Abstract

We study radiative relaxation at terahertz frequencies in n-type Ge/SiGe quantum wells, optically pumped with a terahertz free electron laser. Two wells coupled through a tunneling barrier are designed to operate as a three-level laser system with non-equilibrium population generated by optical pumping around the 1→3 intersubband transition at 10 THz. The non-equilibrium subband population dynamics are studied by absorption-saturation measurements and compared to a numerical model. In the emission spectroscopy experiment, we observed a photoluminescence peak at 4 THz, which can be attributed to the 3→2 intersubband transition with possible contribution from the 2→1 intersubband transition. These results represent a step towards silicon-based integrated terahertz emitters.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Modeling of second harmonic generation in hole-doped silicon-germanium quantum wells for mid-infrared sensing

Jacopo Frigerio, Andrea Ballabio, Michele Ortolani, and Michele Virgilio
Opt. Express 26(24) 31861-31872 (2018)

Design and simulation of losses in Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides

K. Gallacher, M. Ortolani, K. Rew, C. Ciano, L. Baldassarre, M. Virgilio, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, T. Grange, S. Birner, and D. J. Paul
Opt. Express 28(4) 4786-4800 (2020)

THz-driven nonlinear intersubband dynamics in quantum wells

D. Dietze, J. Darmo, and K. Unterrainer
Opt. Express 20(21) 23053-23060 (2012)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Bates, S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, P. Harrison, S. L. Liew, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, W. R. Tribe, and D. D. Arnone, “Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4092–4094 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pèrez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8(4), 3136–3151 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Tsu, L. L. Chang, G. A. Sai-Halasz, and L. Esaki, “Effects of Quantum States on the Photocurrent in a Superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34(24), 1509–1512 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. P. Sun, G. I. Haddad, P. Mazumder, and J. N. Schulman, “Resonant tunneling diodes: Models and properties,” Proc. IEEE 86(4), 641–660 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. S. Vitiello, G. Scalari, B. Williams, and P. De Natale, “Quantum Cascade Lasers: 20 years of challenges,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5167–5182 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. O. Gauthier-Lafaye, F. H. Julien, S. Cabaret, J. M. Lourtioz, G. Strasser, E. Gornik, M. Helm, and P. Bois, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum fountain unipolar laser emitting at 14.5 (m with 2.5% tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1537–1539 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, L. R. Friedman, and R. A. Soref, “Comparative analysis of optically pumped intersubband lasers and intersubband Raman oscillators,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(12), 7398–7400 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Raman injection laser,” Nature 433(7028), 845–848 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. J. Paul, “Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(10), R75–R108 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. J. Paul, “The progress towards terahertz quantum cascade lasers on silicon substrates,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(5), 610–632 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Scheinert, H. Sigg, S. Tsujino, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Intersubband Raman laser from GaInAs/AlInAs double quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131108 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. De Seta, G. Capellini, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Nicotra, and P. Zaumseil, “Narrow intersubband transitions in n-type Ge/SiGe multi-quantum wells: Control of the terahertz absorption energy through the temperature dependent depolarization shift,” Nanotechnology 23(46), 465708 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Virgilio, D. Sabbagh, M. Ortolani, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Physical mechanisms of intersubband-absorption linewidth broadening in s-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 90(15), 155420 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roh, T. I. Karmins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  24. L. Zhang, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Nonlinear group IV based on silicon and germanium: from near-infrared to mid-infrared,” Nanophotonics 3(4-5), 247–268 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. L. Carroll, F. Imbert, H. Sigg, M. Süess, E. Müller, M. Virgilio, G. Pizzi, P. Rossbach, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “Quantum-confined direct-gap transitions in tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031907 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  26. G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Könel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  27. L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, J. D. Cooper, and R. W. Kelsall, “Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(22), 3273–3281 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  28. P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well photodiode with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131112 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. Brun, P. Labeye, G. Grand, J.-M. Hartmann, F. Boulila, M. Carras, and S. Nicoletti, “Low loss SiGe graded index waveguides for mid-IR applications,” Opt. Express 22(1), 508–518 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  30. C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, and M. Ortolani, “Modeling picosecond electron dynamics of pump-probe intersubband spectroscopy in n-type Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205317 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  32. A. Sa’ar, Y. Lavon, F. H. Julien, P. Boucaud, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, and R. Planel, “Mid-infrared intersubband emission from optically pumped asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 21(4), 517–525 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. Ortolani, D. Stehr, M. Wagner, M. Helm, G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Long intersubband relaxation times in n-type germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201101 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  34. M. Virgilio, M. Ortolani, M. Teich, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, D. Sabbagh, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Combined effect of electron and lattice temperatures on the long intersubband relaxation times of Ge/SixGe1−x quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 045311 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  35. D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  36. F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2(11), 944–949 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  37. S. A. Miller, M. Yu, X. Ji, A. G. Griffith, J. Cardenas, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Low-loss silicon platform for broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Optica 4(7), 707–712 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  38. M. Virgilio and G. Grosso, “Conduction intersubband transitions at normal incidence in Si1-xGex quantum well devices,” Nanotechnology 18(7), 075402 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  39. S. Mukherjee, L. Persichetti, M. Virgilio, T. Grange, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, Department of Engineering Physics, Montreal, Canada, are preparing a manuscript to be called “The impactof interface roughness on the performances of a SiGe quantum cascade laser”.
  40. C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  41. F. H. Julien, Z. Moussa, P. Boucaud, Y. Lavon, A. Sa’ar, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, V. Berger, J. Nagle, and R. Planel, “Intersubband mid-infrared emission in optically pumped quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 19(1), 69–79 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  42. J.-W. Choe, A. G. U. Perera, M. H. Fracombe, and D. D. Coon, “Estimates of infrared intersubband emission and its angular dependence in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(1), 54–56 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  43. M. Helm, P. England, E. Colas, F. DeRosa, and S. J. Allen, “Intersubband emission from semiconductor superlattices excited by sequential resonant tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(1), 74–77 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  44. M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “Far-infrared ((=88 (m) electroluminescence in a quantum cascade structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3724–3726 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  45. K. Driscoll and R. Paiella, “Design of n-type silicon-based quantum cascade lasers for terahertz light emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 093103 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  46. K. Driscoll and R. Paiella, “Silicon-based injection lasers using electronic intersubband transitions in the L valleys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191110 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  47. T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  48. F. H. Julien, J. M. Lourtioz, N. Hershkorn, D. Delacourt, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, R. Planel, and G. Le Roux, “Optical saturation of intersubband absorption in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(2), 116–118 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  49. C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  50. V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  51. M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  52. M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorber for ultrafast THz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151110 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  53. H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, and V. N. Shastin, “Terahertz lasers based on germanium and silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S211–S221 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  54. N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  55. S. G. Pavlov, R. K. Zukavin, V. N. Shastin, and H.-W. Hübers, “The physical principles of terahertz silicon lasers based on intracenter transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(1), 9–36 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2020 (1)

