Abstract

Laser modulated scattering (LMS) is introduced as a tool for defect inspection and characterization of optical materials for high power laser applications. LMS is a scatter sensitive version of the well-known photothermal microscopy techniques. Because only the defects of a super-polished optic generate a scattering signal, the technique is essentially a method for dark-field photothermal microscopy. Experimental results show that the technique (1) measures the local absorption properties of defects, contamination, and laser damage sites; (2) when used in conjunction with DC scattering, can differentiate between absorbing and non-absorbing defects; and (3) detects thermal transport inhomogeneities.

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  1. T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. Nielsen, "Pulsed laser-induced damage to thin-film optical coatings. II. Theory," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2053-65 (1981).
  2. S. Papernov, A. W. Schmid, "Localized absorption effects during 351 nm, pulsed laser irradiation of dielectric multilayer thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5422-32 (1997).
  3. M. F. Koldunov, A. A. Manenkov, I.L. Pokotilo, "Thermoelastic and ablation mechanisms of laser damage to the surfaces of transparent solids," Quantum Electron. 28, 269-73 (1998).
  4. R. J. Tench, R. Chow, M. R. Kozlowski, "Characterization of defect geometries in multilayer optical coatings," J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. A 12, 2808-13, (1994).
  5. S. Papernov, A. W. Schmid, J. Anzelotti, D. Smith, Z. R. Chrzan, "AFM-mapped, nanoscale, absorber-driven laser damage in UV high-reflector multilayers," in Laser-induced damage in optical materials: 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 2714, 384-94 (1996).
  6. M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, Near-field optics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1996).
  7. P. A. Temple, "Total internal reflection microscopy: a surface inspection technique," Appl. Opt. 20, 2656-64 (1981).
  8. L. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Camp, "Application of total internal reflection microscopy for laser damage studies on fused silica," in Laser-induced damage in optical materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 3244, 282-295 (1998).
  9. W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, "Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection," Appl. Opt. 20, 1333-44 (1981).
  10. Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, C. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, "Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings," Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).
  11. M. Commandre, P. Roche, "Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection," Appl. Opt. 35, 5021-34 (1996).
  12. E. Welsch, D. Ristau, "Photothermal measurements on optical thin films," Appl. Opt. 34, 7239-53 (1995).
  13. B. Woods, M. Yan, J. DeYoreo, M. Kozlowski, H. Radouski, and Z. L. Wu, "Photothermal mapping of defects in the study of bulk damage in KDP," in Laser-induced damage in optical materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 3244, 242-48 (1998).
  14. J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, C. Desrumaux, "Nano absorbing centers: a key point in the laser damage of thin films," in Laser-induced damage in optical materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 2966, 315-25 (1997).
  15. M. D. Feit, J. Campbell, D. Faux, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Robenchik, R. Riddle, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, "Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm," in Laser-induced damage in optical materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, editors, Proc. SPIE 3244, 350-55 (1998)
  16. Craig F. Bohren and Donald R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particle (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983).

Other (16)

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. Nielsen, "Pulsed laser-induced damage to thin-film optical coatings. II. Theory," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2053-65 (1981).

S. Papernov, A. W. Schmid, "Localized absorption effects during 351 nm, pulsed laser irradiation of dielectric multilayer thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5422-32 (1997).

M. F. Koldunov, A. A. Manenkov, I.L. Pokotilo, "Thermoelastic and ablation mechanisms of laser damage to the surfaces of transparent solids," Quantum Electron. 28, 269-73 (1998).

R. J. Tench, R. Chow, M. R. Kozlowski, "Characterization of defect geometries in multilayer optical coatings," J. Vac. Sci. & Technol. A 12, 2808-13, (1994).

S. Papernov, A. W. Schmid, J. Anzelotti, D. Smith, Z. R. Chrzan, "AFM-mapped, nanoscale, absorber-driven laser damage in UV high-reflector multilayers," in Laser-induced damage in optical materials: 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 2714, 384-94 (1996).

M. A. Paesler, P. J. Moyer, Near-field optics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1996).

P. A. Temple, "Total internal reflection microscopy: a surface inspection technique," Appl. Opt. 20, 2656-64 (1981).

L. Sheehan, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Camp, "Application of total internal reflection microscopy for laser damage studies on fused silica," in Laser-induced damage in optical materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 3244, 282-295 (1998).

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, "Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection," Appl. Opt. 20, 1333-44 (1981).

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, C. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, "Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings," Opt. Eng. 36, 251-262 (1997).

M. Commandre, P. Roche, "Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection," Appl. Opt. 35, 5021-34 (1996).

E. Welsch, D. Ristau, "Photothermal measurements on optical thin films," Appl. Opt. 34, 7239-53 (1995).

B. Woods, M. Yan, J. DeYoreo, M. Kozlowski, H. Radouski, and Z. L. Wu, "Photothermal mapping of defects in the study of bulk damage in KDP," in Laser-induced damage in optical materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 3244, 242-48 (1998).

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, C. Desrumaux, "Nano absorbing centers: a key point in the laser damage of thin films," in Laser-induced damage in optical materials: 1996, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 2966, 315-25 (1997).

M. D. Feit, J. Campbell, D. Faux, F. Y. Genin, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Robenchik, R. Riddle, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, "Modeling of laser-induced surface cracks in silica at 355 nm," in Laser-induced damage in optical materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, and M. J. Soileau, editors, Proc. SPIE 3244, 350-55 (1998)

Craig F. Bohren and Donald R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particle (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983).

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