Abstract

Reflectance, a crucial earth observation variable, is converted from hyperspectral to multispectral through convolution. This is done to combine time series, validate instruments, and apply retrieval algorithms. However, convolution is often done incorrectly, with reflectance itself convolved rather than the underlying (ir)radiances. Here, the resulting error is quantified for simulated and real multispectral instruments, using 18 radiometric data sets (N = 1799 spectra). Biases up to 5% are found, the exact value depending on the spectrum and band response. This significantly affects extended time series and instrument validation, and is similar in magnitude to errors seen in previous validation studies. Post-hoc correction is impossible, but correctly convolving (ir)radiances prevents this error entirely. This requires publication of original data alongside reflectance.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (12)

M. Badawi, D. Helder, L. Leigh, and X. Jing, “Methods for earth-observing satellite surface reflectance validation,” Remote Sens. 11(13), 1543 (2019).
[Crossref]

O. Burggraaff, N. Schmidt, J. Zamorano, K. Pauly, S. Pascual, C. Tapia, E. Spyrakos, and F. Snik, “Standardized spectral and radiometric calibration of consumer cameras,” Opt. Express 27(14), 19075–19101 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. E. O’Reilly and P. J. Werdell, “Chlorophyll algorithms for ocean color sensors - OC4, OC5 & OC6,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 229, 32–47 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Dutkiewicz, A. E. Hickman, O. Jahn, S. Henson, C. Beaulieu, and E. Monier, “Ocean colour signature of climate change,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 578 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Hieronymi, “Spectral band adaptation of ocean color sensors for applicability of the multi-water biogeo-optical algorithm ONNS,” Opt. Express 27(12), A707–A724 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. A. Remer, A. B. Davis, S. Mattoo, R. C. Levy, O. V. Kalashnikova, O. Coddington, J. Chowdhary, K. Knobelspiesse, X. Xu, Z. Ahmad, E. Boss, B. Cairns, H. M. Dierssen, D. J. Diner, B. Franz, R. Frouin, B.-C. Gao, A. Ibrahim, J. V. Martins, A. H. Omar, O. Torres, F. Xu, and P.-W. Zhai, “Retrieving Aerosol Characteristics From the PACE Mission, Part 1: Ocean Color Instrument,” Frontiers in Earth Science 7, 152 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. B. Barnes, J. P. Cannizzaro, D. C. English, and C. Hu, “Validation of VIIRS and MODIS reflectance data in coastal and oceanic waters: An assessment of methods,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 220, 110–123 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Cao, R. Ma, H. Duan, and K. Xue, “Effects of broad bandwidth on the remote sensing of inland waters: Implications for high spatial resolution satellite data applications,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote. Sens. 153, 110–122 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. H. Holman, A. B. Riche, M. Castle, M. J. Wooster, and M. J. Hawkesford, “Radiometric Calibration of ’Commercial off the Shelf’ Cameras for UAV-Based High-Resolution Temporal Crop Phenotyping of Reflectance and NDVI,” Remote Sens. 11(14), 1657 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Castagna, B. C. Johnson, K. Voss, H. M. Dierssen, H. Patrick, T. A. Germer, K. Sabbe, and W. Vyverman, “Uncertainty in global downwelling plane irradiance estimates from sintered polytetrafluoroethylene plaque radiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 58(16), 4497–4511 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. G. Ruddick, K. Voss, E. Boss, A. Castagna, R. Frouin, A. Gilerson, M. Hieronymi, B. C. Johnson, J. Kuusk, Z. Lee, M. Ondrusek, V. Vabson, and R. Vendt, “A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Water-Leaving Radiance for Validation of Satellite Remote-Sensing Data over Water,” Remote Sens. 11(19), 2198 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. G. Ruddick, K. Voss, A. C. Banks, E. Boss, A. Castagna, R. Frouin, M. Hieronymi, C. Jamet, B. C. Johnson, J. Kuusk, Z. Lee, M. Ondrusek, V. Vabson, and R. Vendt, “A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Downwelling Irradiance for the Validation of Satellite Remote Sensing Data over Water,” Remote Sens. 11(15), 1742 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

W. Wu, X. Liu, X. Xiong, Y. Li, Q. Yang, A. Wu, S. Kizer, and C. Cao, “An Accurate Method for Correcting Spectral Convolution Errors in Intercalibration of Broadband and Hyperspectral Sensors,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 123(17), 9238–9255 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Leeuw and E. Boss, “The HydroColor app: Above water measurements of remote sensing reflectance and turbidity using a smartphone camera,” Sensors 18(1), 256 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, L. L. Cowen, and M. Costa, “Is ocean reflectance acquired by citizen scientists robust for science applications?” Remote Sens. 10(6), 835 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