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (2)

T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

S. A. Miller, M. Yu, X. Ji, A. G. Griffith, J. Cardenas, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Low-loss silicon platform for broadband mid-infrared photonics,” Optica 4(7), 707–712 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (5)

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pèrez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8(4), 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Brun, P. Labeye, G. Grand, J.-M. Hartmann, F. Boulila, M. Carras, and S. Nicoletti, “Low loss SiGe graded index waveguides for mid-IR applications,” Opt. Express 22(1), 508–518 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, D. Sabbagh, M. Ortolani, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Physical mechanisms of intersubband-absorption linewidth broadening in s-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 90(15), 155420 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Nonlinear group IV based on silicon and germanium: from near-infrared to mid-infrared,” Nanophotonics 3(4-5), 247–268 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, M. Ortolani, M. Teich, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, D. Sabbagh, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Combined effect of electron and lattice temperatures on the long intersubband relaxation times of Ge/SixGe1−x quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 045311 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. G. Pavlov, R. K. Zukavin, V. N. Shastin, and H.-W. Hübers, “The physical principles of terahertz silicon lasers based on intracenter transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(1), 9–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Nicotra, and P. Zaumseil, “Narrow intersubband transitions in n-type Ge/SiGe multi-quantum wells: Control of the terahertz absorption energy through the temperature dependent depolarization shift,” Nanotechnology 23(46), 465708 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, and M. Ortolani, “Modeling picosecond electron dynamics of pump-probe intersubband spectroscopy in n-type Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205317 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

M. Ortolani, D. Stehr, M. Wagner, M. Helm, G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Long intersubband relaxation times in n-type germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Carroll, F. Imbert, H. Sigg, M. Süess, E. Müller, M. Virgilio, G. Pizzi, P. Rossbach, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “Quantum-confined direct-gap transitions in tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031907 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well photodiode with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131112 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, J. D. Cooper, and R. W. Kelsall, “Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(22), 3273–3281 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. J. Paul, “The progress towards terahertz quantum cascade lasers on silicon substrates,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(5), 610–632 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorber for ultrafast THz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151110 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

K. Driscoll and R. Paiella, “Design of n-type silicon-based quantum cascade lasers for terahertz light emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 093103 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Scheinert, H. Sigg, S. Tsujino, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Intersubband Raman laser from GaInAs/AlInAs double quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131108 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio and G. Grosso, “Conduction intersubband transitions at normal incidence in Si1-xGex quantum well devices,” Nanotechnology 18(7), 075402 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Driscoll and R. Paiella, “Silicon-based injection lasers using electronic intersubband transitions in the L valleys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191110 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, and V. N. Shastin, “Terahertz lasers based on germanium and silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S211–S221 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roh, T. I. Karmins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Raman injection laser,” Nature 433(7028), 845–848 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

D. J. Paul, “Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(10), R75–R108 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Könel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. Bates, S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, P. Harrison, S. L. Liew, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, W. R. Tribe, and D. D. Arnone, “Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4092–4094 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, F. H. Julien, S. Cabaret, J. M. Lourtioz, G. Strasser, E. Gornik, M. Helm, and P. Bois, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum fountain unipolar laser emitting at 14.5 (m with 2.5% tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. P. Sun, G. I. Haddad, P. Mazumder, and J. N. Schulman, “Resonant tunneling diodes: Models and properties,” Proc. IEEE 86(4), 641–660 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “Far-infrared ((=88 (m) electroluminescence in a quantum cascade structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3724–3726 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Sa’ar, Y. Lavon, F. H. Julien, P. Boucaud, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, and R. Planel, “Mid-infrared intersubband emission from optically pumped asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 21(4), 517–525 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

F. H. Julien, Z. Moussa, P. Boucaud, Y. Lavon, A. Sa’ar, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, V. Berger, J. Nagle, and R. Planel, “Intersubband mid-infrared emission in optically pumped quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 19(1), 69–79 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, L. R. Friedman, and R. A. Soref, “Comparative analysis of optically pumped intersubband lasers and intersubband Raman oscillators,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(12), 7398–7400 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J.-W. Choe, A. G. U. Perera, M. H. Fracombe, and D. D. Coon, “Estimates of infrared intersubband emission and its angular dependence in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(1), 54–56 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

M. Helm, P. England, E. Colas, F. DeRosa, and S. J. Allen, “Intersubband emission from semiconductor superlattices excited by sequential resonant tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(1), 74–77 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

F. H. Julien, J. M. Lourtioz, N. Hershkorn, D. Delacourt, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, R. Planel, and G. Le Roux, “Optical saturation of intersubband absorption in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(2), 116–118 (1988).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

R. Tsu, L. L. Chang, G. A. Sai-Halasz, and L. Esaki, “Effects of Quantum States on the Photocurrent in a Superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34(24), 1509–1512 (1975).
[Crossref]

Aeppli, G.

N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A. M.

L. Zhang, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Nonlinear group IV based on silicon and germanium: from near-infrared to mid-infrared,” Nanophotonics 3(4-5), 247–268 (2014).
[Crossref]

Allen, S. J.

M. Helm, P. England, E. Colas, F. DeRosa, and S. J. Allen, “Intersubband emission from semiconductor superlattices excited by sequential resonant tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(1), 74–77 (1989).
[Crossref]

Arnone, D. D.

R. Bates, S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, P. Harrison, S. L. Liew, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, W. R. Tribe, and D. D. Arnone, “Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4092–4094 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bagolini, L.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

Bain, M.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baldassarre, L.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bates, R.

R. Bates, S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, P. Harrison, S. L. Liew, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, W. R. Tribe, and D. D. Arnone, “Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4092–4094 (2003).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “Far-infrared ((=88 (m) electroluminescence in a quantum cascade structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3724–3726 (1998).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Belyanin, A.

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Raman injection laser,” Nature 433(7028), 845–848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Berger, V.

F. H. Julien, Z. Moussa, P. Boucaud, Y. Lavon, A. Sa’ar, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, V. Berger, J. Nagle, and R. Planel, “Intersubband mid-infrared emission in optically pumped quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 19(1), 69–79 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bianchi, V.

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

Biermann, K.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Birner, S.

