Abstract

Vibrational Raman effect is widely used in atmospheric lidar systems, but rotational Raman present several advantages. We have implemented a new setup in the ultraviolet branch of an existing multiwavelength lidar system to collect signal from rotational Raman lines of Oxygen and Nitrogen. We showed that, with an appropriate filter wavelength selection, the systematic error introduced in the particle optical properties due to temperature dependence was less than 4%. With this new setup, we have been able to retrieve aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients profiles at 355 nm with 1-h time resolution during daytime and up to 1-min time resolution during nighttime.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

J. C. Antuña-Marrero, E. Landulfo, R. Estevan, B. Barja, A. Robock, E. Wolfram, P. Ristori, B. Clemesha, F. Zaratti, R. Forno, E. Armandillo, ÁE Bastidas, ÁM De Frutos Baraja, D. N. Whiteman, E. Quel, H. M. J. Barbosa, F. Lopes, E. Montilla-Rosero, and J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, “LALINET: The first Latin American-born regional atmospheric observational network,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(6), 1255–1275 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, E. Landulfo, J. C. Antuña, H. de Melo Jorge Barbosa, B. Barja, ÁE Bastidas, A. E. Bedoya, R. F. da Costa, R. Estevan, R. Forno, D. A. Gouveia, C. Jiménez, E. G. Larroza, F. J. da Silva Lopes, E. Montilla-Rosero, G. de Arruda Moreira, W. M. Nakaema, D. Nisperuza, D. Alegria, M. Múnera, L. Otero, S. Papandrea, J. V. Pallota, E. Pawelko, E. J. Quel, P. Ristori, P. F. Rodrigues, J. Salvador, M. F. Sánchez, and A. Silva, “Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET) for aerosol research: Diagnosis on network instrumentation,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 138-139, 112–120 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, Z. Wang, P. Wechsler, N. Mahon, M. Deng, B. Glover, M. Burkhart, W. Kuestner, and B. Heesen, “Airborne compact rotational Raman lidar for temperature measurement,” Opt. Express 24(18), A1210–A1223 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Haarig, R. Engelmann, A. Ansmann, I. Veselovskii, D. N. Whiteman, and D. Althausen, “1064 nm rotational Raman lidar for particle extinction and lidar-ratio profiling: Cirrus case study,”,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(9), 4269–4278 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. D’Amico, A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, V. Freudenthaler, and G. Pappalardo, “EARLINET Single Calculus Chain - technical - Part 1: Pre-processing of raw lidar data,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(2), 491–507 (2016).
[Crossref]

Á Barreto, E. Cuevas, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, L. Alados-Arboledas, P. M. Romero, J. Gröbner, N. Kouremeti, A. F. Almansa, T. Stone, C. Toledano, R. Román, M. Sorokin, B. Holben, M. Canini, and M. Yela, “The new sun-sky-lunar Cimel CE318-T multiband photometer - a comprehensive performance evaluation,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(2), 631–654 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

I. Veselovskii, D. N. Whiteman, M. Korenskiy, A. Suvorina, and D. Perez-Ramirez, “Use of rotational Raman measurements in multiwavelength aerosol lidar for evaluation of particle backscattering and extinction,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8(10), 4111–4122 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, S. Chen, Y. Zhang, P. Guo, H. Chen, and B. Chen, “Robust calibration method for pure rotational Raman lidar temperature measurement,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21232–21242 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, A. Apituley, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, H. Linné, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. D’Amico, I. Mattis, L. Mona, U. Wandinger, V. Amiridis, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Nicolae, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: Towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(8), 2389–2409 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

F. Navas-Guzmán, J. A. Bravo-Aranda, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Statistical analysis of aerosol optical properties retrieved by Raman lidar over Southeastern Spain,” Tellus B 65(1), 21234 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bravo-Aranda, F. Navas-Guzmán, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, D. Pérez-Ramírez, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Analysis of lidar depolarization calibration procedure and application to the atmospheric aerosol characterization,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 34(9-10), 3543–3560 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

F. Navas-Guzmán, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Retrieval of the lidar overlap function using Raman signals,” Óptica Pura y Apl. 44, 71–75 (2011).