N. T. T. Ha, N. T. P. Thao, K. Koike, and M. T. Nhuan, “Selecting the Best Band Ratio to Estimate Chlorophyll-a Concentration in a Tropical Freshwater Lake Using Sentinel 2A Images from a Case Study of Lake Ba Be (Northern Vietnam),” ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Information 6(9), 290 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Pahlevan, B. Smith, C. Binding, and D. M. O’Donnell, “Spectral band adjustments for remote sensing reflectance spectra in coastal/inland waters,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28650–28667 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, M. Talone, K. J. Voss, and B. C. Johnson, “Impact of spectral resolution of in situ ocean color radiometric data in satellite matchups analyses,” Opt. Express 25(16), A798–A812 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

N. Pahlevan, S. Sarkar, and B. A. Franz, “Uncertainties in coastal ocean color products: Impacts of spatial sampling,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 181, 14–26 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, P. Naik, and S. Son, “Out-of-band effects of satellite ocean color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 55(9), 2312–2323 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, “Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function,” Opt. Express 24(11), 12414–12429 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Lymburner, E. Botha, E. Hestir, J. Anstee, S. Sagar, A. Dekker, and T. Malthus, “Landsat 8: Providing continuity and increased precision for measuring multi-decadal time series of total suspended matter,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 185, 108–118 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Toming, T. Kutser, A. Laas, M. Sepp, B. Paavel, and T. Nõges, “First Experiences in Mapping Lake Water Quality Parameters with Sentinel-2 MSI Imagery,” Remote Sens. 8(8), 640 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

S. L. Cundill, H. M. A. van der Werff, and M. van der Meijde, “Adjusting Spectral Indices for Spectral Response Function Differences of Very High Spatial Resolution Sensors Simulated from Field Spectra,” Sensors 15(3), 6221–6240 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Mélin and G. Sclep, “Band shifting for ocean color multi-spectral reflectance data,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2262–2279 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. P. Garaba, D. Voß, J. Wollschläger, and O. Zielinski, “Modern approaches to shipborne ocean color remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 54(12), 3602–3612 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

E. Knaeps, A. I. Dogliotti, D. Raymaekers, K. Ruddick, and S. Sterckx, “In situ evidence of non-zero reflectance in the OLCI 1020nm band for a turbid estuary,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 120, 133–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

H. M. Dierssen, “Perspectives on empirical approaches for ocean color remote sensing of chlorophyll in a changing climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107(40), 17073–17078 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Nechad, K. Ruddick, and Y. Park, “Calibration and validation of a generic multisensor algorithm for mapping of total suspended matter in turbid waters,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 114(4), 854–866 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Gilerson, A. A. Gitelson, J. Zhou, D. Gurlin, W. Moses, I. Ioannou, and S. A. Ahmed, “Algorithms for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in coastal and inland waters using red and near infrared bands,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24109–24125 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Kampel, J. A. Lorenzzetti, C. M. Bentz, R. A. Nunes, R. Paranhos, F. M. Rudorff, and A. T. Politano, “Simultaneous Measurements of Chlorophyll Concentration by Lidar, Fluorometry, above-Water Radiometry, and Ocean Color MODIS Images in the Southwestern Atlantic,” Sensors 9(1), 528–541 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, “Applying narrowband remote-sensing reflectance models to wideband data,” Appl. Opt. 48(17), 3177–3183 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(38), 377–387 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. G. Dekker, R. J. Vos, and S. W. M. Peters, “Comparison of remote sensing data, model results and in situ data for total suspended matter (TSM) in the southern Frisian lakes,” Sci. Total Environ. 268(1-3), 197–214 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Treess, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

Ahmad, Z.

L. A. Remer, A. B. Davis, S. Mattoo, R. C. Levy, O. V. Kalashnikova, O. Coddington, J. Chowdhary, K. Knobelspiesse, X. Xu, Z. Ahmad, E. Boss, B. Cairns, H. M. Dierssen, D. J. Diner, B. Franz, R. Frouin, B.-C. Gao, A. Ibrahim, J. V. Martins, A. H. Omar, O. Torres, F. Xu, and P.-W. Zhai, “Retrieving Aerosol Characteristics From the PACE Mission, Part 1: Ocean Color Instrument,” Frontiers in Earth Science 7, 152 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, S. A.

Anstee, J.

L. Lymburner, E. Botha, E. Hestir, J. Anstee, S. Sagar, A. Dekker, and T. Malthus, “Landsat 8: Providing continuity and increased precision for measuring multi-decadal time series of total suspended matter,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 185, 108–118 (2016).
[Crossref]

Badawi, M.

M. Badawi, D. Helder, L. Leigh, and X. Jing, “Methods for earth-observing satellite surface reflectance validation,” Remote Sens. 11(13), 1543 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bailey, S.

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(38), 377–387 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bailey, S. W.

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
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Balch, W.