T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bois, P.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, F. H. Julien, S. Cabaret, J. M. Lourtioz, G. Strasser, E. Gornik, M. Helm, and P. Bois, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum fountain unipolar laser emitting at 14.5 (m with 2.5% tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

A. Sa’ar, Y. Lavon, F. H. Julien, P. Boucaud, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, and R. Planel, “Mid-infrared intersubband emission from optically pumped asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 21(4), 517–525 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. H. Julien, Z. Moussa, P. Boucaud, Y. Lavon, A. Sa’ar, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, V. Berger, J. Nagle, and R. Planel, “Intersubband mid-infrared emission in optically pumped quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 19(1), 69–79 (1996).
[Crossref]

Boulila, F.

Boztug, C.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pèrez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8(4), 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brun, M.

Buca, D.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Busby, Y.

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cabaret, S.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, F. H. Julien, S. Cabaret, J. M. Lourtioz, G. Strasser, E. Gornik, M. Helm, and P. Bois, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum fountain unipolar laser emitting at 14.5 (m with 2.5% tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref]

Califano, M.

G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Calvani, P.

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Raman injection laser,” Nature 433(7028), 845–848 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref]

Capellini, G.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, M. Ortolani, M. Teich, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, D. Sabbagh, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Combined effect of electron and lattice temperatures on the long intersubband relaxation times of Ge/SixGe1−x quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 045311 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, D. Sabbagh, M. Ortolani, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Physical mechanisms of intersubband-absorption linewidth broadening in s-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 90(15), 155420 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, and M. Ortolani, “Modeling picosecond electron dynamics of pump-probe intersubband spectroscopy in n-type Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205317 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Nicotra, and P. Zaumseil, “Narrow intersubband transitions in n-type Ge/SiGe multi-quantum wells: Control of the terahertz absorption energy through the temperature dependent depolarization shift,” Nanotechnology 23(46), 465708 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ortolani, D. Stehr, M. Wagner, M. Helm, G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Long intersubband relaxation times in n-type germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Mukherjee, L. Persichetti, M. Virgilio, T. Grange, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, Department of Engineering Physics, Montreal, Canada, are preparing a manuscript to be called “The impactof interface roughness on the performances of a SiGe quantum cascade laser”.

Cardenas, J.

Carey, T.

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

Carras, M.

Carroll, L.

L. Carroll, F. Imbert, H. Sigg, M. Süess, E. Müller, M. Virgilio, G. Pizzi, P. Rossbach, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “Quantum-confined direct-gap transitions in tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well photodiode with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cavallo, F.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pèrez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8(4), 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chaisakul, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well photodiode with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, L. L.

R. Tsu, L. L. Chang, G. A. Sai-Halasz, and L. Esaki, “Effects of Quantum States on the Photocurrent in a Superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34(24), 1509–1512 (1975).
[Crossref]

Chiussi, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Raman injection laser,” Nature 433(7028), 845–848 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref]

Choe, J.-W.

J.-W. Choe, A. G. U. Perera, M. H. Fracombe, and D. D. Coon, “Estimates of infrared intersubband emission and its angular dependence in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(1), 54–56 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chrastina, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well photodiode with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131112 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Carroll, F. Imbert, H. Sigg, M. Süess, E. Müller, M. Virgilio, G. Pizzi, P. Rossbach, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “Quantum-confined direct-gap transitions in tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031907 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Könel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ciano, C.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

Colas, E.

M. Helm, P. England, E. Colas, F. DeRosa, and S. J. Allen, “Intersubband emission from semiconductor superlattices excited by sequential resonant tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(1), 74–77 (1989).
[Crossref]

Colombelli, R.

Coon, D. D.

J.-W. Choe, A. G. U. Perera, M. H. Fracombe, and D. D. Coon, “Estimates of infrared intersubband emission and its angular dependence in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(1), 54–56 (1991).
[Crossref]

Cooper, J. D.

Coudevylle, J.-R.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well photodiode with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cubukcu, E.

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Raman injection laser,” Nature 433(7028), 845–848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cullis, A. G.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Bates, S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, P. Harrison, S. L. Liew, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, W. R. Tribe, and D. D. Arnone, “Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4092–4094 (2003).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2(11), 944–949 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Davies, G.

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

De Natale, P.

De Seta, M.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, M. Ortolani, M. Teich, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, D. Sabbagh, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Combined effect of electron and lattice temperatures on the long intersubband relaxation times of Ge/SixGe1−x quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 045311 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, D. Sabbagh, M. Ortolani, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Physical mechanisms of intersubband-absorption linewidth broadening in s-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 90(15), 155420 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, and M. Ortolani, “Modeling picosecond electron dynamics of pump-probe intersubband spectroscopy in n-type Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205317 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Nicotra, and P. Zaumseil, “Narrow intersubband transitions in n-type Ge/SiGe multi-quantum wells: Control of the terahertz absorption energy through the temperature dependent depolarization shift,” Nanotechnology 23(46), 465708 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ortolani, D. Stehr, M. Wagner, M. Helm, G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Long intersubband relaxation times in n-type germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Mukherjee, L. Persichetti, M. Virgilio, T. Grange, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, Department of Engineering Physics, Montreal, Canada, are preparing a manuscript to be called “The impactof interface roughness on the performances of a SiGe quantum cascade laser”.

Dehlinger, G.

G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dekorsy, T.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Delacourt, D.

F. H. Julien, J. M. Lourtioz, N. Hershkorn, D. Delacourt, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, R. Planel, and G. Le Roux, “Optical saturation of intersubband absorption in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(2), 116–118 (1988).
[Crossref]

DeRosa, F.

M. Helm, P. England, E. Colas, F. DeRosa, and S. J. Allen, “Intersubband emission from semiconductor superlattices excited by sequential resonant tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(1), 74–77 (1989).
[Crossref]

Dhillon, S. S.

Di Gaspare, L.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, D. Sabbagh, M. Ortolani, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Physical mechanisms of intersubband-absorption linewidth broadening in s-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 90(15), 155420 (2014).
[Crossref]

Diehl, L.

G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dinh, V. T.

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Driscoll, K.

K. Driscoll and R. Paiella, “Design of n-type silicon-based quantum cascade lasers for terahertz light emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 093103 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Driscoll and R. Paiella, “Silicon-based injection lasers using electronic intersubband transitions in the L valleys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dumas, D.

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Edmond, S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well photodiode with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131112 (2011).
[Crossref]

England, P.

M. Helm, P. England, E. Colas, F. DeRosa, and S. J. Allen, “Intersubband emission from semiconductor superlattices excited by sequential resonant tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(1), 74–77 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ensslin, K.

G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
[Crossref]

Esaki, L.