2010 (2)

J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, D. Bortoli, A. M. Silva, H. Lyamani, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Infrared lidar overlap function: an experimental determination,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20350–20359 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Lyamani, F. J. Olmo, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Physical and optical properties of aerosols over an urban location in Spain: Seasonal and diurnal variability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(1), 239–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, F. J. Olmo, I. Avilés-Rodríguez, F. Navas-Guzmán, D. Pérez-Ramírez, H. Lyamani, and L. A. Arboledas, “Extreme saharan dust event over the southern iberian peninsula in september 2007: Active and passive remote sensing from surface and satellite,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(21), 8453–8469 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, B. Ruiz, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Multi-spectral Lidar characterization of the vertical structure of Saharan dust aerosol over southern Spain,” Atmos. Environ. 42(11), 2668–2681 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. Kim and H. Cha, “Rotational Raman Lidar: Design and Performance Test of Meteorological Parameters (Aerosol Backscattering Coefficients and Temperature),” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51(91), 352–357 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

1998 (3)

J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, and D. D. Turner, “Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37(21), 4979–4990 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Bösenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: methodology,” Appl. Opt. 37(18), 3845–3860 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31(33), 7113–7131 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, “Combined raman elastic-backscatter LIDAR for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and LIDAR ratio,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 55(1), 18–28 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

1974 (1)

Alados-Arboledas, L.

Á Barreto, E. Cuevas, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, L. Alados-Arboledas, P. M. Romero, J. Gröbner, N. Kouremeti, A. F. Almansa, T. Stone, C. Toledano, R. Román, M. Sorokin, B. Holben, M. Canini, and M. Yela, “The new sun-sky-lunar Cimel CE318-T multiband photometer - a comprehensive performance evaluation,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(2), 631–654 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, A. Apituley, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, H. Linné, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. D’Amico, I. Mattis, L. Mona, U. Wandinger, V. Amiridis, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Nicolae, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: Towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(8), 2389–2409 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Navas-Guzmán, J. A. Bravo-Aranda, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Statistical analysis of aerosol optical properties retrieved by Raman lidar over Southeastern Spain,” Tellus B 65(1), 21234 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bravo-Aranda, F. Navas-Guzmán, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, D. Pérez-Ramírez, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Analysis of lidar depolarization calibration procedure and application to the atmospheric aerosol characterization,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 34(9-10), 3543–3560 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Navas-Guzmán, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Retrieval of the lidar overlap function using Raman signals,” Óptica Pura y Apl. 44, 71–75 (2011).

J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, D. Bortoli, A. M. Silva, H. Lyamani, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Infrared lidar overlap function: an experimental determination,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20350–20359 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Lyamani, F. J. Olmo, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Physical and optical properties of aerosols over an urban location in Spain: Seasonal and diurnal variability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(1), 239–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, B. Ruiz, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Multi-spectral Lidar characterization of the vertical structure of Saharan dust aerosol over southern Spain,” Atmos. Environ. 42(11), 2668–2681 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alegria, D.

J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, E. Landulfo, J. C. Antuña, H. de Melo Jorge Barbosa, B. Barja, ÁE Bastidas, A. E. Bedoya, R. F. da Costa, R. Estevan, R. Forno, D. A. Gouveia, C. Jiménez, E. G. Larroza, F. J. da Silva Lopes, E. Montilla-Rosero, G. de Arruda Moreira, W. M. Nakaema, D. Nisperuza, D. Alegria, M. Múnera, L. Otero, S. Papandrea, J. V. Pallota, E. Pawelko, E. J. Quel, P. Ristori, P. F. Rodrigues, J. Salvador, M. F. Sánchez, and A. Silva, “Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET) for aerosol research: Diagnosis on network instrumentation,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 138-139, 112–120 (2016).
[Crossref]

Almansa, A. F.