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A. Castagna, B. C. Johnson, K. Voss, H. M. Dierssen, H. Patrick, T. A. Germer, K. Sabbe, and W. Vyverman, “Uncertainty in global downwelling plane irradiance estimates from sintered polytetrafluoroethylene plaque radiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 58(16), 4497–4511 (2019).
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K. G. Ruddick, K. Voss, A. C. Banks, E. Boss, A. Castagna, R. Frouin, M. Hieronymi, C. Jamet, B. C. Johnson, J. Kuusk, Z. Lee, M. Ondrusek, V. Vabson, and R. Vendt, “A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Downwelling Irradiance for the Validation of Satellite Remote Sensing Data over Water,” Remote Sens. 11(15), 1742 (2019).
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L. A. Remer, A. B. Davis, S. Mattoo, R. C. Levy, O. V. Kalashnikova, O. Coddington, J. Chowdhary, K. Knobelspiesse, X. Xu, Z. Ahmad, E. Boss, B. Cairns, H. M. Dierssen, D. J. Diner, B. Franz, R. Frouin, B.-C. Gao, A. Ibrahim, J. V. Martins, A. H. Omar, O. Torres, F. Xu, and P.-W. Zhai, “Retrieving Aerosol Characteristics From the PACE Mission, Part 1: Ocean Color Instrument,” Frontiers in Earth Science 7, 152 (2019).
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D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Treess, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
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Gilerson, A.

K. G. Ruddick, K. Voss, E. Boss, A. Castagna, R. Frouin, A. Gilerson, M. Hieronymi, B. C. Johnson, J. Kuusk, Z. Lee, M. Ondrusek, V. Vabson, and R. Vendt, “A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Water-Leaving Radiance for Validation of Satellite Remote-Sensing Data over Water,” Remote Sens. 11(19), 2198 (2019).
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Gordon, H. R.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Treess, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
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Hawkesford, M. J.

F. H. Holman, A. B. Riche, M. Castle, M. J. Wooster, and M. J. Hawkesford, “Radiometric Calibration of ’Commercial off the Shelf’ Cameras for UAV-Based High-Resolution Temporal Crop Phenotyping of Reflectance and NDVI,” Remote Sens. 11(14), 1657 (2019).
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S. Dutkiewicz, A. E. Hickman, O. Jahn, S. Henson, C. Beaulieu, and E. Monier, “Ocean colour signature of climate change,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 578 (2019).
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B. B. Barnes, J. P. Cannizzaro, D. C. English, and C. Hu, “Validation of VIIRS and MODIS reflectance data in coastal and oceanic waters: An assessment of methods,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 220, 110–123 (2019).
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Sagar, S.

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Tapia, C.

Thao, N. T. P.

N. T. T. Ha, N. T. P. Thao, K. Koike, and M. T. Nhuan, “Selecting the Best Band Ratio to Estimate Chlorophyll-a Concentration in a Tropical Freshwater Lake Using Sentinel 2A Images from a Case Study of Lake Ba Be (Northern Vietnam),” ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Information 6(9), 290 (2017).
[Crossref]

Toming, K.

K. Toming, T. Kutser, A. Laas, M. Sepp, B. Paavel, and T. Nõges, “First Experiences in Mapping Lake Water Quality Parameters with Sentinel-2 MSI Imagery,” Remote Sens. 8(8), 640 (2016).
[Crossref]

Torres, O.

L. A. Remer, A. B. Davis, S. Mattoo, R. C. Levy, O. V. Kalashnikova, O. Coddington, J. Chowdhary, K. Knobelspiesse, X. Xu, Z. Ahmad, E. Boss, B. Cairns, H. M. Dierssen, D. J. Diner, B. Franz, R. Frouin, B.-C. Gao, A. Ibrahim, J. V. Martins, A. H. Omar, O. Torres, F. Xu, and P.-W. Zhai, “Retrieving Aerosol Characteristics From the PACE Mission, Part 1: Ocean Color Instrument,” Frontiers in Earth Science 7, 152 (2019).
[Crossref]

Treess, C.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Treess, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

Twardowski, M.

M. Behrenfeld, I. Cetinic, A. Gilerson, and M. Twardowski, “sabor,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5067/SeaBASS/SABOR/DATA001 (2014).

W. Balch, M. Behrenfeld, F. Chavez, C. Del Castillo, H. Dierssen, B. Hargreaves, Z. Lee, J. Marra, M. Miller, R. Miller, and M. Twardowski, “GasEx,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5067/SeaBASS/GASEX/DATA001 (2008).

Vabson, V.

K. G. Ruddick, K. Voss, A. C. Banks, E. Boss, A. Castagna, R. Frouin, M. Hieronymi, C. Jamet, B. C. Johnson, J. Kuusk, Z. Lee, M. Ondrusek, V. Vabson, and R. Vendt, “A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Downwelling Irradiance for the Validation of Satellite Remote Sensing Data over Water,” Remote Sens. 11(15), 1742 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. G. Ruddick, K. Voss, E. Boss, A. Castagna, R. Frouin, A. Gilerson, M. Hieronymi, B. C. Johnson, J. Kuusk, Z. Lee, M. Ondrusek, V. Vabson, and R. Vendt, “A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Water-Leaving Radiance for Validation of Satellite Remote-Sensing Data over Water,” Remote Sens. 11(19), 2198 (2019).
[Crossref]

van der Meijde, M.