R. Tsu, L. L. Chang, G. A. Sai-Halasz, and L. Esaki, “Effects of Quantum States on the Photocurrent in a Superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34(24), 1509–1512 (1975).
[Crossref]

Evangelisti, F.

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Scheinert, H. Sigg, S. Tsujino, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Intersubband Raman laser from GaInAs/AlInAs double quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131108 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “Far-infrared ((=88 (m) electroluminescence in a quantum cascade structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3724–3726 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, F.

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fracombe, M. H.

J.-W. Choe, A. G. U. Perera, M. H. Fracombe, and D. D. Coon, “Estimates of infrared intersubband emission and its angular dependence in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(1), 54–56 (1991).
[Crossref]

Freeman, J. R.

Friedman, L. R.

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, L. R. Friedman, and R. A. Soref, “Comparative analysis of optically pumped intersubband lasers and intersubband Raman oscillators,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(12), 7398–7400 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gallacher, K. F.

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gamble, H. S.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gauthier-Lafaye, O.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, F. H. Julien, S. Cabaret, J. M. Lourtioz, G. Strasser, E. Gornik, M. Helm, and P. Bois, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum fountain unipolar laser emitting at 14.5 (m with 2.5% tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ge, Y.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roh, T. I. Karmins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Geiger, R.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gennser, U.

G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
[Crossref]

Giovannini, M.

M. Scheinert, H. Sigg, S. Tsujino, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Intersubband Raman laser from GaInAs/AlInAs double quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gornik, E.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, F. H. Julien, S. Cabaret, J. M. Lourtioz, G. Strasser, E. Gornik, M. Helm, and P. Bois, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum fountain unipolar laser emitting at 14.5 (m with 2.5% tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref]

Grand, G.

Grange, R.

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grange, T.

T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Mukherjee, L. Persichetti, M. Virgilio, T. Grange, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, Department of Engineering Physics, Montreal, Canada, are preparing a manuscript to be called “The impactof interface roughness on the performances of a SiGe quantum cascade laser”.

Greenland, P. T.

N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grenzer, J.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Griffith, A. G.

Grosso, G.

M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, and M. Ortolani, “Modeling picosecond electron dynamics of pump-probe intersubband spectroscopy in n-type Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205317 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Nicotra, and P. Zaumseil, “Narrow intersubband transitions in n-type Ge/SiGe multi-quantum wells: Control of the terahertz absorption energy through the temperature dependent depolarization shift,” Nanotechnology 23(46), 465708 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ortolani, D. Stehr, M. Wagner, M. Helm, G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Long intersubband relaxation times in n-type germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio and G. Grosso, “Conduction intersubband transitions at normal incidence in Si1-xGex quantum well devices,” Nanotechnology 18(7), 075402 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grützmacher, D.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hackbarth, T.

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Könel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[Crossref]

Haddad, G. I.

J. P. Sun, G. I. Haddad, P. Mazumder, and J. N. Schulman, “Resonant tunneling diodes: Models and properties,” Proc. IEEE 86(4), 641–660 (1998).
[Crossref]

Haiml, M.

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[Crossref]

Halpin, J.

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roh, T. I. Karmins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Harrison, P.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Bates, S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, P. Harrison, S. L. Liew, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, W. R. Tribe, and D. D. Arnone, “Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4092–4094 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J. M.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.-M.

Helm, M.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, M. Ortolani, M. Teich, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, D. Sabbagh, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Combined effect of electron and lattice temperatures on the long intersubband relaxation times of Ge/SixGe1−x quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 045311 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Ortolani, D. Stehr, M. Wagner, M. Helm, G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Long intersubband relaxation times in n-type germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, F. H. Julien, S. Cabaret, J. M. Lourtioz, G. Strasser, E. Gornik, M. Helm, and P. Bois, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum fountain unipolar laser emitting at 14.5 (m with 2.5% tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Helm, P. England, E. Colas, F. DeRosa, and S. J. Allen, “Intersubband emission from semiconductor superlattices excited by sequential resonant tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(1), 74–77 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hershkorn, N.

F. H. Julien, J. M. Lourtioz, N. Hershkorn, D. Delacourt, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, R. Planel, and G. Le Roux, “Optical saturation of intersubband absorption in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(2), 116–118 (1988).
[Crossref]

Herzog, H.-J.

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Könel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, M. C.

M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorber for ultrafast THz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hübers, H.-W.

S. G. Pavlov, R. K. Zukavin, V. N. Shastin, and H.-W. Hübers, “The physical principles of terahertz silicon lasers based on intracenter transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(1), 9–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, and V. N. Shastin, “Terahertz lasers based on germanium and silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S211–S221 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ikonic, Z.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, J. D. Cooper, and R. W. Kelsall, “Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(22), 3273–3281 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Bates, S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, P. Harrison, S. L. Liew, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, W. R. Tribe, and D. D. Arnone, “Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4092–4094 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ilegems, M.

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “Far-infrared ((=88 (m) electroluminescence in a quantum cascade structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3724–3726 (1998).
[Crossref]

Imbert, F.

L. Carroll, F. Imbert, H. Sigg, M. Süess, E. Müller, M. Virgilio, G. Pizzi, P. Rossbach, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “Quantum-confined direct-gap transitions in tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Isella, G.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well photodiode with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131112 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Carroll, F. Imbert, H. Sigg, M. Süess, E. Müller, M. Virgilio, G. Pizzi, P. Rossbach, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “Quantum-confined direct-gap transitions in tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031907 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Könel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, P.

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ji, X.

Julien, F. H.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, F. H. Julien, S. Cabaret, J. M. Lourtioz, G. Strasser, E. Gornik, M. Helm, and P. Bois, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum fountain unipolar laser emitting at 14.5 (m with 2.5% tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Sa’ar, Y. Lavon, F. H. Julien, P. Boucaud, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, and R. Planel, “Mid-infrared intersubband emission from optically pumped asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 21(4), 517–525 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. H. Julien, Z. Moussa, P. Boucaud, Y. Lavon, A. Sa’ar, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, V. Berger, J. Nagle, and R. Planel, “Intersubband mid-infrared emission in optically pumped quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 19(1), 69–79 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. H. Julien, J. M. Lourtioz, N. Hershkorn, D. Delacourt, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, R. Planel, and G. Le Roux, “Optical saturation of intersubband absorption in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(2), 116–118 (1988).
[Crossref]

Karagiannidis, P. G.

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

Karmins, T. I.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roh, T. I. Karmins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kelsall, R. W.

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, J. D. Cooper, and R. W. Kelsall, “Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(22), 3273–3281 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Bates, S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, P. Harrison, S. L. Liew, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, W. R. Tribe, and D. D. Arnone, “Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4092–4094 (2003).
[Crossref]

Khurgin, J. B.

