Abstract

Security certification of quantum key distribution systems with a practical device is essential for their social deployment. Considering the transmitter, we investigate quantum state generation affected by degraded electrical signals from practical bandwidth-limited devices on high-speed phase-encoding BB84 quantum key distribution systems. The state preparation flaw caused by this degradation undesirably enhances the distinguishability between the two bases for the BB84 protocol and decreases the key generation rate. We propose the state preparation with a dual parallel modulator for increasing the robustness to signal degradation. To verify the effectiveness of the dual parallel modulator, we characterize the generated states using state tomography and estimate the key generation rate based on the Gottesman–Lo–Lütkenhaus–Preskill theory with fidelity derived from the estimated density matrices. Simulation results show that the key generation rate remains unaffected by modulation voltage shifts up to 20%.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

S. Wang, D. He, Z. Yin, F. Lu, C. Cui, W. Chen, Z. Zhou, G. Guo, and Z. Han, “Beating the fundamental rate-distance limit in a proof-of-principle quantum key distribution system,” Phys. Rev. X 9(2), 021046 (2019).
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[Crossref]

2018 (4)

2016 (1)

K. Tamaki, M. Curty, and M. Lucamarani, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with a leaky source,” New J. Phys. 18(6), 065008 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

S. Wang, W. Chen, Z. Yin, H. Li, D. He, Y. Li, Z. Zhou, X. Song, F. Li, D. Wang, H. Chen, Y. Han, J. Huang, J. Guo, P. Hao, M. Li, C. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Liang, C. Miao, P. Wu, G. Guo, and Z. Han, “Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21739–21756 (2014).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, “Secure quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 595–604 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Tamaki, M. Curty, G. Kato, H.-K. Lo, and K. Azuma, “Loss-tolerant quantum cryptography with imperfect sources,” Phys. Rev. A 90(5), 052314 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2009 (1)

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2005 (3)

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

X.-B. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230503 (2005).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, “Efficient quantum key distribution scheme and proof of its unconditional security,” J. Cryptology 18(2), 133–165 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

T. Kimura, Y. Nambu, T. Hatanaka, A. Tomita, H. Kosaka, and K. Nakamura, “Single-photon interference over 150 km Transmission using silica-based integrated-optic interferometers for quantum cryptography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A/B), L1217–L1219 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Nambu, T. Hatanaka, and K. Nakamura, “B84 quantum key distribution system based on silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), L1109–L1110 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, “Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices,” Quantum Inf. Comput. 4(5), 135 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(5), 057901 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

D. F. V. James, P. Kwiat, W. Munro, and A. White, “Measurement of qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 64(5), 052312 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Bonfrate, M. Harlow, C. Ford, G. Maxwell, and P. D. Townsend, “Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder germane-silicate channel waveguide interferometers for quantum cryptography systems,” Electron. Lett. 37(13), 846–847 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

P. W. Shor and J. Preskill, “Simple proof of the BB84 quantum key distribution system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 441–444 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Quantum key distribution over a 48 km optical fibre network,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(2–3), 533–547 (2000).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

S. M. Barnett, B. Huttner, and S. J. Phoenix, “Eavesdropping strategies and rejected-data protocols in quantum cryptography,” J. Mod. Opt. 40(12), 2501–2513 (1993).
[Crossref]

Allacher, A.

Alléaume, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ardehali, M.

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, “Efficient quantum key distribution scheme and proof of its unconditional security,” J. Cryptology 18(2), 133–165 (2005).
[Crossref]

Asai, T.

Azuma, K.

K. Tamaki, M. Curty, G. Kato, H.-K. Lo, and K. Azuma, “Loss-tolerant quantum cryptography with imperfect sources,” Phys. Rev. A 90(5), 052314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S. M.

S. M. Barnett, B. Huttner, and S. J. Phoenix, “Eavesdropping strategies and rejected-data protocols in quantum cryptography,” J. Mod. Opt. 40(12), 2501–2513 (1993).
[Crossref]

Barreiro, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Syst. Signal Process., Bangalore, India, 175–179 (1984).

Bonfrate, G.

G. Bonfrate, M. Harlow, C. Ford, G. Maxwell, and P. D. Townsend, “Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder germane-silicate channel waveguide interferometers for quantum cryptography systems,” Electron. Lett. 37(13), 846–847 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bouda, J.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boxleitner, W.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Syst. Signal Process., Bangalore, India, 175–179 (1984).

Buntschu, F.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chau, H. F.