S. L. Cundill, H. M. A. van der Werff, and M. van der Meijde, “Adjusting Spectral Indices for Spectral Response Function Differences of Very High Spatial Resolution Sensors Simulated from Field Spectra,” Sensors 15(3), 6221–6240 (2015).
[Crossref]

van der Werff, H. M. A.

S. L. Cundill, H. M. A. van der Werff, and M. van der Meijde, “Adjusting Spectral Indices for Spectral Response Function Differences of Very High Spatial Resolution Sensors Simulated from Field Spectra,” Sensors 15(3), 6221–6240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vendt, R.

K. G. Ruddick, K. Voss, E. Boss, A. Castagna, R. Frouin, A. Gilerson, M. Hieronymi, B. C. Johnson, J. Kuusk, Z. Lee, M. Ondrusek, V. Vabson, and R. Vendt, “A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Water-Leaving Radiance for Validation of Satellite Remote-Sensing Data over Water,” Remote Sens. 11(19), 2198 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. G. Ruddick, K. Voss, A. C. Banks, E. Boss, A. Castagna, R. Frouin, M. Hieronymi, C. Jamet, B. C. Johnson, J. Kuusk, Z. Lee, M. Ondrusek, V. Vabson, and R. Vendt, “A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Downwelling Irradiance for the Validation of Satellite Remote Sensing Data over Water,” Remote Sens. 11(15), 1742 (2019).
[Crossref]

Vos, R. J.

A. G. Dekker, R. J. Vos, and S. W. M. Peters, “Comparison of remote sensing data, model results and in situ data for total suspended matter (TSM) in the southern Frisian lakes,” Sci. Total Environ. 268(1-3), 197–214 (2001).
[Crossref]

Voß, D.

S. P. Garaba, D. Voß, J. Wollschläger, and O. Zielinski, “Modern approaches to shipborne ocean color remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 54(12), 3602–3612 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. P. Garaba, D. Voß, J. Wollschläger, and O. Zielinski, “Shipborne ocean color remote sensing,” https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.845444 (2015).

Voss, K.

K. G. Ruddick, K. Voss, E. Boss, A. Castagna, R. Frouin, A. Gilerson, M. Hieronymi, B. C. Johnson, J. Kuusk, Z. Lee, M. Ondrusek, V. Vabson, and R. Vendt, “A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Water-Leaving Radiance for Validation of Satellite Remote-Sensing Data over Water,” Remote Sens. 11(19), 2198 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. G. Ruddick, K. Voss, A. C. Banks, E. Boss, A. Castagna, R. Frouin, M. Hieronymi, C. Jamet, B. C. Johnson, J. Kuusk, Z. Lee, M. Ondrusek, V. Vabson, and R. Vendt, “A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Downwelling Irradiance for the Validation of Satellite Remote Sensing Data over Water,” Remote Sens. 11(15), 1742 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Castagna, B. C. Johnson, K. Voss, H. M. Dierssen, H. Patrick, T. A. Germer, K. Sabbe, and W. Vyverman, “Uncertainty in global downwelling plane irradiance estimates from sintered polytetrafluoroethylene plaque radiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 58(16), 4497–4511 (2019).
[Crossref]

Voss, K. J.

G. Zibordi, M. Talone, K. J. Voss, and B. C. Johnson, “Impact of spectral resolution of in situ ocean color radiometric data in satellite matchups analyses,” Opt. Express 25(16), A798–A812 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Treess, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, K. J. Voss, B. C. Johnson, and J. L. Mueller, “Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Data Validation: In situ Optical Radiometry,” Tech. rep., International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group (2014).

Vyverman, W.

Wang, M.

Werdell, P. J.

J. E. O’Reilly and P. J. Werdell, “Chlorophyll algorithms for ocean color sensors - OC4, OC5 & OC6,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 229, 32–47 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(38), 377–387 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wernand, M. R.

S. P. Garaba, M. R. Wernand, and O. Zielinski, “Radiance, irradiance, and remote sensing reflectance during the North Sea Coast Harmful Algal Bloom (NORCOHAB II) HEINCKE cruise HE302,” https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.759690 (2011).

Wollschläger, J.

S. P. Garaba, D. Voß, J. Wollschläger, and O. Zielinski, “Modern approaches to shipborne ocean color remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 54(12), 3602–3612 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. P. Garaba, D. Voß, J. Wollschläger, and O. Zielinski, “Shipborne ocean color remote sensing,” https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.845444 (2015).

Wooster, M. J.

F. H. Holman, A. B. Riche, M. Castle, M. J. Wooster, and M. J. Hawkesford, “Radiometric Calibration of ’Commercial off the Shelf’ Cameras for UAV-Based High-Resolution Temporal Crop Phenotyping of Reflectance and NDVI,” Remote Sens. 11(14), 1657 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wu, A.

