Abstract

Dark plasmonic modes have interesting properties, including longer lifetimes and narrower linewidths than their radiative counterpart, and little to no radiative losses. However, they have not been extensively studied yet due to their optical inaccessibility. In this work, we systematically investigated the dark radial breathing modes (RBMs) in monocrystalline gold nanodisks, specifically their outcoupling behavior into the far-field by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Increasing the substrate thickness resulted in an up to 4-fold enhanced visibility. This is attributed to breaking the mirror symmetry by the high-index substrate, creating an effective dipole moment. Furthermore, the resonance energy of the dark RMBs can be easily tuned by varying the nanodisk diameter, making them promising candidates for nanophotonic applications.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  3. T. Christensen, W. Yan, A.-P. Jauho, M. Soljačić, and N. A. Mortensen, “Quantum corrections in nanoplasmonics: Shape, scale, and material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(15), 157402 (2017).
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    [Crossref]
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  8. S. Raza, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 27(18), 183204 (2015).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  14. A. Polman, M. Kociak, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Electron-beam spectroscopy for nanophotonics,” Nat. Mater. 18(11), 1158–1171 (2019).
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  22. A. G. Brolo, “Plasmonics for future biosensors,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 709–713 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. F. Ding, A. Pors, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gradient metasurfaces: a review of fundamentals and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81(2), 026401 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmon-enhanced generation of nonclassical light,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3447–3451 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  26. K. Busch, M. König, and J. Niegemann, “Discontinuous Galerkin methods in nanophotonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(6), 773–809 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. C. Matyssek, J. Niegemann, W. Hergert, and K. Busch, “Computing electron energy loss spectra with the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method,” Photonic. Nanostruct. Fund. Appl. 9(4), 367–373 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  28. X. Cui, F. Qin, Q. Ruan, X. Zhuo, and J. Wang, “Circular gold nanodisks with synthetically tunable diameters and thicknesses,” Adv. Func. Mater. 28(11), 1705516 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  30. E. P. Bellido, D. Rossouw, and G. A. Botton, “Toward 10 meV electron energy-loss spectroscopy resolution for plasmonics,” Microsc. Microanal. 20(3), 767–778 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  31. B. Schröder, T. Weber, S. V. Yalunin, T. Kiel, C. Matyssek, M. Sivis, S. Schäfer, F. von Cube, S. Irsen, K. Busch, C. Ropers, and S. Linden, “Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 92(8), 085411 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. Bosman and V. J. Keast, “Optimizing EELS acquisition,” Ultramicroscopy 108(9), 837–846 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  34. F. Schertz, M. Schmelzeisen, R. Mohammadi, M. Kreiter, H.-J. Elmers, and G. Schönhense, “Near field of strongly coupled plasmons: Uncovering dark modes,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1885–1890 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  35. H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  36. S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Beleggia, N. A. Mortensen, and J. B. Wagner, “The substrate effect in electron energy-loss spectroscopy of localized surface plasmons in gold and silver nanoparticles,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 251–261 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

A. Polman, M. Kociak, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Electron-beam spectroscopy for nanophotonics,” Nat. Mater. 18(11), 1158–1171 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

X. Cui, F. Qin, Q. Ruan, X. Zhuo, and J. Wang, “Circular gold nanodisks with synthetically tunable diameters and thicknesses,” Adv. Func. Mater. 28(11), 1705516 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, A. Pors, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gradient metasurfaces: a review of fundamentals and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81(2), 026401 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmon-enhanced generation of nonclassical light,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3447–3451 (2018).
[Crossref]

F.-P. Schmidt, A. Losquin, F. Hofer, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and M. Kociak, “How dark are radial breathing modes in plasmonic nanodisks?” ACS Photonics 5(3), 861–866 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

R. Yu, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Universal analytical modeling of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(22), 6710–6724 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Christensen, W. Yan, A.-P. Jauho, M. Soljačić, and N. A. Mortensen, “Quantum corrections in nanoplasmonics: Shape, scale, and material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(15), 157402 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Unrelenting plasmons,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 8–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Beleggia, N. A. Mortensen, and J. B. Wagner, “The substrate effect in electron energy-loss spectroscopy of localized surface plasmons in gold and silver nanoparticles,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 251–261 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

A. Hille, M. Moeferdt, C. Wolff, C. Matyssek, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, C. Prohm, J. Niegemann, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, and K. Busch, “Second harmonic generation from metal nano-particle resonators: Numerical analysis on the basis of the hydrodynamic drude model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 1163–1169 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Walther, S. Fritz, E. Müller, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, W. Sigle, T. Maniv, H. Cohen, C. Matyssek, and K. Busch, “Coupling of surface-plasmon-polariton-hybridized cavity modes between submicron slits in a thin gold film,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 836–843 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

S. Raza, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Di Vece, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, and N. Stenger, “Multipole plasmons and their disappearance in few-nanometer silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8788 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Raza, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 27(18), 183204 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Schröder, T. Weber, S. V. Yalunin, T. Kiel, C. Matyssek, M. Sivis, S. Schäfer, F. von Cube, S. Irsen, K. Busch, C. Ropers, and S. Linden, “Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 92(8), 085411 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