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, L. R. Friedman, and R. A. Soref, “Comparative analysis of optically pumped intersubband lasers and intersubband Raman oscillators,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(12), 7398–7400 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Zhang, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Nonlinear group IV based on silicon and germanium: from near-infrared to mid-infrared,” Nanophotonics 3(4-5), 247–268 (2014).
[Crossref]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

König, U.

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Könel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kundu, I.

Künzel, H.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roh, T. I. Karmins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Labeye, P.

Lagally, M. G.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pèrez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8(4), 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lavon, Y.

A. Sa’ar, Y. Lavon, F. H. Julien, P. Boucaud, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, and R. Planel, “Mid-infrared intersubband emission from optically pumped asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 21(4), 517–525 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. H. Julien, Z. Moussa, P. Boucaud, Y. Lavon, A. Sa’ar, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, V. Berger, J. Nagle, and R. Planel, “Intersubband mid-infrared emission in optically pumped quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 19(1), 69–79 (1996).
[Crossref]

Le Roux, G.

F. H. Julien, J. M. Lourtioz, N. Hershkorn, D. Delacourt, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, R. Planel, and G. Le Roux, “Optical saturation of intersubband absorption in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(2), 116–118 (1988).
[Crossref]

Le Roux, X.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well photodiode with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leadley, D.

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leburton, J.-P.

A. Sa’ar, Y. Lavon, F. H. Julien, P. Boucaud, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, and R. Planel, “Mid-infrared intersubband emission from optically pumped asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 21(4), 517–525 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. H. Julien, Z. Moussa, P. Boucaud, Y. Lavon, A. Sa’ar, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, V. Berger, J. Nagle, and R. Planel, “Intersubband mid-infrared emission in optically pumped quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 19(1), 69–79 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roh, T. I. Karmins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lever, L.

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, J. D. Cooper, and R. W. Kelsall, “Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(22), 3273–3281 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2(11), 944–949 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liew, S. L.

R. Bates, S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, P. Harrison, S. L. Liew, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, W. R. Tribe, and D. D. Arnone, “Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4092–4094 (2003).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E. H.

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, K. Maussang, S. Moumdji, R. Colombelli, J. R. Freeman, I. Kundu, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Mangeney, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Generating ultrafast pulses of light from quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 2(11), 944–949 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Litvinenko, K.

N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lombardi, L.

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lourtioz, J. M.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, F. H. Julien, S. Cabaret, J. M. Lourtioz, G. Strasser, E. Gornik, M. Helm, and P. Bois, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum fountain unipolar laser emitting at 14.5 (m with 2.5% tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. H. Julien, J. M. Lourtioz, N. Hershkorn, D. Delacourt, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, R. Planel, and G. Le Roux, “Optical saturation of intersubband absorption in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(2), 116–118 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lupi, S.

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luysberg, M.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lynch, S. A.

N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Bates, S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, P. Harrison, S. L. Liew, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, W. R. Tribe, and D. D. Arnone, “Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4092–4094 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mangeney, J.

Mantl, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well photodiode with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Matmon, G.

G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Maussang, K.

Mazumder, P.

J. P. Sun, G. I. Haddad, P. Mazumder, and J. N. Schulman, “Resonant tunneling diodes: Models and properties,” Proc. IEEE 86(4), 641–660 (1998).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

L. Zhang, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Nonlinear group IV based on silicon and germanium: from near-infrared to mid-infrared,” Nanophotonics 3(4-5), 247–268 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roh, T. I. Karmins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miller, S. A.

Montanari, M.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

Moumdji, S.

Moussa, Z.

F. H. Julien, Z. Moussa, P. Boucaud, Y. Lavon, A. Sa’ar, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, V. Berger, J. Nagle, and R. Planel, “Intersubband mid-infrared emission in optically pumped quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 19(1), 69–79 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, S.

S. Mukherjee, L. Persichetti, M. Virgilio, T. Grange, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, Department of Engineering Physics, Montreal, Canada, are preparing a manuscript to be called “The impactof interface roughness on the performances of a SiGe quantum cascade laser”.

Müller, E.

L. Carroll, F. Imbert, H. Sigg, M. Süess, E. Müller, M. Virgilio, G. Pizzi, P. Rossbach, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “Quantum-confined direct-gap transitions in tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031907 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
[Crossref]

Murdin, B.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Murdin, B. N.

N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
[Crossref]

Murzyn, P.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mussler, G.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Myronov, M.

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nagle, J.

F. H. Julien, Z. Moussa, P. Boucaud, Y. Lavon, A. Sa’ar, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, V. Berger, J. Nagle, and R. Planel, “Intersubband mid-infrared emission in optically pumped quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 19(1), 69–79 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nardone, M.

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

Neels, A.

G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Neuhaus, J.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ni, W.-X.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nicoletti, S.

Nicotra, G.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Nicotra, and P. Zaumseil, “Narrow intersubband transitions in n-type Ge/SiGe multi-quantum wells: Control of the terahertz absorption energy through the temperature dependent depolarization shift,” Nanotechnology 23(46), 465708 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

Norris, D. J.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Bates, S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, P. Harrison, S. L. Liew, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, W. R. Tribe, and D. D. Arnone, “Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4092–4094 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nucara, A.

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oesterle, U.

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “Far-infrared ((=88 (m) electroluminescence in a quantum cascade structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3724–3726 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ohser, S.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ortolani, M.

T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, M. Ortolani, M. Teich, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, D. Sabbagh, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Combined effect of electron and lattice temperatures on the long intersubband relaxation times of Ge/SixGe1−x quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 045311 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, D. Sabbagh, M. Ortolani, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Physical mechanisms of intersubband-absorption linewidth broadening in s-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 90(15), 155420 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, and M. Ortolani, “Modeling picosecond electron dynamics of pump-probe intersubband spectroscopy in n-type Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205317 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Nicotra, and P. Zaumseil, “Narrow intersubband transitions in n-type Ge/SiGe multi-quantum wells: Control of the terahertz absorption energy through the temperature dependent depolarization shift,” Nanotechnology 23(46), 465708 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ortolani, D. Stehr, M. Wagner, M. Helm, G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Long intersubband relaxation times in n-type germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paiella, R.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pèrez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8(4), 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Driscoll and R. Paiella, “Design of n-type silicon-based quantum cascade lasers for terahertz light emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 093103 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Driscoll and R. Paiella, “Silicon-based injection lasers using electronic intersubband transitions in the L valleys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Papuchon, M.