W. Wu, X. Liu, X. Xiong, Y. Li, Q. Yang, A. Wu, S. Kizer, and C. Cao, “An Accurate Method for Correcting Spectral Convolution Errors in Intercalibration of Broadband and Hyperspectral Sensors,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 123(17), 9238–9255 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, W.

W. Wu, X. Liu, X. Xiong, Y. Li, Q. Yang, A. Wu, S. Kizer, and C. Cao, “An Accurate Method for Correcting Spectral Convolution Errors in Intercalibration of Broadband and Hyperspectral Sensors,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 123(17), 9238–9255 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xiong, X.

W. Wu, X. Liu, X. Xiong, Y. Li, Q. Yang, A. Wu, S. Kizer, and C. Cao, “An Accurate Method for Correcting Spectral Convolution Errors in Intercalibration of Broadband and Hyperspectral Sensors,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 123(17), 9238–9255 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, F.

L. A. Remer, A. B. Davis, S. Mattoo, R. C. Levy, O. V. Kalashnikova, O. Coddington, J. Chowdhary, K. Knobelspiesse, X. Xu, Z. Ahmad, E. Boss, B. Cairns, H. M. Dierssen, D. J. Diner, B. Franz, R. Frouin, B.-C. Gao, A. Ibrahim, J. V. Martins, A. H. Omar, O. Torres, F. Xu, and P.-W. Zhai, “Retrieving Aerosol Characteristics From the PACE Mission, Part 1: Ocean Color Instrument,” Frontiers in Earth Science 7, 152 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

L. A. Remer, A. B. Davis, S. Mattoo, R. C. Levy, O. V. Kalashnikova, O. Coddington, J. Chowdhary, K. Knobelspiesse, X. Xu, Z. Ahmad, E. Boss, B. Cairns, H. M. Dierssen, D. J. Diner, B. Franz, R. Frouin, B.-C. Gao, A. Ibrahim, J. V. Martins, A. H. Omar, O. Torres, F. Xu, and P.-W. Zhai, “Retrieving Aerosol Characteristics From the PACE Mission, Part 1: Ocean Color Instrument,” Frontiers in Earth Science 7, 152 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xue, K.

Z. Cao, R. Ma, H. Duan, and K. Xue, “Effects of broad bandwidth on the remote sensing of inland waters: Implications for high spatial resolution satellite data applications,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote. Sens. 153, 110–122 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

W. Wu, X. Liu, X. Xiong, Y. Li, Q. Yang, A. Wu, S. Kizer, and C. Cao, “An Accurate Method for Correcting Spectral Convolution Errors in Intercalibration of Broadband and Hyperspectral Sensors,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 123(17), 9238–9255 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, L. L. Cowen, and M. Costa, “Is ocean reflectance acquired by citizen scientists robust for science applications?” Remote Sens. 10(6), 835 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zamorano, J.

Zhai, P.-W.

L. A. Remer, A. B. Davis, S. Mattoo, R. C. Levy, O. V. Kalashnikova, O. Coddington, J. Chowdhary, K. Knobelspiesse, X. Xu, Z. Ahmad, E. Boss, B. Cairns, H. M. Dierssen, D. J. Diner, B. Franz, R. Frouin, B.-C. Gao, A. Ibrahim, J. V. Martins, A. H. Omar, O. Torres, F. Xu, and P.-W. Zhai, “Retrieving Aerosol Characteristics From the PACE Mission, Part 1: Ocean Color Instrument,” Frontiers in Earth Science 7, 152 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

Zibordi, G.

G. Zibordi, M. Talone, K. J. Voss, and B. C. Johnson, “Impact of spectral resolution of in situ ocean color radiometric data in satellite matchups analyses,” Opt. Express 25(16), A798–A812 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, K. J. Voss, B. C. Johnson, and J. L. Mueller, “Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Data Validation: In situ Optical Radiometry,” Tech. rep., International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group (2014).

Zielinski, O.

S. P. Garaba, D. Voß, J. Wollschläger, and O. Zielinski, “Modern approaches to shipborne ocean color remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 54(12), 3602–3612 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. P. Garaba and O. Zielinski, “Comparison of remote sensing reflectance from above-water and in-water measurements west of Greenland, Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and west of Iceland,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15938–15950 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. P. Garaba, D. Voß, J. Wollschläger, and O. Zielinski, “Shipborne ocean color remote sensing,” https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.845444 (2015).

S. P. Garaba, M. R. Wernand, and O. Zielinski, “Radiance, irradiance, and remote sensing reflectance during the North Sea Coast Harmful Algal Bloom (NORCOHAB II) HEINCKE cruise HE302,” https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.759690 (2011).

S. P. Garaba and O. Zielinski, “Downwelling solar irradiance, upwelling solar radiance, sky leaving radiance, and cloud cover observed during ARCHEMHAB study (on Maria S. Merian Leg MSM21/3) from 2012-07-26 to 2012-08-10,” https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.819717 (2013).

Zimmerman, R.