E. P. Bellido, D. Rossouw, and G. A. Botton, “Toward 10 meV electron energy-loss spectroscopy resolution for plasmonics,” Microsc. Microanal. 20(3), 767–778 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Panaro, A. Nazir, C. Liberale, G. Das, H. Wang, F. De Angelis, R. Proietti Zaccaria, E. Di Fabrizio, and A. Toma, “Dark to bright mode conversion on dipolar nanoantennas: A symmetry-breaking approach,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 310–314 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Christensen, W. Yan, S. Raza, A.-P. Jauho, N. A. Mortensen, and M. Wubs, “Nonlocal response of metallic nanospheres probed by light, electrons, and atoms,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1745–1758 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. K. Krug, M. Reisecker, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, and J. R. Krenn, “Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171103 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kociak and O. Stéphan, “Mapping plasmons at the nanometer scale in an electron microscope,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(11), 3865–3883 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, “From isolated metaatoms to photonic metamaterials: Evolution of the plasmonic near-field,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 703–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

A. G. Brolo, “Plasmonics for future biosensors,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 709–713 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Schertz, M. Schmelzeisen, R. Mohammadi, M. Kreiter, H.-J. Elmers, and G. Schönhense, “Near field of strongly coupled plasmons: Uncovering dark modes,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1885–1890 (2012).
[Crossref]

F.-P. Schmidt, H. Ditlbacher, U. Hohenester, A. Hohenau, F. Hofer, and J. R. Krenn, “Dark plasmonic breathing modes in silver nanodisks,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5780–5783 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Raza, G. Toscano, A.-P. Jauho, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Unusual resonances in nanoplasmonic structures due to nonlocal response,” Phys. Rev. B 84(12), 121412 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Busch, M. König, and J. Niegemann, “Discontinuous Galerkin methods in nanophotonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(6), 773–809 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Matyssek, J. Niegemann, W. Hergert, and K. Busch, “Computing electron energy loss spectra with the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method,” Photonic. Nanostruct. Fund. Appl. 9(4), 367–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical excitations in electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 209–275 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. J. García de Abajo and M. Kociak, “Probing the photonic local density of states with electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 106804 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Bosman and V. J. Keast, “Optimizing EELS acquisition,” Ultramicroscopy 108(9), 837–846 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Beleggia, M.

S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Beleggia, N. A. Mortensen, and J. B. Wagner, “The substrate effect in electron energy-loss spectroscopy of localized surface plasmons in gold and silver nanoparticles,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 251–261 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bellido, E. P.

E. P. Bellido, D. Rossouw, and G. A. Botton, “Toward 10 meV electron energy-loss spectroscopy resolution for plasmonics,” Microsc. Microanal. 20(3), 767–778 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bøggild, P.

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Boisen, A.

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bosman, M.

M. Bosman and V. J. Keast, “Optimizing EELS acquisition,” Ultramicroscopy 108(9), 837–846 (2008).
[Crossref]

Botton, G. A.

E. P. Bellido, D. Rossouw, and G. A. Botton, “Toward 10 meV electron energy-loss spectroscopy resolution for plasmonics,” Microsc. Microanal. 20(3), 767–778 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

F. Ding, A. Pors, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gradient metasurfaces: a review of fundamentals and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81(2), 026401 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmon-enhanced generation of nonclassical light,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3447–3451 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Raza, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 27(18), 183204 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brolo, A. G.

A. G. Brolo, “Plasmonics for future biosensors,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 709–713 (2012).
[Crossref]

Busch, K.

R. Walther, S. Fritz, E. Müller, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, W. Sigle, T. Maniv, H. Cohen, C. Matyssek, and K. Busch, “Coupling of surface-plasmon-polariton-hybridized cavity modes between submicron slits in a thin gold film,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 836–843 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Hille, M. Moeferdt, C. Wolff, C. Matyssek, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, C. Prohm, J. Niegemann, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, and K. Busch, “Second harmonic generation from metal nano-particle resonators: Numerical analysis on the basis of the hydrodynamic drude model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 1163–1169 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Schröder, T. Weber, S. V. Yalunin, T. Kiel, C. Matyssek, M. Sivis, S. Schäfer, F. von Cube, S. Irsen, K. Busch, C. Ropers, and S. Linden, “Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 92(8), 085411 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, “From isolated metaatoms to photonic metamaterials: Evolution of the plasmonic near-field,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 703–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Busch, M. König, and J. Niegemann, “Discontinuous Galerkin methods in nanophotonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(6), 773–809 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Matyssek, J. Niegemann, W. Hergert, and K. Busch, “Computing electron energy loss spectra with the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method,” Photonic. Nanostruct. Fund. Appl. 9(4), 367–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Christensen, T.

T. Christensen, W. Yan, A.-P. Jauho, M. Soljačić, and N. A. Mortensen, “Quantum corrections in nanoplasmonics: Shape, scale, and material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(15), 157402 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Beleggia, N. A. Mortensen, and J. B. Wagner, “The substrate effect in electron energy-loss spectroscopy of localized surface plasmons in gold and silver nanoparticles,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 251–261 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Raza, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Di Vece, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, and N. Stenger, “Multipole plasmons and their disappearance in few-nanometer silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8788 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Christensen, W. Yan, S. Raza, A.-P. Jauho, N. A. Mortensen, and M. Wubs, “Nonlocal response of metallic nanospheres probed by light, electrons, and atoms,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1745–1758 (2014).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Chu, M.-W.

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cohen, H.