Á Barreto, E. Cuevas, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, L. Alados-Arboledas, P. M. Romero, J. Gröbner, N. Kouremeti, A. F. Almansa, T. Stone, C. Toledano, R. Román, M. Sorokin, B. Holben, M. Canini, and M. Yela, “The new sun-sky-lunar Cimel CE318-T multiband photometer - a comprehensive performance evaluation,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(2), 631–654 (2016).
[Crossref]

Althausen, D.

M. Haarig, R. Engelmann, A. Ansmann, I. Veselovskii, D. N. Whiteman, and D. Althausen, “1064 nm rotational Raman lidar for particle extinction and lidar-ratio profiling: Cirrus case study,”,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(9), 4269–4278 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Daytime operation of a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(17), 3593–3603 (2005).
[Crossref]

Amiridis, V.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, A. Apituley, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, H. Linné, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. D’Amico, I. Mattis, L. Mona, U. Wandinger, V. Amiridis, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Nicolae, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: Towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(8), 2389–2409 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, V. Amiridis, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, and X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project 3 Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt. 43(28), 5370–5385 (2004).
[Crossref]

Amodeo, A.

G. D’Amico, A. Amodeo, I. Mattis, V. Freudenthaler, and G. Pappalardo, “EARLINET Single Calculus Chain - technical - Part 1: Pre-processing of raw lidar data,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(2), 491–507 (2016).
[Crossref]

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J. C. Antuña-Marrero, E. Landulfo, R. Estevan, B. Barja, A. Robock, E. Wolfram, P. Ristori, B. Clemesha, F. Zaratti, R. Forno, E. Armandillo, ÁE Bastidas, ÁM De Frutos Baraja, D. N. Whiteman, E. Quel, H. M. J. Barbosa, F. Lopes, E. Montilla-Rosero, and J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, “LALINET: The first Latin American-born regional atmospheric observational network,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(6), 1255–1275 (2017).
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F. Navas-Guzmán, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Retrieval of the lidar overlap function using Raman signals,” Óptica Pura y Apl. 44, 71–75 (2011).

J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, D. Bortoli, A. M. Silva, H. Lyamani, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Infrared lidar overlap function: an experimental determination,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20350–20359 (2010).
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J. C. Antuña-Marrero, E. Landulfo, R. Estevan, B. Barja, A. Robock, E. Wolfram, P. Ristori, B. Clemesha, F. Zaratti, R. Forno, E. Armandillo, ÁE Bastidas, ÁM De Frutos Baraja, D. N. Whiteman, E. Quel, H. M. J. Barbosa, F. Lopes, E. Montilla-Rosero, and J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, “LALINET: The first Latin American-born regional atmospheric observational network,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98(6), 1255–1275 (2017).
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H. Lyamani, F. J. Olmo, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Physical and optical properties of aerosols over an urban location in Spain: Seasonal and diurnal variability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(1), 239–254 (2010).
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Montilla-Rosero, E.

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J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, E. Landulfo, J. C. Antuña, H. de Melo Jorge Barbosa, B. Barja, ÁE Bastidas, A. E. Bedoya, R. F. da Costa, R. Estevan, R. Forno, D. A. Gouveia, C. Jiménez, E. G. Larroza, F. J. da Silva Lopes, E. Montilla-Rosero, G. de Arruda Moreira, W. M. Nakaema, D. Nisperuza, D. Alegria, M. Múnera, L. Otero, S. Papandrea, J. V. Pallota, E. Pawelko, E. J. Quel, P. Ristori, P. F. Rodrigues, J. Salvador, M. F. Sánchez, and A. Silva, “Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET) for aerosol research: Diagnosis on network instrumentation,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 138-139, 112–120 (2016).
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Müller, D.

Múnera, M.