H.-K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, “Efficient quantum key distribution scheme and proof of its unconditional security,” J. Cryptology 18(2), 133–165 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, Q.

Chen, T.-Y.

Chen, W.

Chiba, A.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, A. Chiba, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, J. Ichikawa, T. Lee, and V. Filsinger, “High-speed dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator using thin lithium niobate substrate,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, USA, 1–3 (2008).

Clausen, B.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cui, C.

S. Wang, D. He, Z. Yin, F. Lu, C. Cui, W. Chen, Z. Zhou, G. Guo, and Z. Han, “Beating the fundamental rate-distance limit in a proof-of-principle quantum key distribution system,” Phys. Rev. X 9(2), 021046 (2019).
[Crossref]

Curty, M.

K. Tamaki, M. Curty, and M. Lucamarani, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with a leaky source,” New J. Phys. 18(6), 065008 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Tamaki, M. Curty, G. Kato, H.-K. Lo, and K. Azuma, “Loss-tolerant quantum cryptography with imperfect sources,” Phys. Rev. A 90(5), 052314 (2014).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, “Secure quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 595–604 (2014).
[Crossref]

Debuisschert, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Diamanti, E.

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X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 012326 (2005).
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Marhold, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Song, X.

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Suda, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sumiya, T.

K. Yoshino, M. Fujiwara, K. Nakata, T. Sumiya, T. Sasaki, M. Takeoka, M. Sasaki, A. Tajima, M. Koashi, and A. Tomita, “Quantum key distribution with an efficient countermeasure against correlated intensity fluctuations in optical pulses,” Npj Quantum Inf. 4(1), 8 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tajima, A.

K. Yoshino, M. Fujiwara, K. Nakata, T. Sumiya, T. Sasaki, M. Takeoka, M. Sasaki, A. Tajima, M. Koashi, and A. Tomita, “Quantum key distribution with an efficient countermeasure against correlated intensity fluctuations in optical pulses,” Npj Quantum Inf. 4(1), 8 (2018).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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K. Yoshino, A. Tanaka, Y. Nambu, A. Tajima, and A. Tomita, “Dual-mode time-bin coding for quantum key distribution using dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Eur. Conf. Exhibit. Opt. Commun., Berlin, Germany, 1–2 (2007).

Takahashi, S.

Takeoka, M.

Takesue, H.

Tamaki, K.

Tamas, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Tanaka, A.

Tavares, J.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Themel, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thew, R.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thew, R. T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thoma, Y.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tokura, T.

Tokura, Y.

Tomita, A.

K. Yoshino, M. Fujiwara, K. Nakata, T. Sumiya, T. Sasaki, M. Takeoka, M. Sasaki, A. Tajima, M. Koashi, and A. Tomita, “Quantum key distribution with an efficient countermeasure against correlated intensity fluctuations in optical pulses,” Npj Quantum Inf. 4(1), 8 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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T. Kimura, Y. Nambu, T. Hatanaka, A. Tomita, H. Kosaka, and K. Nakamura, “Single-photon interference over 150 km Transmission using silica-based integrated-optic interferometers for quantum cryptography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 9A/B), L1217–L1219 (2004).
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K. Yoshino, A. Tanaka, Y. Nambu, A. Tajima, and A. Tomita, “Dual-mode time-bin coding for quantum key distribution using dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Eur. Conf. Exhibit. Opt. Commun., Berlin, Germany, 1–2 (2007).

Townsend, P. D.

G. Bonfrate, M. Harlow, C. Ford, G. Maxwell, and P. D. Townsend, “Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder germane-silicate channel waveguide interferometers for quantum cryptography systems,” Electron. Lett. 37(13), 846–847 (2001).
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Treiber, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Trinkler, P.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsurumaru, T.

Tualle-Brouri, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Uchikoga, S.

Vannel, F.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ventura, S.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Voirol, R.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wakui, K.

Walenta, N.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Wang, B.-X.

Wang, C.

Wang, D.

Wang, G.

Wang, H.

Wang, Q.

J. Liu, H. Ding, C. Zhang, S. Xie, and Q. Wang, “Practical Phase-Modulation Stabilization in Quantum Key Distribution via Machine learning,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(1), 014059 (2019).
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Wang, R.

Wang, S.

Wang, X.-B.

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Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Weier, H.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Weinfurter, H.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Wimberger, I.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.

Xie, S.