R. Walther, S. Fritz, E. Müller, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, W. Sigle, T. Maniv, H. Cohen, C. Matyssek, and K. Busch, “Coupling of surface-plasmon-polariton-hybridized cavity modes between submicron slits in a thin gold film,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 836–843 (2016).
[Crossref]

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cui, X.

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Cui, F. Qin, Q. Ruan, X. Zhuo, and J. Wang, “Circular gold nanodisks with synthetically tunable diameters and thicknesses,” Adv. Func. Mater. 28(11), 1705516 (2018).
[Crossref]

Das, G.

S. Panaro, A. Nazir, C. Liberale, G. Das, H. Wang, F. De Angelis, R. Proietti Zaccaria, E. Di Fabrizio, and A. Toma, “Dark to bright mode conversion on dipolar nanoantennas: A symmetry-breaking approach,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 310–314 (2014).
[Crossref]

De Angelis, F.

S. Panaro, A. Nazir, C. Liberale, G. Das, H. Wang, F. De Angelis, R. Proietti Zaccaria, E. Di Fabrizio, and A. Toma, “Dark to bright mode conversion on dipolar nanoantennas: A symmetry-breaking approach,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 310–314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deng, J.-P.

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Di Fabrizio, E.

S. Panaro, A. Nazir, C. Liberale, G. Das, H. Wang, F. De Angelis, R. Proietti Zaccaria, E. Di Fabrizio, and A. Toma, “Dark to bright mode conversion on dipolar nanoantennas: A symmetry-breaking approach,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 310–314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Di Vece, M.

S. Raza, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Di Vece, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, and N. Stenger, “Multipole plasmons and their disappearance in few-nanometer silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8788 (2015).
[Crossref]

Diehl, R.

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, “From isolated metaatoms to photonic metamaterials: Evolution of the plasmonic near-field,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 703–708 (2013).
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F. Ding, A. Pors, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gradient metasurfaces: a review of fundamentals and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81(2), 026401 (2018).
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Ditlbacher, H.

M. K. Krug, M. Reisecker, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, and J. R. Krenn, “Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171103 (2014).
[Crossref]

F.-P. Schmidt, H. Ditlbacher, U. Hohenester, A. Hohenau, F. Hofer, and J. R. Krenn, “Dark plasmonic breathing modes in silver nanodisks,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5780–5783 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dorpe, P. V.

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref]

Elmers, H.-J.

F. Schertz, M. Schmelzeisen, R. Mohammadi, M. Kreiter, H.-J. Elmers, and G. Schönhense, “Near field of strongly coupled plasmons: Uncovering dark modes,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1885–1890 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eng, L. M.

A. Hille, M. Moeferdt, C. Wolff, C. Matyssek, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, C. Prohm, J. Niegemann, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, and K. Busch, “Second harmonic generation from metal nano-particle resonators: Numerical analysis on the basis of the hydrodynamic drude model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 1163–1169 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fernández-Domínguez, A. I.

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmon-enhanced generation of nonclassical light,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3447–3451 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Unrelenting plasmons,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 8–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fritz, S.

R. Walther, S. Fritz, E. Müller, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, W. Sigle, T. Maniv, H. Cohen, C. Matyssek, and K. Busch, “Coupling of surface-plasmon-polariton-hybridized cavity modes between submicron slits in a thin gold film,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 836–843 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gammelgaard, L.

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

García de Abajo, F. J.

A. Polman, M. Kociak, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Electron-beam spectroscopy for nanophotonics,” Nat. Mater. 18(11), 1158–1171 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Yu, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Universal analytical modeling of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(22), 6710–6724 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical excitations in electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 209–275 (2010).
[Crossref]

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. J. García de Abajo and M. Kociak, “Probing the photonic local density of states with electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 106804 (2008).
[Crossref]

García-Vidal, F. J.

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Unrelenting plasmons,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 8–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Geisler, M.

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gerthsen, D.

R. Walther, S. Fritz, E. Müller, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, W. Sigle, T. Maniv, H. Cohen, C. Matyssek, and K. Busch, “Coupling of surface-plasmon-polariton-hybridized cavity modes between submicron slits in a thin gold film,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 836–843 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gonçalves, P. A. D.

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Grafström, S.

A. Hille, M. Moeferdt, C. Wolff, C. Matyssek, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, C. Prohm, J. Niegemann, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, and K. Busch, “Second harmonic generation from metal nano-particle resonators: Numerical analysis on the basis of the hydrodynamic drude model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 1163–1169 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hafner, J. H.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref]

Halas, N. J.

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hao, F.

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hergert, W.

C. Matyssek, J. Niegemann, W. Hergert, and K. Busch, “Computing electron energy loss spectra with the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method,” Photonic. Nanostruct. Fund. Appl. 9(4), 367–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hille, A.

A. Hille, M. Moeferdt, C. Wolff, C. Matyssek, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, C. Prohm, J. Niegemann, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, and K. Busch, “Second harmonic generation from metal nano-particle resonators: Numerical analysis on the basis of the hydrodynamic drude model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 1163–1169 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hofer, F.

F.-P. Schmidt, A. Losquin, F. Hofer, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and M. Kociak, “How dark are radial breathing modes in plasmonic nanodisks?” ACS Photonics 5(3), 861–866 (2018).
[Crossref]

F.-P. Schmidt, H. Ditlbacher, U. Hohenester, A. Hohenau, F. Hofer, and J. R. Krenn, “Dark plasmonic breathing modes in silver nanodisks,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5780–5783 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hohenau, A.

