Abstract

We study out-of-plane coupling and switching in a semiconductor periodic waveguide structure, with attention given to both dispersion within the structure and impedence matching of an external wave with a guided mode. We show nanosecond-scale optical switching and discuss the implications for Bragg soliton excitation.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. G. Winful et. al., “Theory of bistability in nonlinear distributed feedback structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. G. Winful and G. I. Stegeman, “Applications of nonlinear periodic structures in guided wave optics,” Proc. SPIE 517, 214 (1984).
  3. J. E. Sipe and H. G. Winful, “Nonlinear Schrodinger solitons in a periodic structure,” Opt. Lett. 13, 132 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. G. Winful and C. D. Cooperman, “Self-pulsing and chaos in distributed feedback bistable optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 298 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. Chen and D. L. Mills, “Gap solitons and the nonlinear optical response of superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. L. Mills and S. E. Trullinger, “Gap solitons in nonlinear periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 947 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Envelope-function approach for the electrodynamics of nonlinear periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. A,  38, 5149 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Coupled modes and the nonlinear Schrodinger equation,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 550 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Switching dynamics of finite periodic nonlinear media: a numerical study,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. N. D. Sankey et. al., “All-optical switching in a nonlinear periodic waveguide structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1427 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  11. N. D. Sankey et. al., “Optical switching dynamics of the nonlinear Bragg reflector: comparison of theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. S. Malcuit and C. J. Herbert, “Optical properties of nonlinear periodic structures,” Acta Physica Polonica A 86, 127 (1994).
  13. J. He and M. Cada, “Optical bistability in semiconductor periodic structures,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1182 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe “Bragg grating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 627 (1996).
  15. N. G. R. Broderick, D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, “Experimental Observation of nonlinear pulse compression in nonuniform Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1837 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  16. B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, “Modulational instability and tunable multiple soliton generation in apodized fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 149, 267 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  17. Amy E. Bieber et. al., “Optical Switching in a metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3401 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  18. Amy E. Bieber and T. G. Brown, “Integral coupler-resonator for silicon-based switching and modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 861 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Peng and G. M. Morris, “Efficient implementation of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for surface-relief gratings.” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1087 (1995).
    [Crossref]

1998 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, “Modulational instability and tunable multiple soliton generation in apodized fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 149, 267 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe “Bragg grating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 627 (1996).

1995 (3)

Amy E. Bieber et. al., “Optical Switching in a metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3401 (1995).
[Crossref]

Amy E. Bieber and T. G. Brown, “Integral coupler-resonator for silicon-based switching and modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 861 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Peng and G. M. Morris, “Efficient implementation of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for surface-relief gratings.” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1087 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. S. Malcuit and C. J. Herbert, “Optical properties of nonlinear periodic structures,” Acta Physica Polonica A 86, 127 (1994).

1993 (1)

N. D. Sankey et. al., “Optical switching dynamics of the nonlinear Bragg reflector: comparison of theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

N. D. Sankey et. al., “All-optical switching in a nonlinear periodic waveguide structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1427 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. He and M. Cada, “Optical bistability in semiconductor periodic structures,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1182 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Coupled modes and the nonlinear Schrodinger equation,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 550 (1990).
[Crossref]

C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Switching dynamics of finite periodic nonlinear media: a numerical study,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Envelope-function approach for the electrodynamics of nonlinear periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. A,  38, 5149 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Sipe and H. G. Winful, “Nonlinear Schrodinger solitons in a periodic structure,” Opt. Lett. 13, 132 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

W. Chen and D. L. Mills, “Gap solitons and the nonlinear optical response of superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Mills and S. E. Trullinger, “Gap solitons in nonlinear periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 947 (1987).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

H. G. Winful and G. I. Stegeman, “Applications of nonlinear periodic structures in guided wave optics,” Proc. SPIE 517, 214 (1984).

1982 (1)

H. G. Winful and C. D. Cooperman, “Self-pulsing and chaos in distributed feedback bistable optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 298 (1982).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

H. G. Winful et. al., “Theory of bistability in nonlinear distributed feedback structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
[Crossref]

Bieber, Amy E.

Amy E. Bieber et. al., “Optical Switching in a metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3401 (1995).
[Crossref]

Amy E. Bieber and T. G. Brown, “Integral coupler-resonator for silicon-based switching and modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 861 (1995).
[Crossref]

Broderick, N. G. R.

Brown, T. G.

Amy E. Bieber and T. G. Brown, “Integral coupler-resonator for silicon-based switching and modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 861 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cada, M.

J. He and M. Cada, “Optical bistability in semiconductor periodic structures,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1182 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

W. Chen and D. L. Mills, “Gap solitons and the nonlinear optical response of superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooperman, C. D.

H. G. Winful and C. D. Cooperman, “Self-pulsing and chaos in distributed feedback bistable optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 298 (1982).
[Crossref]

de Sterke, C. M.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, “Modulational instability and tunable multiple soliton generation in apodized fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 149, 267 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe “Bragg grating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 627 (1996).

C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Coupled modes and the nonlinear Schrodinger equation,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 550 (1990).
[Crossref]

C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Switching dynamics of finite periodic nonlinear media: a numerical study,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Envelope-function approach for the electrodynamics of nonlinear periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. A,  38, 5149 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, “Modulational instability and tunable multiple soliton generation in apodized fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 149, 267 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe “Bragg grating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 627 (1996).