G. Cota and R. Zimmerman, “Chesapeake_Light_Tower,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5067/SeaBASS/CHESAPEAKE_LIGHT_TOWER/DATA001 (2007).

R. Zimmerman, “Seagrass_Mapping_Florida,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5067/SeaBASS/SEAGRASS_MAPPING_FLORIDA/DATA001 (2010).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Eos Trans. AGU (1)

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(38), 377–387 (2003).
[Crossref]

Frontiers in Earth Science (1)

L. A. Remer, A. B. Davis, S. Mattoo, R. C. Levy, O. V. Kalashnikova, O. Coddington, J. Chowdhary, K. Knobelspiesse, X. Xu, Z. Ahmad, E. Boss, B. Cairns, H. M. Dierssen, D. J. Diner, B. Franz, R. Frouin, B.-C. Gao, A. Ibrahim, J. V. Martins, A. H. Omar, O. Torres, F. Xu, and P.-W. Zhai, “Retrieving Aerosol Characteristics From the PACE Mission, Part 1: Ocean Color Instrument,” Frontiers in Earth Science 7, 152 (2019).
[Crossref]

ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Information (1)

N. T. T. Ha, N. T. P. Thao, K. Koike, and M. T. Nhuan, “Selecting the Best Band Ratio to Estimate Chlorophyll-a Concentration in a Tropical Freshwater Lake Using Sentinel 2A Images from a Case Study of Lake Ba Be (Northern Vietnam),” ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Information 6(9), 290 (2017).
[Crossref]

ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote. Sens. (1)

Z. Cao, R. Ma, H. Duan, and K. Xue, “Effects of broad bandwidth on the remote sensing of inland waters: Implications for high spatial resolution satellite data applications,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote. Sens. 153, 110–122 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. (2)

W. Wu, X. Liu, X. Xiong, Y. Li, Q. Yang, A. Wu, S. Kizer, and C. Cao, “An Accurate Method for Correcting Spectral Convolution Errors in Intercalibration of Broadband and Hyperspectral Sensors,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 123(17), 9238–9255 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Treess, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Dutkiewicz, A. E. Hickman, O. Jahn, S. Henson, C. Beaulieu, and E. Monier, “Ocean colour signature of climate change,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 578 (2019).
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Opt. Express (8)

A. A. Gilerson, A. A. Gitelson, J. Zhou, D. Gurlin, W. Moses, I. Ioannou, and S. A. Ahmed, “Algorithms for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in coastal and inland waters using red and near infrared bands,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24109–24125 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. P. Garaba and O. Zielinski, “Comparison of remote sensing reflectance from above-water and in-water measurements west of Greenland, Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and west of Iceland,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15938–15950 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Mélin and G. Sclep, “Band shifting for ocean color multi-spectral reflectance data,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2262–2279 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Burggraaff, N. Schmidt, J. Zamorano, K. Pauly, S. Pascual, C. Tapia, E. Spyrakos, and F. Snik, “Standardized spectral and radiometric calibration of consumer cameras,” Opt. Express 27(14), 19075–19101 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, “Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function,” Opt. Express 24(11), 12414–12429 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, M. Talone, K. J. Voss, and B. C. Johnson, “Impact of spectral resolution of in situ ocean color radiometric data in satellite matchups analyses,” Opt. Express 25(16), A798–A812 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Pahlevan, B. Smith, C. Binding, and D. M. O’Donnell, “Spectral band adjustments for remote sensing reflectance spectra in coastal/inland waters,” Opt. Express 25(23), 28650–28667 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Hieronymi, “Spectral band adaptation of ocean color sensors for applicability of the multi-water biogeo-optical algorithm ONNS,” Opt. Express 27(12), A707–A724 (2019).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

H. M. Dierssen, “Perspectives on empirical approaches for ocean color remote sensing of chlorophyll in a changing climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107(40), 17073–17078 (2010).
[Crossref]

Remote Sens. (6)

M. Badawi, D. Helder, L. Leigh, and X. Jing, “Methods for earth-observing satellite surface reflectance validation,” Remote Sens. 11(13), 1543 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. H. Holman, A. B. Riche, M. Castle, M. J. Wooster, and M. J. Hawkesford, “Radiometric Calibration of ’Commercial off the Shelf’ Cameras for UAV-Based High-Resolution Temporal Crop Phenotyping of Reflectance and NDVI,” Remote Sens. 11(14), 1657 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, L. L. Cowen, and M. Costa, “Is ocean reflectance acquired by citizen scientists robust for science applications?” Remote Sens. 10(6), 835 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. G. Ruddick, K. Voss, A. C. Banks, E. Boss, A. Castagna, R. Frouin, M. Hieronymi, C. Jamet, B. C. Johnson, J. Kuusk, Z. Lee, M. Ondrusek, V. Vabson, and R. Vendt, “A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Downwelling Irradiance for the Validation of Satellite Remote Sensing Data over Water,” Remote Sens. 11(15), 1742 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Toming, T. Kutser, A. Laas, M. Sepp, B. Paavel, and T. Nõges, “First Experiences in Mapping Lake Water Quality Parameters with Sentinel-2 MSI Imagery,” Remote Sens. 8(8), 640 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. G. Ruddick, K. Voss, E. Boss, A. Castagna, R. Frouin, A. Gilerson, M. Hieronymi, B. C. Johnson, J. Kuusk, Z. Lee, M. Ondrusek, V. Vabson, and R. Vendt, “A Review of Protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of Water-Leaving Radiance for Validation of Satellite Remote-Sensing Data over Water,” Remote Sens. 11(19), 2198 (2019).
[Crossref]