F.-P. Schmidt, A. Losquin, F. Hofer, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and M. Kociak, “How dark are radial breathing modes in plasmonic nanodisks?” ACS Photonics 5(3), 861–866 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. K. Krug, M. Reisecker, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, and J. R. Krenn, “Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171103 (2014).
[Crossref]

F.-P. Schmidt, H. Ditlbacher, U. Hohenester, A. Hohenau, F. Hofer, and J. R. Krenn, “Dark plasmonic breathing modes in silver nanodisks,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5780–5783 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hohenester, U.

M. K. Krug, M. Reisecker, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, and J. R. Krenn, “Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171103 (2014).
[Crossref]

F.-P. Schmidt, H. Ditlbacher, U. Hohenester, A. Hohenau, F. Hofer, and J. R. Krenn, “Dark plasmonic breathing modes in silver nanodisks,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5780–5783 (2012).
[Crossref]

Irsen, S.

B. Schröder, T. Weber, S. V. Yalunin, T. Kiel, C. Matyssek, M. Sivis, S. Schäfer, F. von Cube, S. Irsen, K. Busch, C. Ropers, and S. Linden, “Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 92(8), 085411 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, “From isolated metaatoms to photonic metamaterials: Evolution of the plasmonic near-field,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 703–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jauho, A.-P.

T. Christensen, W. Yan, A.-P. Jauho, M. Soljačić, and N. A. Mortensen, “Quantum corrections in nanoplasmonics: Shape, scale, and material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(15), 157402 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Christensen, W. Yan, S. Raza, A.-P. Jauho, N. A. Mortensen, and M. Wubs, “Nonlocal response of metallic nanospheres probed by light, electrons, and atoms,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1745–1758 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Raza, G. Toscano, A.-P. Jauho, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Unusual resonances in nanoplasmonic structures due to nonlocal response,” Phys. Rev. B 84(12), 121412 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jessen, B. S.

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Kadkhodazadeh, S.

S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Beleggia, N. A. Mortensen, and J. B. Wagner, “The substrate effect in electron energy-loss spectroscopy of localized surface plasmons in gold and silver nanoparticles,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 251–261 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Raza, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Di Vece, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, and N. Stenger, “Multipole plasmons and their disappearance in few-nanometer silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8788 (2015).
[Crossref]

Keast, V. J.

M. Bosman and V. J. Keast, “Optimizing EELS acquisition,” Ultramicroscopy 108(9), 837–846 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kiel, T.

B. Schröder, T. Weber, S. V. Yalunin, T. Kiel, C. Matyssek, M. Sivis, S. Schäfer, F. von Cube, S. Irsen, K. Busch, C. Ropers, and S. Linden, “Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 92(8), 085411 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kociak, M.

A. Polman, M. Kociak, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Electron-beam spectroscopy for nanophotonics,” Nat. Mater. 18(11), 1158–1171 (2019).
[Crossref]

F.-P. Schmidt, A. Losquin, F. Hofer, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and M. Kociak, “How dark are radial breathing modes in plasmonic nanodisks?” ACS Photonics 5(3), 861–866 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kociak and O. Stéphan, “Mapping plasmons at the nanometer scale in an electron microscope,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(11), 3865–3883 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. J. García de Abajo and M. Kociak, “Probing the photonic local density of states with electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 106804 (2008).
[Crossref]

König, M.

K. Busch, M. König, and J. Niegemann, “Discontinuous Galerkin methods in nanophotonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(6), 773–809 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kreiter, M.

F. Schertz, M. Schmelzeisen, R. Mohammadi, M. Kreiter, H.-J. Elmers, and G. Schönhense, “Near field of strongly coupled plasmons: Uncovering dark modes,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1885–1890 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krenn, J. R.

F.-P. Schmidt, A. Losquin, F. Hofer, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and M. Kociak, “How dark are radial breathing modes in plasmonic nanodisks?” ACS Photonics 5(3), 861–866 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. K. Krug, M. Reisecker, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, and J. R. Krenn, “Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171103 (2014).
[Crossref]

F.-P. Schmidt, H. Ditlbacher, U. Hohenester, A. Hohenau, F. Hofer, and J. R. Krenn, “Dark plasmonic breathing modes in silver nanodisks,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5780–5783 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, A.

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krug, M. K.

M. K. Krug, M. Reisecker, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, and J. R. Krenn, “Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lassiter, B.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liberale, C.

S. Panaro, A. Nazir, C. Liberale, G. Das, H. Wang, F. De Angelis, R. Proietti Zaccaria, E. Di Fabrizio, and A. Toma, “Dark to bright mode conversion on dipolar nanoantennas: A symmetry-breaking approach,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 310–314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Linden, S.

B. Schröder, T. Weber, S. V. Yalunin, T. Kiel, C. Matyssek, M. Sivis, S. Schäfer, F. von Cube, S. Irsen, K. Busch, C. Ropers, and S. Linden, “Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 92(8), 085411 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, “From isolated metaatoms to photonic metamaterials: Evolution of the plasmonic near-field,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 703–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

Link, S.

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liz-Marzán, L. M.

R. Yu, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Universal analytical modeling of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(22), 6710–6724 (2017).
[Crossref]

Losquin, A.