F. H. Julien, J. M. Lourtioz, N. Hershkorn, D. Delacourt, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, R. Planel, and G. Le Roux, “Optical saturation of intersubband absorption in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(2), 116–118 (1988).
[Crossref]

Pashkin, A.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

Paul, D. J.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Paul, “The progress towards terahertz quantum cascade lasers on silicon substrates,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(5), 610–632 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. J. Paul, “Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(10), R75–R108 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Bates, S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, P. Harrison, S. L. Liew, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, W. R. Tribe, and D. D. Arnone, “Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4092–4094 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pavlov, S. G.

S. G. Pavlov, R. K. Zukavin, V. N. Shastin, and H.-W. Hübers, “The physical principles of terahertz silicon lasers based on intracenter transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(1), 9–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, and V. N. Shastin, “Terahertz lasers based on germanium and silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S211–S221 (2005).
[Crossref]

Perera, A. G. U.

J.-W. Choe, A. G. U. Perera, M. H. Fracombe, and D. D. Coon, “Estimates of infrared intersubband emission and its angular dependence in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(1), 54–56 (1991).
[Crossref]

Persichetti, L.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Mukherjee, L. Persichetti, M. Virgilio, T. Grange, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, Department of Engineering Physics, Montreal, Canada, are preparing a manuscript to be called “The impactof interface roughness on the performances of a SiGe quantum cascade laser”.

Pidgeon, C. R.

N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pizzi, G.

M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, and M. Ortolani, “Modeling picosecond electron dynamics of pump-probe intersubband spectroscopy in n-type Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205317 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ortolani, D. Stehr, M. Wagner, M. Helm, G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Long intersubband relaxation times in n-type germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Carroll, F. Imbert, H. Sigg, M. Süess, E. Müller, M. Virgilio, G. Pizzi, P. Rossbach, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “Quantum-confined direct-gap transitions in tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

Planel, R.

A. Sa’ar, Y. Lavon, F. H. Julien, P. Boucaud, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, and R. Planel, “Mid-infrared intersubband emission from optically pumped asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 21(4), 517–525 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. H. Julien, Z. Moussa, P. Boucaud, Y. Lavon, A. Sa’ar, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, V. Berger, J. Nagle, and R. Planel, “Intersubband mid-infrared emission in optically pumped quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 19(1), 69–79 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. H. Julien, J. M. Lourtioz, N. Hershkorn, D. Delacourt, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, R. Planel, and G. Le Roux, “Optical saturation of intersubband absorption in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(2), 116–118 (1988).
[Crossref]

Pocholle, J. P.

F. H. Julien, J. M. Lourtioz, N. Hershkorn, D. Delacourt, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, R. Planel, and G. Le Roux, “Optical saturation of intersubband absorption in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(2), 116–118 (1988).
[Crossref]

Redlich, B.

N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ren, S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roh, T. I. Karmins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rochat, M.

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “Far-infrared ((=88 (m) electroluminescence in a quantum cascade structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3724–3726 (1998).
[Crossref]

Roh, J. E.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roh, T. I. Karmins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rossbach, P.

L. Carroll, F. Imbert, H. Sigg, M. Süess, E. Müller, M. Virgilio, G. Pizzi, P. Rossbach, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “Quantum-confined direct-gap transitions in tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rossetti, A.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rössner, B.

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Könel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sa’ar, A.

A. Sa’ar, Y. Lavon, F. H. Julien, P. Boucaud, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, and R. Planel, “Mid-infrared intersubband emission from optically pumped asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 21(4), 517–525 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. H. Julien, Z. Moussa, P. Boucaud, Y. Lavon, A. Sa’ar, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, V. Berger, J. Nagle, and R. Planel, “Intersubband mid-infrared emission in optically pumped quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 19(1), 69–79 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sabbagh, D.

D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, M. Ortolani, M. Teich, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, D. Sabbagh, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Combined effect of electron and lattice temperatures on the long intersubband relaxation times of Ge/SixGe1−x quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 045311 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, D. Sabbagh, M. Ortolani, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Physical mechanisms of intersubband-absorption linewidth broadening in s-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 90(15), 155420 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sai-Halasz, G. A.

R. Tsu, L. L. Chang, G. A. Sai-Halasz, and L. Esaki, “Effects of Quantum States on the Photocurrent in a Superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34(24), 1509–1512 (1975).
[Crossref]

Sánchez-Pèrez, J. R.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pèrez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8(4), 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scalar, G.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

Scalari, G.

T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scalari, B. Williams, and P. De Natale, “Quantum Cascade Lasers: 20 years of challenges,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5167–5182 (2015).
[Crossref]

Scheinert, M.

M. Scheinert, H. Sigg, S. Tsujino, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Intersubband Raman laser from GaInAs/AlInAs double quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, J.

D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schneider, H.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schulman, J. N.

J. P. Sun, G. I. Haddad, P. Mazumder, and J. N. Schulman, “Resonant tunneling diodes: Models and properties,” Proc. IEEE 86(4), 641–660 (1998).
[Crossref]

Scuderi, M.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

Shastin, V. N.

S. G. Pavlov, R. K. Zukavin, V. N. Shastin, and H.-W. Hübers, “The physical principles of terahertz silicon lasers based on intracenter transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(1), 9–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, and V. N. Shastin, “Terahertz lasers based on germanium and silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S211–S221 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sigg, H.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Carroll, F. Imbert, H. Sigg, M. Süess, E. Müller, M. Virgilio, G. Pizzi, P. Rossbach, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “Quantum-confined direct-gap transitions in tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031907 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Scheinert, H. Sigg, S. Tsujino, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Intersubband Raman laser from GaInAs/AlInAs double quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131108 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sivco, D.

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Raman injection laser,” Nature 433(7028), 845–848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref]

Skibitzki, O.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, L. R. Friedman, and R. A. Soref, “Comparative analysis of optically pumped intersubband lasers and intersubband Raman oscillators,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(12), 7398–7400 (1995).
[Crossref]

Spinella, C.

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stark, D.

T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
[Crossref]

Stehr, D.

M. Ortolani, D. Stehr, M. Wagner, M. Helm, G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Long intersubband relaxation times in n-type germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stoica, T.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stoneham, A. M.

N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
[Crossref]

Strasser, G.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, F. H. Julien, S. Cabaret, J. M. Lourtioz, G. Strasser, E. Gornik, M. Helm, and P. Bois, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum fountain unipolar laser emitting at 14.5 (m with 2.5% tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref]

Süess, M.

L. Carroll, F. Imbert, H. Sigg, M. Süess, E. Müller, M. Virgilio, G. Pizzi, P. Rossbach, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “Quantum-confined direct-gap transitions in tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suet, Z.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sun, G.