J. Liu, H. Ding, C. Zhang, S. Xie, and Q. Wang, “Practical Phase-Modulation Stabilization in Quantum Key Distribution via Machine learning,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(1), 014059 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, T.

Yin, Z.

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K. Yoshino, M. Fujiwara, K. Nakata, T. Sumiya, T. Sasaki, M. Takeoka, M. Sasaki, A. Tajima, M. Koashi, and A. Tomita, “Quantum key distribution with an efficient countermeasure against correlated intensity fluctuations in optical pulses,” Npj Quantum Inf. 4(1), 8 (2018).
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[Crossref]

K. Yoshino, A. Tanaka, Y. Nambu, A. Tajima, and A. Tomita, “Dual-mode time-bin coding for quantum key distribution using dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Eur. Conf. Exhibit. Opt. Commun., Berlin, Germany, 1–2 (2007).

Yuan, G.

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G. L. Roberts, M. Pittaluga, M. Minder, M. Lucamarini, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Pattern-effect-free intensity modulator for secure decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Opt. Lett. 43(20), 5110–5113 (2018).
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[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13(12), 123001 (2011).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11(7), 075001 (2009).
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Zhang, C.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, C.

Zhao, Y.

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K. Yoshino, A. Tanaka, Y. Nambu, A. Tajima, and A. Tomita, “Dual-mode time-bin coding for quantum key distribution using dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Eur. Conf. Exhibit. Opt. Commun., Berlin, Germany, 1–2 (2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Typical implementation of phase-encoding BB84 QKD system (LD, laser diode; AMZI, asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer; PM, phase modulator; ATT, attenuator; PD, photon detector). The inset shows a deformed square wave observed in a high-speed QKD system. A 20% fluctuation occurs in point A and B in square wave.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of DDM ( ${{E}_\textrm{i}}$ , electric field of input light; ${{V}_\phi }$ , applied voltage to electrodes; $\phi $ , phase shift; ${{E}_{o}}$ , electric field of output light). DDM is based on MZI and modulates light intensity and phase by applying phase shifts independently on upper and lower paths.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic of DPM ( ${E_\textrm{i}}$ , electric field of input light; ${V_\phi }$ , applied voltage to electrodes; $\phi $ , phase shift; ${E_\textrm{o}}$ , electric field of output light; MZM, Mach–Zehnder modulator; i, $\pi /2$ phase shift). DPM is constructed with two push–pull Mach–Zehnder modulators connected in parallel.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental setup to investigate the effect of voltage shifts on phase-encoding BB84 QKD system (Iso, isolator; PC, polarization controller; PLC, planar light-wave circuit; PM, phase modulator; PPG, pulse pattern generator; ${V_\phi }$ , applied voltage to electrodes).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Reconstructed state ${\rho _X}$ with DDM (a) without voltage variation and with (b) 25% DC bias and (c) 25% AC amplitude change. Reconstructed state ${\rho _X}$ with DPM (d) without voltage variation and with (e) 25% DC bias and (f) 25% AC amplitude change.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Fidelity according to DC bias. (b) Fidelity according to pulse amplitude (AC). Squares and stars represent the measured values for DDM and DPM, respectively. The solid and dotted lines represent the theoretical values for DDM and DPM, respectively.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Final key generation rate by (a) DC and (b) AC variations in the modulator. Dashed lines represent voltage deviation of 0 (red), 0.05 ${{V}_{\pi}}$ (blue) and 0.1 ${{V}_{\pi}}$ (black) in DDM. Solid lines represent voltage deviation of 0 (red), 0.05 ${{V}_{\pi}}$ (blue), and 0.1 ${{V}_{\pi}}$ (black) and 0.2 ${{V}_{\pi}}$ (green)in DPM.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Phase shifts in DDM to generate photon states X0, X1, Y0, and Y1. Variable $\phi _{i}^{({j} )}$ (i = 1, 2, j = 0, 1) denotes phase applied to i-th electrode for state $|{j}\rangle$ .

Tables Icon

Table 2. Phase shifts in DPM to generate photon states X0, X1, Y0, and Y1. Variable $\phi _{i}^{({j} )}$ (i = 1, 2, j = 0, 1) denotes phase applied to i-th electrode for state $|{j}\rangle$ .