F.-P. Schmidt, A. Losquin, F. Hofer, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and M. Kociak, “How dark are radial breathing modes in plasmonic nanodisks?” ACS Photonics 5(3), 861–866 (2018).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref]

Maniv, T.

R. Walther, S. Fritz, E. Müller, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, W. Sigle, T. Maniv, H. Cohen, C. Matyssek, and K. Busch, “Coupling of surface-plasmon-polariton-hybridized cavity modes between submicron slits in a thin gold film,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 836–843 (2016).
[Crossref]

Martín-Moreno, L.

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Unrelenting plasmons,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 8–10 (2017).
[Crossref]

Matyssek, C.

R. Walther, S. Fritz, E. Müller, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, W. Sigle, T. Maniv, H. Cohen, C. Matyssek, and K. Busch, “Coupling of surface-plasmon-polariton-hybridized cavity modes between submicron slits in a thin gold film,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 836–843 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Hille, M. Moeferdt, C. Wolff, C. Matyssek, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, C. Prohm, J. Niegemann, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, and K. Busch, “Second harmonic generation from metal nano-particle resonators: Numerical analysis on the basis of the hydrodynamic drude model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 1163–1169 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Schröder, T. Weber, S. V. Yalunin, T. Kiel, C. Matyssek, M. Sivis, S. Schäfer, F. von Cube, S. Irsen, K. Busch, C. Ropers, and S. Linden, “Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 92(8), 085411 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Matyssek, J. Niegemann, W. Hergert, and K. Busch, “Computing electron energy loss spectra with the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method,” Photonic. Nanostruct. Fund. Appl. 9(4), 367–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moeferdt, M.

A. Hille, M. Moeferdt, C. Wolff, C. Matyssek, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, C. Prohm, J. Niegemann, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, and K. Busch, “Second harmonic generation from metal nano-particle resonators: Numerical analysis on the basis of the hydrodynamic drude model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 1163–1169 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mohammadi, R.

F. Schertz, M. Schmelzeisen, R. Mohammadi, M. Kreiter, H.-J. Elmers, and G. Schönhense, “Near field of strongly coupled plasmons: Uncovering dark modes,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1885–1890 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mortensen, N. A.

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmon-enhanced generation of nonclassical light,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3447–3451 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Christensen, W. Yan, A.-P. Jauho, M. Soljačić, and N. A. Mortensen, “Quantum corrections in nanoplasmonics: Shape, scale, and material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(15), 157402 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Beleggia, N. A. Mortensen, and J. B. Wagner, “The substrate effect in electron energy-loss spectroscopy of localized surface plasmons in gold and silver nanoparticles,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 251–261 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Raza, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Di Vece, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, and N. Stenger, “Multipole plasmons and their disappearance in few-nanometer silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8788 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Raza, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 27(18), 183204 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Christensen, W. Yan, S. Raza, A.-P. Jauho, N. A. Mortensen, and M. Wubs, “Nonlocal response of metallic nanospheres probed by light, electrons, and atoms,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1745–1758 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Raza, G. Toscano, A.-P. Jauho, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Unusual resonances in nanoplasmonic structures due to nonlocal response,” Phys. Rev. B 84(12), 121412 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mou, C.-Y.

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Müller, E.

R. Walther, S. Fritz, E. Müller, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, W. Sigle, T. Maniv, H. Cohen, C. Matyssek, and K. Busch, “Coupling of surface-plasmon-polariton-hybridized cavity modes between submicron slits in a thin gold film,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 836–843 (2016).
[Crossref]

Myroshnychenko, V.

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nazir, A.

S. Panaro, A. Nazir, C. Liberale, G. Das, H. Wang, F. De Angelis, R. Proietti Zaccaria, E. Di Fabrizio, and A. Toma, “Dark to bright mode conversion on dipolar nanoantennas: A symmetry-breaking approach,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 310–314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nehl, C. L.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref]

Niegemann, J.

A. Hille, M. Moeferdt, C. Wolff, C. Matyssek, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, C. Prohm, J. Niegemann, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, and K. Busch, “Second harmonic generation from metal nano-particle resonators: Numerical analysis on the basis of the hydrodynamic drude model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 1163–1169 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, “From isolated metaatoms to photonic metamaterials: Evolution of the plasmonic near-field,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 703–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Busch, M. König, and J. Niegemann, “Discontinuous Galerkin methods in nanophotonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(6), 773–809 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Matyssek, J. Niegemann, W. Hergert, and K. Busch, “Computing electron energy loss spectra with the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method,” Photonic. Nanostruct. Fund. Appl. 9(4), 367–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nordlander, P.

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref]

Panaro, S.

S. Panaro, A. Nazir, C. Liberale, G. Das, H. Wang, F. De Angelis, R. Proietti Zaccaria, E. Di Fabrizio, and A. Toma, “Dark to bright mode conversion on dipolar nanoantennas: A symmetry-breaking approach,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 310–314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

A. Polman, M. Kociak, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Electron-beam spectroscopy for nanophotonics,” Nat. Mater. 18(11), 1158–1171 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pors, A.

F. Ding, A. Pors, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gradient metasurfaces: a review of fundamentals and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 81(2), 026401 (2018).
[Crossref]

Prohm, C.