J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, E. Landulfo, J. C. Antuña, H. de Melo Jorge Barbosa, B. Barja, ÁE Bastidas, A. E. Bedoya, R. F. da Costa, R. Estevan, R. Forno, D. A. Gouveia, C. Jiménez, E. G. Larroza, F. J. da Silva Lopes, E. Montilla-Rosero, G. de Arruda Moreira, W. M. Nakaema, D. Nisperuza, D. Alegria, M. Múnera, L. Otero, S. Papandrea, J. V. Pallota, E. Pawelko, E. J. Quel, P. Ristori, P. F. Rodrigues, J. Salvador, M. F. Sánchez, and A. Silva, “Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET) for aerosol research: Diagnosis on network instrumentation,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 138-139, 112–120 (2016).
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J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, E. Landulfo, J. C. Antuña, H. de Melo Jorge Barbosa, B. Barja, ÁE Bastidas, A. E. Bedoya, R. F. da Costa, R. Estevan, R. Forno, D. A. Gouveia, C. Jiménez, E. G. Larroza, F. J. da Silva Lopes, E. Montilla-Rosero, G. de Arruda Moreira, W. M. Nakaema, D. Nisperuza, D. Alegria, M. Múnera, L. Otero, S. Papandrea, J. V. Pallota, E. Pawelko, E. J. Quel, P. Ristori, P. F. Rodrigues, J. Salvador, M. F. Sánchez, and A. Silva, “Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET) for aerosol research: Diagnosis on network instrumentation,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 138-139, 112–120 (2016).
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Navas-Guzmán, F.

F. Navas-Guzmán, J. A. Bravo-Aranda, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Statistical analysis of aerosol optical properties retrieved by Raman lidar over Southeastern Spain,” Tellus B 65(1), 21234 (2013).
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J. A. Bravo-Aranda, F. Navas-Guzmán, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, D. Pérez-Ramírez, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Analysis of lidar depolarization calibration procedure and application to the atmospheric aerosol characterization,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 34(9-10), 3543–3560 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Navas-Guzmán, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Retrieval of the lidar overlap function using Raman signals,” Óptica Pura y Apl. 44, 71–75 (2011).

J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, F. J. Olmo, I. Avilés-Rodríguez, F. Navas-Guzmán, D. Pérez-Ramírez, H. Lyamani, and L. A. Arboledas, “Extreme saharan dust event over the southern iberian peninsula in september 2007: Active and passive remote sensing from surface and satellite,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(21), 8453–8469 (2009).
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Nicolae, D.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, A. Apituley, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, H. Linné, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. D’Amico, I. Mattis, L. Mona, U. Wandinger, V. Amiridis, L. Alados-Arboledas, D. Nicolae, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: Towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(8), 2389–2409 (2014).
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Nisperuza, D.

J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, E. Landulfo, J. C. Antuña, H. de Melo Jorge Barbosa, B. Barja, ÁE Bastidas, A. E. Bedoya, R. F. da Costa, R. Estevan, R. Forno, D. A. Gouveia, C. Jiménez, E. G. Larroza, F. J. da Silva Lopes, E. Montilla-Rosero, G. de Arruda Moreira, W. M. Nakaema, D. Nisperuza, D. Alegria, M. Múnera, L. Otero, S. Papandrea, J. V. Pallota, E. Pawelko, E. J. Quel, P. Ristori, P. F. Rodrigues, J. Salvador, M. F. Sánchez, and A. Silva, “Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET) for aerosol research: Diagnosis on network instrumentation,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 138-139, 112–120 (2016).
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Olmo, F. J.

H. Lyamani, F. J. Olmo, and L. Alados-Arboledas, “Physical and optical properties of aerosols over an urban location in Spain: Seasonal and diurnal variability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(1), 239–254 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, F. J. Olmo, I. Avilés-Rodríguez, F. Navas-Guzmán, D. Pérez-Ramírez, H. Lyamani, and L. A. Arboledas, “Extreme saharan dust event over the southern iberian peninsula in september 2007: Active and passive remote sensing from surface and satellite,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(21), 8453–8469 (2009).
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Otero, L.