Remote. Sens. Environ. (7)

N. Pahlevan, S. Sarkar, and B. A. Franz, “Uncertainties in coastal ocean color products: Impacts of spatial sampling,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 181, 14–26 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Knaeps, A. I. Dogliotti, D. Raymaekers, K. Ruddick, and S. Sterckx, “In situ evidence of non-zero reflectance in the OLCI 1020nm band for a turbid estuary,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 120, 133–144 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. B. Barnes, J. P. Cannizzaro, D. C. English, and C. Hu, “Validation of VIIRS and MODIS reflectance data in coastal and oceanic waters: An assessment of methods,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 220, 110–123 (2019).
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L. Lymburner, E. Botha, E. Hestir, J. Anstee, S. Sagar, A. Dekker, and T. Malthus, “Landsat 8: Providing continuity and increased precision for measuring multi-decadal time series of total suspended matter,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 185, 108–118 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. E. O’Reilly and P. J. Werdell, “Chlorophyll algorithms for ocean color sensors - OC4, OC5 & OC6,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 229, 32–47 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Nechad, K. Ruddick, and Y. Park, “Calibration and validation of a generic multisensor algorithm for mapping of total suspended matter in turbid waters,” Remote. Sens. Environ. 114(4), 854–866 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Total Environ. (1)

A. G. Dekker, R. J. Vos, and S. W. M. Peters, “Comparison of remote sensing data, model results and in situ data for total suspended matter (TSM) in the southern Frisian lakes,” Sci. Total Environ. 268(1-3), 197–214 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sensors (3)

S. L. Cundill, H. M. A. van der Werff, and M. van der Meijde, “Adjusting Spectral Indices for Spectral Response Function Differences of Very High Spatial Resolution Sensors Simulated from Field Spectra,” Sensors 15(3), 6221–6240 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Leeuw and E. Boss, “The HydroColor app: Above water measurements of remote sensing reflectance and turbidity using a smartphone camera,” Sensors 18(1), 256 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kampel, J. A. Lorenzzetti, C. M. Bentz, R. A. Nunes, R. Paranhos, F. M. Rudorff, and A. T. Politano, “Simultaneous Measurements of Chlorophyll Concentration by Lidar, Fluorometry, above-Water Radiometry, and Ocean Color MODIS Images in the Southwestern Atlantic,” Sensors 9(1), 528–541 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (25)

IOCCG, In-flight Calibration of Satellite Ocean-Colour Sensors, vol. No. 14 of Reports of the International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group (IOCCG, 2013).

G. Zibordi, K. J. Voss, B. C. Johnson, and J. L. Mueller, “Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Data Validation: In situ Optical Radiometry,” Tech. rep., International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group (2014).

IOCCG, Remote Sensing of Inherent Optical Properties: Fundamentals, Tests of Algorithms, and Applications, vol. No. 5 of Reports of the International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group (IOCCG, 2006).

J. R. Schott, Remote sensing: the image chain approach (Oxford University, 2007), 2nd ed.

C. Roesler, “ArabianSea_2011,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5067/SeaBASS/ARABIANSEA_2011/DATA001 (2011).

C. Hu and F. Muller-Karger, “CARIACO,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5067/SeaBASS/CARIACO/DATA001 (2017).

G. Cota and R. Zimmerman, “Chesapeake_Light_Tower,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5067/SeaBASS/CHESAPEAKE_LIGHT_TOWER/DATA001 (2007).

W. Balch, M. Behrenfeld, F. Chavez, C. Del Castillo, H. Dierssen, B. Hargreaves, Z. Lee, J. Marra, M. Miller, R. Miller, and M. Twardowski, “GasEx,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5067/SeaBASS/GASEX/DATA001 (2008).

S. P. Garaba, M. R. Wernand, and O. Zielinski, “Radiance, irradiance, and remote sensing reflectance during the North Sea Coast Harmful Algal Bloom (NORCOHAB II) HEINCKE cruise HE302,” https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.759690 (2011).

S. P. Garaba and O. Zielinski, “Downwelling solar irradiance, upwelling solar radiance, sky leaving radiance, and cloud cover observed during ARCHEMHAB study (on Maria S. Merian Leg MSM21/3) from 2012-07-26 to 2012-08-10,” https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.819717 (2013).