A. Hille, M. Moeferdt, C. Wolff, C. Matyssek, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, C. Prohm, J. Niegemann, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, and K. Busch, “Second harmonic generation from metal nano-particle resonators: Numerical analysis on the basis of the hydrodynamic drude model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 1163–1169 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proietti Zaccaria, R.

S. Panaro, A. Nazir, C. Liberale, G. Das, H. Wang, F. De Angelis, R. Proietti Zaccaria, E. Di Fabrizio, and A. Toma, “Dark to bright mode conversion on dipolar nanoantennas: A symmetry-breaking approach,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 310–314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qin, F.

X. Cui, F. Qin, Q. Ruan, X. Zhuo, and J. Wang, “Circular gold nanodisks with synthetically tunable diameters and thicknesses,” Adv. Func. Mater. 28(11), 1705516 (2018).
[Crossref]

Raza, S.

S. Raza, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 27(18), 183204 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Raza, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Di Vece, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, and N. Stenger, “Multipole plasmons and their disappearance in few-nanometer silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8788 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Christensen, W. Yan, S. Raza, A.-P. Jauho, N. A. Mortensen, and M. Wubs, “Nonlocal response of metallic nanospheres probed by light, electrons, and atoms,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1745–1758 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Raza, G. Toscano, A.-P. Jauho, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Unusual resonances in nanoplasmonic structures due to nonlocal response,” Phys. Rev. B 84(12), 121412 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reisecker, M.

M. K. Krug, M. Reisecker, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, and J. R. Krenn, “Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rindzevicius, T.

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rodríguez-Oliveros, R.

A. Hille, M. Moeferdt, C. Wolff, C. Matyssek, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, C. Prohm, J. Niegemann, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, and K. Busch, “Second harmonic generation from metal nano-particle resonators: Numerical analysis on the basis of the hydrodynamic drude model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 1163–1169 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ropers, C.

B. Schröder, T. Weber, S. V. Yalunin, T. Kiel, C. Matyssek, M. Sivis, S. Schäfer, F. von Cube, S. Irsen, K. Busch, C. Ropers, and S. Linden, “Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 92(8), 085411 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rossouw, D.

E. P. Bellido, D. Rossouw, and G. A. Botton, “Toward 10 meV electron energy-loss spectroscopy resolution for plasmonics,” Microsc. Microanal. 20(3), 767–778 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ruan, Q.

X. Cui, F. Qin, Q. Ruan, X. Zhuo, and J. Wang, “Circular gold nanodisks with synthetically tunable diameters and thicknesses,” Adv. Func. Mater. 28(11), 1705516 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schäfer, S.

B. Schröder, T. Weber, S. V. Yalunin, T. Kiel, C. Matyssek, M. Sivis, S. Schäfer, F. von Cube, S. Irsen, K. Busch, C. Ropers, and S. Linden, “Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 92(8), 085411 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schatz, G. C.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schertz, F.

F. Schertz, M. Schmelzeisen, R. Mohammadi, M. Kreiter, H.-J. Elmers, and G. Schönhense, “Near field of strongly coupled plasmons: Uncovering dark modes,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1885–1890 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmelzeisen, M.

F. Schertz, M. Schmelzeisen, R. Mohammadi, M. Kreiter, H.-J. Elmers, and G. Schönhense, “Near field of strongly coupled plasmons: Uncovering dark modes,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1885–1890 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, F.-P.

F.-P. Schmidt, A. Losquin, F. Hofer, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and M. Kociak, “How dark are radial breathing modes in plasmonic nanodisks?” ACS Photonics 5(3), 861–866 (2018).
[Crossref]

F.-P. Schmidt, H. Ditlbacher, U. Hohenester, A. Hohenau, F. Hofer, and J. R. Krenn, “Dark plasmonic breathing modes in silver nanodisks,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5780–5783 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schneider, R.

R. Walther, S. Fritz, E. Müller, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, W. Sigle, T. Maniv, H. Cohen, C. Matyssek, and K. Busch, “Coupling of surface-plasmon-polariton-hybridized cavity modes between submicron slits in a thin gold film,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 836–843 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schönhense, G.

F. Schertz, M. Schmelzeisen, R. Mohammadi, M. Kreiter, H.-J. Elmers, and G. Schönhense, “Near field of strongly coupled plasmons: Uncovering dark modes,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1885–1890 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schröder, B.

B. Schröder, T. Weber, S. V. Yalunin, T. Kiel, C. Matyssek, M. Sivis, S. Schäfer, F. von Cube, S. Irsen, K. Busch, C. Ropers, and S. Linden, “Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 92(8), 085411 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sigle, W.

R. Walther, S. Fritz, E. Müller, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, W. Sigle, T. Maniv, H. Cohen, C. Matyssek, and K. Busch, “Coupling of surface-plasmon-polariton-hybridized cavity modes between submicron slits in a thin gold film,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 836–843 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sivis, M.

B. Schröder, T. Weber, S. V. Yalunin, T. Kiel, C. Matyssek, M. Sivis, S. Schäfer, F. von Cube, S. Irsen, K. Busch, C. Ropers, and S. Linden, “Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 92(8), 085411 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soljacic, M.

T. Christensen, W. Yan, A.-P. Jauho, M. Soljačić, and N. A. Mortensen, “Quantum corrections in nanoplasmonics: Shape, scale, and material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(15), 157402 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sonnefraud, Y.

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stenger, N.