J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, E. Landulfo, J. C. Antuña, H. de Melo Jorge Barbosa, B. Barja, ÁE Bastidas, A. E. Bedoya, R. F. da Costa, R. Estevan, R. Forno, D. A. Gouveia, C. Jiménez, E. G. Larroza, F. J. da Silva Lopes, E. Montilla-Rosero, G. de Arruda Moreira, W. M. Nakaema, D. Nisperuza, D. Alegria, M. Múnera, L. Otero, S. Papandrea, J. V. Pallota, E. Pawelko, E. J. Quel, P. Ristori, P. F. Rodrigues, J. Salvador, M. F. Sánchez, and A. Silva, “Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET) for aerosol research: Diagnosis on network instrumentation,” J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 138-139, 112–120 (2016).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Rotational Raman spectral lines (intensity in arbitrary units) of molecular oxygen (red line) and nitrogen (blue line) at 300 K, together with interference filter transmittance (black line).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Configuration of the UV detection branch of MULHACEN lidar system. Optical paths are represented by arrows and dichroic mirrors (DM) with rectangles. Different wavelength values stand for the corresponding interference filters.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Relative error in ${\beta ^a}$ and (b) absolute error in ${\alpha ^a}$, due to temperature variations with altitude, using 1976 US Standard Atmosphere [31] temperature profile.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Elastic scattering ratio at 355 nm and (b) range-corrected elastic (355 nm, black solid line) and Raman (353.9 nm, grey solid line) lidar signals in the presence of clouds; modeled molecular backscattering is indicated by dotted line.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. . (a) Time evolution of measured lidar RCS on 25th June 2018 from day to nighttime. (b) Time evolution of $AOD$ at 440 nm and $A{E_{AOD}}$ at 440-870 nm, measured with triple photometer.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Nocturnal profiles of particle backscatter (a) and extinction (b) coefficients and lidar ratio (c) for a 30-min time interval (thick lines), together with profiles obtained with 1-min resolution (dots) and their average (dashed lines). Black error bars correspond to random errors and blue error bars correspond to the temperature dependence contribution.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Temporal evolution of particle extinction and backscatter coefficients during a nocturnal period, with 1 min resolution.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Particle extinction coefficient profiles retrieved with Raman signals during daytime for 25th June 2018. Error bars correspond to random errors plus the temperature dependence contribution.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Particle backscatter coefficient profiles retrieved with Raman (solid lines) and elastic (dashed lines) signals during daytime for 25th June 2018. Error bars correspond to random errors plus the temperature dependence contribution.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Rayleigh-fit plot of daytime (18:14-19:14 h UTC) and nighttime (20:35-21:04 h UTC) lidar elastic (a) and RR (b) normalized range-corrected signals.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. (a) Overlap function, (b) particle extinction coefficient and (c) particle backscatter coefficient retrieved with RR signals during two close intervals for 25th June 2018. Black, solid lines stand for daytime profiles (18:14-19:14 h UTC) and red, dotted lines stand for nighttime profiles (20:35-21:04 h UTC). Black error bars correspond to random errors and blue error bars correspond to the temperature dependence contribution.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Technical details of some optical elements of MULHACEN emitter system and UV detection branch

Equations (3)

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β a ( z ) β m ( z ) + β m ( z 0 ) P R ( z 0 ) P L ( z ) N ( z ) σ R eff ( z ) P L ( z 0 ) P R ( z ) N ( z 0 ) σ R eff ( z 0 )
α a ( z ) = d d z ln ( N ( z ) P R ( z ) z 2 ) + d d z ln σ R eff ( z ) α L m ( z ) α R m ( z ) 1 + ( λ L λ R ) A E α 1 2 d d z ln ( N ( z ) P R ( z ) z 2 ) + 1 2 d d z ln σ R eff ( z ) α m ( z )
σ R R eff = Δ λ d σ L m ( λ , T ) d λ ξ R ( λ ) d λ

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