J. Herre, G. Davidson, and Y. Oikawa, “ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding,” presented at the 101st Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, preprint 4382, Nov. 1996.

Lacy, J.

M. Blaze, J. Feigenbaum, and J. Lacy, “Decentralized Trust Management,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 164–173 (1996).

J. Lacy, D. P. Maher, and J. H. Snyder, “Music on the Internet and the Intellectual Property Protection Problem,” Proc. International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Guimaraes, Portugal, July (1997).

J. Lacy, S. Quackenbush, A. R. Reibman, D. Shur, and J. H. Snyder, “On combining watermarking with perceptual coding,” Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Sig. Proc., May (1998).

Linnartz, J.M.G.

I. J. Cox and J.M.G. Linnartz, “Public Watermarks and Resistance to Tampering,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Image Processing, Santa Barbara CA, October (1997).

Maher, D. P.

J. Lacy, D. P. Maher, and J. H. Snyder, “Music on the Internet and the Intellectual Property Protection Problem,” Proc. International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Guimaraes, Portugal, July (1997).

Oikawa, Y.

M. Bosi, K. Brandenburg, S. Quackenbush, L. Fielder, K. Akagiri, H. Fuchs, M. Dietz, J. Herre, G. Davidson, and Y. Oikawa, “ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding,” presented at the 101st Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, preprint 4382, Nov. 1996.

Quackenbush, S.

M. Bosi, K. Brandenburg, S. Quackenbush, L. Fielder, K. Akagiri, H. Fuchs, M. Dietz, J. Herre, G. Davidson, and Y. Oikawa, “ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding,” presented at the 101st Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, preprint 4382, Nov. 1996.

J. Lacy, S. Quackenbush, A. R. Reibman, D. Shur, and J. H. Snyder, “On combining watermarking with perceptual coding,” Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Sig. Proc., May (1998).

Reibman, A. R.

J. Lacy, S. Quackenbush, A. R. Reibman, D. Shur, and J. H. Snyder, “On combining watermarking with perceptual coding,” Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Sig. Proc., May (1998).

Shaw, J.

D. Boneh and J. Shaw, “Collusion-secure Fingerprinting for Digital Data,” Crypto ’95, LNCS 963, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 452–465 (1995).

Shur, D.

J. Lacy, S. Quackenbush, A. R. Reibman, D. Shur, and J. H. Snyder, “On combining watermarking with perceptual coding,” Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Sig. Proc., May (1998).

Sibert, O.

O. Sibert, D. Bernstein, and D. Van Wie, “Securing the Content, Not the Wire, for Information Commerce,” http://www.intertrust.com/architecture/stc.html.

Smith, J.

J. Smith and B. Comisky, “Modulation and Information Hiding in Images,” Proc. First International Information Hiding Workshop, LNCS 1174, Springer-Verlag, Cambridge, U.K., 207–226, May/June, (1996).
[Crossref]

Snyder, J. H.

J. Lacy, S. Quackenbush, A. R. Reibman, D. Shur, and J. H. Snyder, “On combining watermarking with perceptual coding,” Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Sig. Proc., May (1998).

J. Lacy, D. P. Maher, and J. H. Snyder, “Music on the Internet and the Intellectual Property Protection Problem,” Proc. International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Guimaraes, Portugal, July (1997).

Van Wie, D.

O. Sibert, D. Bernstein, and D. Van Wie, “Securing the Content, Not the Wire, for Information Commerce,” http://www.intertrust.com/architecture/stc.html.

Proc. IEEE ICASSP (1)

F. Hartung and B. Girod, “Digital Watermarking of MPEG-2 Coded Video in the Bitstream Domain,” Proc. IEEE ICASSP, 2621–2624, April (1997).

Other (13)

“Cryptolope Container Technology,” an IBM White Paper, http://www.cryptolope.ibm.com/white.htm.

International Federation of Phonograph Industries, Request for Proposals.

Proc. First International Information Hiding Workshop, LNCS 1174, Springer-Verlag, Cambridge, U.K., 207–226, May/June, (1996).

J. Lacy, D. P. Maher, and J. H. Snyder, “Music on the Internet and the Intellectual Property Protection Problem,” Proc. International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Guimaraes, Portugal, July (1997).

J. Lacy, S. Quackenbush, A. R. Reibman, D. Shur, and J. H. Snyder, “On combining watermarking with perceptual coding,” Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Sig. Proc., May (1998).

O. Sibert, D. Bernstein, and D. Van Wie, “Securing the Content, Not the Wire, for Information Commerce,” http://www.intertrust.com/architecture/stc.html.

J. Smith and B. Comisky, “Modulation and Information Hiding in Images,” Proc. First International Information Hiding Workshop, LNCS 1174, Springer-Verlag, Cambridge, U.K., 207–226, May/June, (1996).
[Crossref]

http://www.research.att.com/~srq/OpticsExpress

M. Bosi, K. Brandenburg, S. Quackenbush, L. Fielder, K. Akagiri, H. Fuchs, M. Dietz, J. Herre, G. Davidson, and Y. Oikawa, “ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding,” presented at the 101st Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, preprint 4382, Nov. 1996.

D. Aucsmith, “Tamper Resistant Software,” in Proceedings of the First International Information Hiding Workshop, LNCS 1174, Springer-Verlag, Cambridge, U.K., 317–334, May/June, (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Blaze, J. Feigenbaum, and J. Lacy, “Decentralized Trust Management,” in Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 164–173 (1996).

D. Boneh and J. Shaw, “Collusion-secure Fingerprinting for Digital Data,” Crypto ’95, LNCS 963, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 452–465 (1995).

I. J. Cox and J.M.G. Linnartz, “Public Watermarks and Resistance to Tampering,” Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Image Processing, Santa Barbara CA, October (1997).

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Figure 1.
Figure 1.

IP protection system

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