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Raza, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Di Vece, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, and N. Stenger, “Multipole plasmons and their disappearance in few-nanometer silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8788 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stéphan, O.

M. Kociak and O. Stéphan, “Mapping plasmons at the nanometer scale in an electron microscope,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(11), 3865–3883 (2014).
[Crossref]

Todisco, F.

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Toma, A.

S. Panaro, A. Nazir, C. Liberale, G. Das, H. Wang, F. De Angelis, R. Proietti Zaccaria, E. Di Fabrizio, and A. Toma, “Dark to bright mode conversion on dipolar nanoantennas: A symmetry-breaking approach,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 310–314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Toscano, G.

S. Raza, G. Toscano, A.-P. Jauho, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Unusual resonances in nanoplasmonic structures due to nonlocal response,” Phys. Rev. B 84(12), 121412 (2011).
[Crossref]

Trügler, A.

M. K. Krug, M. Reisecker, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, and J. R. Krenn, “Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171103 (2014).
[Crossref]

von Cube, F.

B. Schröder, T. Weber, S. V. Yalunin, T. Kiel, C. Matyssek, M. Sivis, S. Schäfer, F. von Cube, S. Irsen, K. Busch, C. Ropers, and S. Linden, “Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 92(8), 085411 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, “From isolated metaatoms to photonic metamaterials: Evolution of the plasmonic near-field,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 703–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wagner, J. B.

S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Beleggia, N. A. Mortensen, and J. B. Wagner, “The substrate effect in electron energy-loss spectroscopy of localized surface plasmons in gold and silver nanoparticles,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 251–261 (2017).
[Crossref]

Walther, R.

R. Walther, S. Fritz, E. Müller, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, W. Sigle, T. Maniv, H. Cohen, C. Matyssek, and K. Busch, “Coupling of surface-plasmon-polariton-hybridized cavity modes between submicron slits in a thin gold film,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 836–843 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

S. Panaro, A. Nazir, C. Liberale, G. Das, H. Wang, F. De Angelis, R. Proietti Zaccaria, E. Di Fabrizio, and A. Toma, “Dark to bright mode conversion on dipolar nanoantennas: A symmetry-breaking approach,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 310–314 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Cui, F. Qin, Q. Ruan, X. Zhuo, and J. Wang, “Circular gold nanodisks with synthetically tunable diameters and thicknesses,” Adv. Func. Mater. 28(11), 1705516 (2018).
[Crossref]

Weber, T.

B. Schröder, T. Weber, S. V. Yalunin, T. Kiel, C. Matyssek, M. Sivis, S. Schäfer, F. von Cube, S. Irsen, K. Busch, C. Ropers, and S. Linden, “Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 92(8), 085411 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wolff, C.

A. Hille, M. Moeferdt, C. Wolff, C. Matyssek, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, C. Prohm, J. Niegemann, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, and K. Busch, “Second harmonic generation from metal nano-particle resonators: Numerical analysis on the basis of the hydrodynamic drude model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 1163–1169 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wubs, M.

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Raza, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 27(18), 183204 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Raza, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Di Vece, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, and N. Stenger, “Multipole plasmons and their disappearance in few-nanometer silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8788 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Christensen, W. Yan, S. Raza, A.-P. Jauho, N. A. Mortensen, and M. Wubs, “Nonlocal response of metallic nanospheres probed by light, electrons, and atoms,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1745–1758 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Raza, G. Toscano, A.-P. Jauho, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Unusual resonances in nanoplasmonic structures due to nonlocal response,” Phys. Rev. B 84(12), 121412 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yalunin, S. V.

B. Schröder, T. Weber, S. V. Yalunin, T. Kiel, C. Matyssek, M. Sivis, S. Schäfer, F. von Cube, S. Irsen, K. Busch, C. Ropers, and S. Linden, “Real-space imaging of nanotip plasmons using electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 92(8), 085411 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, W.

T. Christensen, W. Yan, A.-P. Jauho, M. Soljačić, and N. A. Mortensen, “Quantum corrections in nanoplasmonics: Shape, scale, and material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118(15), 157402 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Christensen, W. Yan, S. Raza, A.-P. Jauho, N. A. Mortensen, and M. Wubs, “Nonlocal response of metallic nanospheres probed by light, electrons, and atoms,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1745–1758 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. K. W.

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, R.

R. Yu, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Universal analytical modeling of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(22), 6710–6724 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhuo, X.

X. Cui, F. Qin, Q. Ruan, X. Zhuo, and J. Wang, “Circular gold nanodisks with synthetically tunable diameters and thicknesses,” Adv. Func. Mater. 28(11), 1705516 (2018).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

T. Christensen, W. Yan, S. Raza, A.-P. Jauho, N. A. Mortensen, and M. Wubs, “Nonlocal response of metallic nanospheres probed by light, electrons, and atoms,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1745–1758 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (6)