F. Muller-Karger, “ORINOCO,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5067/SeaBASS/ORINOCO/DATA001 (2000).

I. Cetinic, “RemSensPOC,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5067/SeaBASS/REMSENSPOC/DATA001 (2014).

M. Behrenfeld, I. Cetinic, A. Gilerson, and M. Twardowski, “sabor,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5067/SeaBASS/SABOR/DATA001 (2014).

E. Knaeps, D. Doxaran, A. I. Dogliotti, B. Nechad, K. Ruddick, D. Raymaekers, and S. Sterckx, “The SeaSWIR dataset,” https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.886287 (2018).

F. Muller-Karger, “SFP,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5067/SeaBASS/SFP/DATA001 (2018).

R. Zimmerman, “Seagrass_Mapping_Florida,” https://dx.doi.org/10.5067/SeaBASS/SEAGRASS_MAPPING_FLORIDA/DATA001 (2010).

S. P. Garaba, D. Voß, J. Wollschläger, and O. Zielinski, “Shipborne ocean color remote sensing,” https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.845444 (2015).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Demonstration of spectral convolution with a boxcar SRF $S_B$ (bottom left). Each column shows the convolution of a spectrum ($L_w$, $E_d$, $R_{rs}$) with $S_B$, the shaded area showing the integral as calculated with Eq. (2). The $\times$ symbol indicates a spectral convolution. The band-average value of $R_{rs}$ calculated in $R$-space is 42, significantly different from the correct ($L$-space) value of $5.2/0.3 \approx 15$. Axis labels and units are dropped for clarity.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. All radiometric data used in this work, in SI units. $N(\lambda )$ is the number of spectra that include wavelength $\lambda$. The bottom left panel is a zoom on the top right one. Individual spectra are plotted with high transparency.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Selected spectral response functions (SRFs) of real sensors used in this work, labeled from top to bottom. For this plot, each SRF was normalized to a maximum of 1.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Relative reflectance convolution error (Sect. 3.2) in the seaswir-a data with boxcar filters of varying FWHM, as a function of central wavelength $\lambda _c$. Lines indicate the median error for each filter, shaded areas the 5%–95% range.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Reflectance convolution error in the OLI bands using all data. The boxplots show the error distribution across the data, with an orange median line, first–third quartile boxes, and 5%–95% percentile whiskers. Outliers are not shown for clarity.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Reflectance convolution error in the OLI green band for each data set. The boxplots represent the error distribution within each data set as in Fig. 5.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Reflectance convolution error in the SPECTACLE sensor RGB bands using all data. The boxplots represent the error distribution within each data set as in Fig. 5.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Propagated convolution error in the Chl-a (OCx, Ha+17) and TSM (LL+16) retrieval algorithms (Sect. 3.4), using the smf-a data set. The boxplots represent the error distribution within each data set as in Fig. 5.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of radiometric data sets used in this work. Spectral range, FWHM, and step are in nanometers, the former rounded to the nearest integer. The number of spectra N is the number after post-processing and removal of bad data.

Equations (16)

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R r s ( λ ) = L w ( λ ) E d ( λ )
L ¯ ( B ) = λ B L ( λ ) S B ( λ ) d λ λ B S B ( λ ) d λ
R ¯ r s L ( B ) = L ¯ w ( B ) E ¯ d ( B ) = λ B L w ( λ ) S B ( λ ) d λ λ B E d ( λ ) S B ( λ ) d λ
R ¯ r s R ( B ) = λ B R r s ( λ ) S B ( λ ) d λ λ B S B ( λ ) d λ = λ B L w ( λ ) E d ( λ ) S B ( λ ) d λ λ B S B ( λ ) d λ
R ¯ r s L ( B ) = 0 1 e e λ d λ 0 1 e e λ d λ 5.2 0.3 15
R ¯ r s R ( B ) = 0 1 e e λ e e λ d λ 1 = 0 1 e 2 e λ d λ 42
log 10 ( [Chl-a] ) = a 0 + i = 1 4 a i [ log 10 ( R r s ( λ B ) R r s ( λ G ) ) ] i
[Chl-a] = 0.80 exp ( 0.35 B3 B4 )
TSM = 3957 ( G + R 2 ) 1.6436
L ( λ ) L s r c ( λ )
L h = L ( λ ) S h ( λ ) d λ S h ( λ ) d λ
L H ( λ ) = L 1 , L 2 , , L N = L ( λ ) S 1 ( λ ) d λ S 1 ( λ ) d λ , L ( λ ) S 2 ( λ ) d λ S 2 ( λ ) d λ , , L ( λ ) S N ( λ ) d λ S N ( λ ) d λ
L H ( λ ) = ( S H L ) G S H ( λ )
L M = L ( λ ) S M ( λ ) d λ S M ( λ ) d λ
L M H = L H ( λ ) S M ( λ ) d λ S M ( λ ) d λ = ( S H L ) G S H ( λ ) S M ( λ ) d λ S M ( λ ) d λ
( S H L ) G S H ( λ ) L ( λ )

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