He, J.

J. He and M. Cada, “Optical bistability in semiconductor periodic structures,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1182 (1991).
[Crossref]

Herbert, C. J.

M. S. Malcuit and C. J. Herbert, “Optical properties of nonlinear periodic structures,” Acta Physica Polonica A 86, 127 (1994).

Ibsen, M.

Krug, P. A.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, “Modulational instability and tunable multiple soliton generation in apodized fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 149, 267 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe “Bragg grating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 627 (1996).

Laming, R. I.

Malcuit, M. S.

M. S. Malcuit and C. J. Herbert, “Optical properties of nonlinear periodic structures,” Acta Physica Polonica A 86, 127 (1994).

Mills, D. L.

W. Chen and D. L. Mills, “Gap solitons and the nonlinear optical response of superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Mills and S. E. Trullinger, “Gap solitons in nonlinear periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 947 (1987).
[Crossref]

Morris, G. M.

Peng, S.

Richardson, D. J.

Sankey, N. D.

N. D. Sankey et. al., “Optical switching dynamics of the nonlinear Bragg reflector: comparison of theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. D. Sankey et. al., “All-optical switching in a nonlinear periodic waveguide structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1427 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sipe, J. E.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, “Modulational instability and tunable multiple soliton generation in apodized fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 149, 267 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe “Bragg grating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 627 (1996).

C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Switching dynamics of finite periodic nonlinear media: a numerical study,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Coupled modes and the nonlinear Schrodinger equation,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 550 (1990).
[Crossref]

C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Envelope-function approach for the electrodynamics of nonlinear periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. A,  38, 5149 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Sipe and H. G. Winful, “Nonlinear Schrodinger solitons in a periodic structure,” Opt. Lett. 13, 132 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, “Modulational instability and tunable multiple soliton generation in apodized fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 149, 267 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe “Bragg grating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 627 (1996).

Stegeman, G. I.

H. G. Winful and G. I. Stegeman, “Applications of nonlinear periodic structures in guided wave optics,” Proc. SPIE 517, 214 (1984).

Taverner, D.

Trullinger, S. E.

D. L. Mills and S. E. Trullinger, “Gap solitons in nonlinear periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 947 (1987).
[Crossref]

Winful, H. G.

J. E. Sipe and H. G. Winful, “Nonlinear Schrodinger solitons in a periodic structure,” Opt. Lett. 13, 132 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. G. Winful and G. I. Stegeman, “Applications of nonlinear periodic structures in guided wave optics,” Proc. SPIE 517, 214 (1984).

H. G. Winful and C. D. Cooperman, “Self-pulsing and chaos in distributed feedback bistable optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 298 (1982).
[Crossref]

H. G. Winful et. al., “Theory of bistability in nonlinear distributed feedback structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
[Crossref]

Acta Physica Polonica A (1)

M. S. Malcuit and C. J. Herbert, “Optical properties of nonlinear periodic structures,” Acta Physica Polonica A 86, 127 (1994).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

N. D. Sankey et. al., “All-optical switching in a nonlinear periodic waveguide structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1427 (1992).
[Crossref]

Amy E. Bieber et. al., “Optical Switching in a metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3401 (1995).
[Crossref]

Amy E. Bieber and T. G. Brown, “Integral coupler-resonator for silicon-based switching and modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 861 (1995).
[Crossref]

H. G. Winful et. al., “Theory of bistability in nonlinear distributed feedback structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
[Crossref]

H. G. Winful and C. D. Cooperman, “Self-pulsing and chaos in distributed feedback bistable optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 298 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. D. Sankey et. al., “Optical switching dynamics of the nonlinear Bragg reflector: comparison of theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. He and M. Cada, “Optical bistability in semiconductor periodic structures,” J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1182 (1991).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe, “Modulational instability and tunable multiple soliton generation in apodized fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 149, 267 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Envelope-function approach for the electrodynamics of nonlinear periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. A,  38, 5149 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Coupled modes and the nonlinear Schrodinger equation,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 550 (1990).
[Crossref]

C. M. de Sterke and J. E. Sipe, “Switching dynamics of finite periodic nonlinear media: a numerical study,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. L. Mills and S. E. Trullinger, “Gap solitons in nonlinear periodic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 947 (1987).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

W. Chen and D. L. Mills, “Gap solitons and the nonlinear optical response of superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, C. M. de Sterke, P. A. Krug, and J. E. Sipe “Bragg grating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 627 (1996).

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. G. Winful and G. I. Stegeman, “Applications of nonlinear periodic structures in guided wave optics,” Proc. SPIE 517, 214 (1984).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the periodic structures investigated. The thicknesses t1 and t2 are optimized for each design.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

a) Reflectance spectrum for a structure designed for fourth-order coupling and second-order Bragg reflection. (t1 = 120 nm, t2 = 62 nm) b) The calculated dispersion relation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflected pulse (red/solid) for a structure optimized for λ=1064 nm at a 2.3° angle of incidence. The dashed/blue line shows the shape of the incident Nd:YAG pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental apparatus for reflectance measurement near λ=1550 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured reflectance spectrum of a structure optimized for λ=1550 nm at normal incidence. (t1 = 180 nm, t2 = 90 nm) Red trace: Experimental Results. Blue/Dashed: predicted reflectance.

Equations (1)

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N κ L Δ n N L 30

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