F.-P. Schmidt, A. Losquin, F. Hofer, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, and M. Kociak, “How dark are radial breathing modes in plasmonic nanodisks?” ACS Photonics 5(3), 861–866 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Walther, S. Fritz, E. Müller, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, W. Sigle, T. Maniv, H. Cohen, C. Matyssek, and K. Busch, “Coupling of surface-plasmon-polariton-hybridized cavity modes between submicron slits in a thin gold film,” ACS Photonics 3(5), 836–843 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Panaro, A. Nazir, C. Liberale, G. Das, H. Wang, F. De Angelis, R. Proietti Zaccaria, E. Di Fabrizio, and A. Toma, “Dark to bright mode conversion on dipolar nanoantennas: A symmetry-breaking approach,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 310–314 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Geisler, X. Cui, J. Wang, T. Rindzevicius, L. Gammelgaard, B. S. Jessen, P. A. D. Gonçalves, F. Todisco, P. Bøggild, A. Boisen, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and N. Stenger, “Single-crystalline gold nanodisks on WS2 mono- and multilayers for strong coupling at room temperature,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 994–1001 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmon-enhanced generation of nonclassical light,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3447–3451 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Christensen, M. Beleggia, N. A. Mortensen, and J. B. Wagner, “The substrate effect in electron energy-loss spectroscopy of localized surface plasmons in gold and silver nanoparticles,” ACS Photonics 4(2), 251–261 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Func. Mater. (1)

X. Cui, F. Qin, Q. Ruan, X. Zhuo, and J. Wang, “Circular gold nanodisks with synthetically tunable diameters and thicknesses,” Adv. Func. Mater. 28(11), 1705516 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. K. Krug, M. Reisecker, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, and J. R. Krenn, “Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (2)

M. Kociak and O. Stéphan, “Mapping plasmons at the nanometer scale in an electron microscope,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(11), 3865–3883 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Yu, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Universal analytical modeling of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(22), 6710–6724 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

A. Hille, M. Moeferdt, C. Wolff, C. Matyssek, R. Rodríguez-Oliveros, C. Prohm, J. Niegemann, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, and K. Busch, “Second harmonic generation from metal nano-particle resonators: Numerical analysis on the basis of the hydrodynamic drude model,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 1163–1169 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

S. Raza, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Wubs, and N. A. Mortensen, “Nonlocal optical response in metallic nanostructures,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 27(18), 183204 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

K. Busch, M. König, and J. Niegemann, “Discontinuous Galerkin methods in nanophotonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(6), 773–809 (2011).
[Crossref]

Microsc. Microanal. (1)

E. P. Bellido, D. Rossouw, and G. A. Botton, “Toward 10 meV electron energy-loss spectroscopy resolution for plasmonics,” Microsc. Microanal. 20(3), 767–778 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (5)

F. Schertz, M. Schmelzeisen, R. Mohammadi, M. Kreiter, H.-J. Elmers, and G. Schönhense, “Near field of strongly coupled plasmons: Uncovering dark modes,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1885–1890 (2012).
[Crossref]

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, R. Diehl, J. Niegemann, K. Busch, and S. Linden, “From isolated metaatoms to photonic metamaterials: Evolution of the plasmonic near-field,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 703–708 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref]

F.-P. Schmidt, H. Ditlbacher, U. Hohenester, A. Hohenau, F. Hofer, and J. R. Krenn, “Dark plasmonic breathing modes in silver nanodisks,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5780–5783 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Analysis of EEL spectral data of a 20 nm-thin Au nanodisk with a diameter of 160 nm, dispersed on a 20 nm-thin SiN substrate. Left: STEM image with circles indicating the averaging area used to obtain the spectra on the right. Right: Corresponding EEL spectra, where the gray bands are used to show the EELS maps in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Spectral EEL (left) and CL (right) spectral maps of a 20 nm thin Au nanodisk with a diameter of 160 nm, integrated over the spectral feature corresponding to (a) and (b) the dipolar plasmonic mode, (c) and (d) the quadrupolar plasmonic mode, and (e) and (f) the RBM. (g) and (h) show the corresponding STEM and SEM images, respectively. The unit of the scale bars shown in (a)-(f) is background-corrected counts.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Experimental (normalized to RBM) and (b) simulated CL spectra of 20 nm thin Au nanodisks with varying diameter ranging from 110 nm to 195 nm, dispersed on a 50 nm thin SiN membrane. Electron beam was experimentally positioned in the center of the Au ND, while it was placed 5 nm off-center for the simulations (see text). The RBMs and dipolar modes (DMs) are annotated in the numerical plots; note that the quadrupolar resonance is invisible in these plots because of the combination of its low radiative visibility and the position of the electron beam next to the disk’s center.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Experimental and (b) calculated CL spectra of 20 nm thin Au NDs with a diameter of 150 nm, dispersed on 5 nm to 50 nm thin SiN substrates. Electron beam was experimentally placed in the center of the Au ND, while it was positioned 10 nm off center for the simulations.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Maximum CL intensity of the RBM in a 150 nm-Au ND, taken from Fig. 4, as a function of SiN thickness, normalized to 5 nm-thin SiN. (a) Experimental and calculated CL data, and (b) calculated CL with extended substrate thicknesses. The peak intensities are shown relative to the value for 5 nm substrate thickness.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Parameters for our Drude–Lorentz model of gold in Eq. (1).

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Table 2. Experimental and calculated emission wavelengths and photon energies of the RBMs in 20 nm thin Au NDs with disk diameters D ranging from 110 nm to 195 nm.

Equations (1)

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ε ( ω ) = 5.8787 ω p 2 ω ( ω + i γ p ) + α L 1 ω L 1 2 ω L 1 2 ω 2 i γ L 1 2 ω + α L 2 ω L 2 2 ω L 2 2 ω 2 i γ L 2 2 ω ,

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