Tables Icon

Table 3. Parameters for key generation rate

Equations (30)

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$$\Delta = \frac{{1 - {\mathop{F}\nolimits} ({{\rho_{\rm X}},{\rho_{\rm Y}}} )}}{2},$$
$${\mathop{F}\nolimits} ({{\rho_{\rm X}},{\rho_{\rm Y}}} ) = \textrm{tr}\left( {\sqrt {{{\left( {\sqrt {{\rho_{\rm X}}} \sqrt {{\rho_{\rm Y}}} } \right)}^\dagger }\sqrt {{\rho_{\rm X}}} \sqrt {{\rho_{\rm Y}}} } } \right).$$
$${\delta ^{\prime}_{\rm Y}} = {\delta _{\rm Y}} + 4\Delta + 4\sqrt {\Delta {\delta _{\rm Y}}}.$$
$$R \ge q[{{{Q}_1}({1 - H({{\delta^{\prime}_{\rm Y}} })} )- {Q_{\rm s}}fH({\delta_{\rm X}})} ],$$
$${E_o} = \frac{1}{2}({{e^{i{\phi_1}}} + {e^{i{\phi_2}}}} )= \cos \frac{{{\phi _1} - {\phi _2}}}{2}{e^{i\frac{{{\phi _1} + {\phi _2}}}{2}}}{E_i}.$$
$$|\Psi \rangle=\frac{1}{{\sqrt 2 }}\sum\limits_{j = 0,1} {\exp (} i\frac{{\phi _1^j + \phi _2^j}}{2})\cos \frac{{{\phi _1}^j - {\phi _2}^j}}{2}|j \rangle .$$
$$\begin{array}{c} {\textrm{exp}\left( {i\frac{{\phi_1^{(j )} + ({\phi_2^{(j )} + \varepsilon } )}}{2}} \right)\cos \frac{{\phi _1^{(j )} - ({\phi_2^{(j )} + \varepsilon } )}}{2}}\\ { = \textrm{exp}\left( {i\frac{{\phi_1^{(j )} + \phi_2^{(j )}}}{2}} \right)\left[ {({1 + i\varepsilon } )\cos \frac{{\phi_1^{(j )} - \phi_2^{(j )}}}{2} + \varepsilon \sin \frac{{\phi_1^{(j )} - \phi_2^{(j )}}}{2}} \right]} \end{array}$$
$${E_o} = \frac{{\cos {\phi _1} + i\cos {\phi _2}}}{{\sqrt 2 }}{E_i}.$$
$$|{\Psi}\rangle = \frac{1}{{\sqrt {\mathop \sum \nolimits_{j = 0.1} ({{{\cos }^2}{\phi_1}^{(j )} + {{\cos }^2}{\phi_2}^{(j )}} )} }}\mathop \sum \nolimits_{j = 0,1} ({\cos {\phi_1}^{(j )} + i\cos {\phi_2}^{(j )}} )|j\rangle.$$
$$\cos ({\phi _2} + \varepsilon ) = \cos {\phi _2}(1 - \frac{1}{{2!}}{\varepsilon ^2} + \frac{1}{{4!}}{\varepsilon ^4} - \cdots ),$$
$${\rho _\textrm{X}} = \frac{1}{2}(|{{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 0^{\prime}} \rangle \left\langle {{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 0^{\prime}} \right|+ |{{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 1^{\prime}} \rangle \left\langle {{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 1^{\prime}} \right|).$$
$$\rho = \frac{1}{2}\sum\limits_{i = 0}^3 {\frac{{{S_i}}}{{{S_0}}}{\sigma _i}} ,$$
$${S_0} = 2{n_0},$$
$${S_1} = 2({n_1} - {n_0}),$$
$${S_2} = 2({n_2} - {n_0}),$$
$${S_3} = 2({n_3} - {n_0}).$$
$${n_0} = \frac{N}{2}(\left\langle 0 \right|{\rho _X}|0 \rangle + \left\langle 1 \right|{\rho _X}|1 \rangle ) = \frac{N}{2}(P({{\mathop{\rm Z}\nolimits} 0|{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 0^{\prime}} )+ P({{\mathop{\rm Z}\nolimits} 0|{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 1^{\prime}} )+ P({{\mathop{\rm Z}\nolimits} 1|{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 0^{\prime}} )+ P({{\mathop{\rm Z}\nolimits} 1|{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 1^{\prime}} )),$$
$${n_1} = \frac{N}{2}(\left\langle 0 \right|{\rho _X}|0 \rangle ) = N(P({{\mathop{\rm Z}\nolimits} 0|{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 0^{\prime}} )+ P({{\mathop{\rm Z}\nolimits} 0|{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 1^{\prime}} )),$$