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, L. R. Friedman, and R. A. Soref, “Comparative analysis of optically pumped intersubband lasers and intersubband Raman oscillators,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(12), 7398–7400 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sun, J. P.

J. P. Sun, G. I. Haddad, P. Mazumder, and J. N. Schulman, “Resonant tunneling diodes: Models and properties,” Proc. IEEE 86(4), 641–660 (1998).
[Crossref]

Teich, M.

M. Virgilio, M. Ortolani, M. Teich, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, D. Sabbagh, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Combined effect of electron and lattice temperatures on the long intersubband relaxation times of Ge/SixGe1−x quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 045311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tignon, J.

Tomarchio, A. C.

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, M. S.

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

Townsend, P.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tredicucci, A.

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tribe, W. R.

R. Bates, S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, P. Harrison, S. L. Liew, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, W. R. Tribe, and D. D. Arnone, “Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4092–4094 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tribuzy, C. V.-B.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Troccoli, M.

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Raman injection laser,” Nature 433(7028), 845–848 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tsu, R.

R. Tsu, L. L. Chang, G. A. Sai-Halasz, and L. Esaki, “Effects of Quantum States on the Photocurrent in a Superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34(24), 1509–1512 (1975).
[Crossref]

Tsujino, S.

M. Scheinert, H. Sigg, S. Tsujino, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Intersubband Raman laser from GaInAs/AlInAs double quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Turchinovich, D.

M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorber for ultrafast THz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Valavanis, A.

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, J. D. Cooper, and R. W. Kelsall, “Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(22), 3273–3281 (2010).
[Crossref]

van der Meer, A. F. G.

N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
[Crossref]

Velha, P.

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vinh, N. Q.

N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
[Crossref]

Virgilio, M.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, M. Ortolani, M. Teich, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, D. Sabbagh, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Combined effect of electron and lattice temperatures on the long intersubband relaxation times of Ge/SixGe1−x quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 045311 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, D. Sabbagh, M. Ortolani, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Physical mechanisms of intersubband-absorption linewidth broadening in s-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 90(15), 155420 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Nicotra, and P. Zaumseil, “Narrow intersubband transitions in n-type Ge/SiGe multi-quantum wells: Control of the terahertz absorption energy through the temperature dependent depolarization shift,” Nanotechnology 23(46), 465708 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, and M. Ortolani, “Modeling picosecond electron dynamics of pump-probe intersubband spectroscopy in n-type Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205317 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ortolani, D. Stehr, M. Wagner, M. Helm, G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Long intersubband relaxation times in n-type germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Carroll, F. Imbert, H. Sigg, M. Süess, E. Müller, M. Virgilio, G. Pizzi, P. Rossbach, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “Quantum-confined direct-gap transitions in tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio and G. Grosso, “Conduction intersubband transitions at normal incidence in Si1-xGex quantum well devices,” Nanotechnology 18(7), 075402 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Mukherjee, L. Persichetti, M. Virgilio, T. Grange, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, Department of Engineering Physics, Montreal, Canada, are preparing a manuscript to be called “The impactof interface roughness on the performances of a SiGe quantum cascade laser”.

Viti, L.

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vitiello,

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vitiello, M. S.

Vivien, L.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well photodiode with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131112 (2011).
[Crossref]

von den Driesc, N.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

von Känel, H.

G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
[Crossref]

von Könel, H.

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Könel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wagner, M.

M. Ortolani, D. Stehr, M. Wagner, M. Helm, G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Long intersubband relaxation times in n-type germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Wang, J.

A. Sa’ar, Y. Lavon, F. H. Julien, P. Boucaud, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, and R. Planel, “Mid-infrared intersubband emission from optically pumped asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 21(4), 517–525 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. H. Julien, Z. Moussa, P. Boucaud, Y. Lavon, A. Sa’ar, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, V. Berger, J. Nagle, and R. Planel, “Intersubband mid-infrared emission in optically pumped quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 19(1), 69–79 (1996).
[Crossref]

Warner, M.

N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
[Crossref]

Williams, B.

Winnerl, S.

D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, M. Ortolani, M. Teich, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, D. Sabbagh, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Combined effect of electron and lattice temperatures on the long intersubband relaxation times of Ge/SixGe1−x quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 045311 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wirths, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoon, D.

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.

Zaumseil, P.

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Nicotra, and P. Zaumseil, “Narrow intersubband transitions in n-type Ge/SiGe multi-quantum wells: Control of the terahertz absorption energy through the temperature dependent depolarization shift,” Nanotechnology 23(46), 465708 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Nonlinear group IV based on silicon and germanium: from near-infrared to mid-infrared,” Nanophotonics 3(4-5), 247–268 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zoellner, M. H.

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zukavin, R. K.

S. G. Pavlov, R. K. Zukavin, V. N. Shastin, and H.-W. Hübers, “The physical principles of terahertz silicon lasers based on intracenter transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(1), 9–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pèrez, F. Cavallo, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Strained-germanium nanostructures for infrared photonics,” ACS Nano 8(4), 3136–3151 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

D. Sabbagh, J. Schmidt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Electron Dynamics in Silicon–Germanium Terahertz Quantum Fountain Structures,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 403–414 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorber for ultrafast THz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151110 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Driscoll and R. Paiella, “Silicon-based injection lasers using electronic intersubband transitions in the L valleys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191110 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Grange, D. Stark, G. Scalari, J. Faist, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Capellini, S. Birner, and M. Virgilio, “Room temperature operation of n-type Ge/SiGe terahertz quantum cascade lasers predictied by non-equilibrium Green's function,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(11), 111102 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. H. Julien, J. M. Lourtioz, N. Hershkorn, D. Delacourt, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, R. Planel, and G. Le Roux, “Optical saturation of intersubband absorption in GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(2), 116–118 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Choe, A. G. U. Perera, M. H. Fracombe, and D. D. Coon, “Estimates of infrared intersubband emission and its angular dependence in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(1), 54–56 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. Rochat, J. Faist, M. Beck, U. Oesterle, and M. Ilegems, “Far-infrared ((=88 (m) electroluminescence in a quantum cascade structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3724–3726 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Ortolani, D. Stehr, M. Wagner, M. Helm, G. Pizzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Long intersubband relaxation times in n-type germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well photodiode with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131112 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Carroll, F. Imbert, H. Sigg, M. Süess, E. Müller, M. Virgilio, G. Pizzi, P. Rossbach, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “Quantum-confined direct-gap transitions in tensile-strained Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031907 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, F. H. Julien, S. Cabaret, J. M. Lourtioz, G. Strasser, E. Gornik, M. Helm, and P. Bois, “High-power GaAs/AlGaAs quantum fountain unipolar laser emitting at 14.5 (m with 2.5% tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Bates, S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, P. Harrison, S. L. Liew, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, W. R. Tribe, and D. D. Arnone, “Interwell intersubband electroluminescence from Si/SiGe quantum cascade emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(20), 4092–4094 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Scheinert, H. Sigg, S. Tsujino, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Intersubband Raman laser from GaInAs/AlInAs double quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131108 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, Y. Busby, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, A. Nucara, and S. Lupi, “Conduction band intersubband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051918 (2009).
[Crossref]