$${n_2} = \frac{N}{2}(\left\langle {{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 1} \right|{\rho _X}|{{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 1} \rangle ) = N(P({{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 1|{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 0^{\prime}} )+ P({{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 1|{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 1^{\prime}} )),$$
$${n_3} = \frac{N}{2}(\left\langle {{\mathop{\rm Y}\nolimits} 1} \right|{\rho _X}|{{\mathop{\rm Y}\nolimits} 1} \rangle = N(P({{\mathop{\rm Y}\nolimits} 1|{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 0^{\prime}} )+ P({{\mathop{\rm Y}\nolimits} 1|{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 1^{\prime}} )),$$
$$P({\mathop{\rm Z}\nolimits} 0|{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 0^{\prime}) = \frac{{I({\mathop{\rm Z}\nolimits} 0|{\rm X}0^{\prime})}}{{I({\mathop{\rm Z}\nolimits} 0|{\rm X}0^{\prime}) + I({\mathop{\rm Z}\nolimits} 1|{\rm X}0^{\prime})}},$$
$${e_{i, j}} = \frac{1}{{{S_{{\mu _j}}}}}\left[ {\left( {1 - \exp \left( { - \eta {\mu_j}{{10}^{ - \frac{{\alpha l}}{{10}}}}} \right)} \right){E_i} + \frac{1}{2}\exp \left( { - \eta {\mu_j}{{10}^{ - \frac{{\alpha l}}{{10}}}}} \right){y_0}} \right], i = \textrm{X},\textrm{Y}, j = \textrm{d},\textrm{s}$$
$${S_{{\mu _\textrm{d}}}} = 1 + ( - 1 + {y_0})\exp \left( { - \eta {\mu_\textrm{d}}{{10}^{ - \frac{{\alpha l}}{{10}}}}} \right),$$
$${S_{{\mu _\textrm{s}}}} = 1 + ( - 1 + {y_0})\exp \left( { - \eta {\mu_\textrm{s}}{{10}^{ - \frac{{\alpha l}}{{10}}}}} \right).$$
$${E_i} = \frac{{1 - {v_i}}}{2}.$$
$${v_{\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} } = \frac{{I({\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 0|{\rm X}0^{\prime}) - I({\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 1|{\rm X}0^{\prime})}}{{I({\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 0|{\rm X}0^{\prime}) + I({\mathop{\rm X}\nolimits} 1|{\rm X}0^{\prime})}},$$
$${v_{\mathop{\rm Y}\nolimits} } = \frac{{I({\mathop{\rm Y}\nolimits} 0|{\rm Y}0^{\prime}) - I({\mathop{\rm Y}\nolimits} 1|{\rm Y}0^{\prime})}}{{I({\mathop{\rm Y}\nolimits} 0|{\rm Y}0^{\prime}) + I({\mathop{\rm Y}\nolimits} 1|{\rm Y}0^{\prime})}}.$$
$${e_1} \le \frac{{{e_{{\rm Yd}}}{e^{{\mu _{\rm d}}}} - {e_0}{y_0}}}{{y_1^{L,{\mu _{\rm d}},0}{\mu _{\rm d}}}},$$
$$y_1^{L,{\mu _{\rm d}},0} = \frac{{{\mu _{\rm s}}}}{{{\mu _{\rm d}}{\mu _{\rm s}} - {\mu _{\rm d}}^2}}({Q_\textrm{d}}{e^{{\mu _{\rm s}}}} - {Q_\textrm{s}}{e^{{\mu _{\rm d}}}}\frac{{{\mu _{\rm d}}^2}}{{{\mu _{\rm s}}^2}} - \frac{{{\mu _{\rm s}}^2 - {\mu _{\rm d}}^2}}{{{\mu _{\rm s}}^2}}{y_0}),$$
$${Q_1} \ge Q_1^{L,{\mu _{\rm d}},0} = \frac{{\mu _{\rm s}^2}}{{{\mu _{\rm d}}{\mu _{\rm s}} - {\mu _{\rm d}}^2}}({S_{{\mu _{\rm d}}}}{e^{{\mu _{\rm s}}}} - {S_{{\mu _{\rm s}}}}{e^{{\mu _{\rm d}}}}\frac{{{\mu _{\rm d}}^2}}{{{\mu _{\rm s}}^2}} - \frac{{{\mu _{\rm s}}^2 - {\mu _{\rm d}}^2}}{{{\mu _{\rm s}}^2}}{y_0}),$$

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