ECS Trans. (1)

R. W. Kelsall, V. T. Dinh, P. Ivanov, A. Valavanis, L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, P. Velha, D. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, J. Halpin, M. Myronov, and D. Leadley, “Germanium/silicon heterostructures for terahertz emission,” ECS Trans. 50(9), 763–771 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

G. Matmon, D. J. Paul, L. Lever, M. Califano, Z. Ikonić, R. W. Kelsall, J. Zhang, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, E. Müller, and A. Neels, “Si/SiGe quantum cascade superlattice designs for terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053109 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, L. R. Friedman, and R. A. Soref, “Comparative analysis of optically pumped intersubband lasers and intersubband Raman oscillators,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(12), 7398–7400 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. Driscoll and R. Paiella, “Design of n-type silicon-based quantum cascade lasers for terahertz light emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 093103 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

D. J. Paul, “The progress towards terahertz quantum cascade lasers on silicon substrates,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(5), 610–632 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

L. Zhang, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Nonlinear group IV based on silicon and germanium: from near-infrared to mid-infrared,” Nanophotonics 3(4-5), 247–268 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (2)

M. De Seta, G. Capellini, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Nicotra, and P. Zaumseil, “Narrow intersubband transitions in n-type Ge/SiGe multi-quantum wells: Control of the terahertz absorption energy through the temperature dependent depolarization shift,” Nanotechnology 23(46), 465708 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio and G. Grosso, “Conduction intersubband transitions at normal incidence in Si1-xGex quantum well devices,” Nanotechnology 18(7), 075402 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

V. Bianchi, T. Carey, L. Viti, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, G. Davies, A. Tredicucci, D. Yoon, P. G. Karagiannidis, L. Lombardi, A. C. Tomarchio, F. Ferrari, M. S. Torrisi, and Vitiello, “Terahertz saturable absorbers from liquid phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15763 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesc, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonić, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

M. Troccoli, A. Belyanin, F. Capasso, E. Cubukcu, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Raman injection laser,” Nature 433(7028), 845–848 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roh, T. I. Karmins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Optica (2)

Photonics (1)

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, L. Bagolini, L. Baldassarre, A. Rossetti, A. Pashkin, M. Helm, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, D. J. Paul, G. Scalar, J. Faist, and M. De Seta, “Electron Population Dynamics in Optically Pumped Asymmetric-Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells: Models and Experiment,” Photonics 7, 2 (2020).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

C. Ciano, M. Virgilio, M. Montanari, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. Ortolani, L. Baldassarre, M. H. Zoellner, O. Skibitzki, G. Scalari, J. Faist, D. J. Paul, M. Scuderi, G. Nicotra, T. Grange, S. Birner, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Control of electron-state coupling in asymmetric Ge/Si-Ge quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(1), 014003 (2019).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, and M. Ortolani, “Modeling picosecond electron dynamics of pump-probe intersubband spectroscopy in n-type Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205317 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, M. Ortolani, M. Teich, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, D. Sabbagh, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Combined effect of electron and lattice temperatures on the long intersubband relaxation times of Ge/SixGe1−x quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 045311 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Virgilio, D. Sabbagh, M. Ortolani, L. Di Gaspare, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, “Physical mechanisms of intersubband-absorption linewidth broadening in s-Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 90(15), 155420 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Busby, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, F. Evangelisti, M. Ortolani, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, P. Calvani, S. Lupi, M. Nardone, G. Nicotra, and C. Spinella, “Near- and far-infrared absorption and electronic structure of Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205317 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. Tsu, L. L. Chang, G. A. Sai-Halasz, and L. Esaki, “Effects of Quantum States on the Photocurrent in a Superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34(24), 1509–1512 (1975).
[Crossref]

M. Helm, P. England, E. Colas, F. DeRosa, and S. J. Allen, “Intersubband emission from semiconductor superlattices excited by sequential resonant tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(1), 74–77 (1989).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

S. G. Pavlov, R. K. Zukavin, V. N. Shastin, and H.-W. Hübers, “The physical principles of terahertz silicon lasers based on intracenter transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(1), 9–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. P. Sun, G. I. Haddad, P. Mazumder, and J. N. Schulman, “Resonant tunneling diodes: Models and properties,” Proc. IEEE 86(4), 641–660 (1998).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (1)

N. Q. Vinh, P. T. Greenland, K. Litvinenko, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, S. A. Lynch, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, G. Aeppli, D. J. Paul, C. R. Pidgeon, and B. N. Murdin, “Silicon as a model ion trap: time domain measurements of donor Rydberg states,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105(31), 10649–10653 (2008).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ensslin, D. Grützmacher, and E. Müller, “Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures,” Science 290(5500), 2277–2280 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum Cascade Laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (2)

D. J. Paul, “Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(10), R75–R108 (2004).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, and V. N. Shastin, “Terahertz lasers based on germanium and silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S211–S221 (2005).
[Crossref]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Könel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[Crossref]

Superlattices Microstruct. (2)

A. Sa’ar, Y. Lavon, F. H. Julien, P. Boucaud, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, and R. Planel, “Mid-infrared intersubband emission from optically pumped asymmetric coupled quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 21(4), 517–525 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. H. Julien, Z. Moussa, P. Boucaud, Y. Lavon, A. Sa’ar, J. Wang, J.-P. Leburton, V. Berger, J. Nagle, and R. Planel, “Intersubband mid-infrared emission in optically pumped quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 19(1), 69–79 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

S. Mukherjee, L. Persichetti, M. Virgilio, T. Grange, G. Capellini, and M. De Seta, Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, Department of Engineering Physics, Montreal, Canada, are preparing a manuscript to be called “The impactof interface roughness on the performances of a SiGe quantum cascade laser”.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) The ratio between TM- and TE-polarized transmittance spectra (dichroic transmittance) recorded by FTIR spectroscopy at 10 K (dark-color curves) and 300 K (light-color curves) for the two doped samples (S1 and S2), the lightly doped sample (S6) and the undoped reference (S7). Intersubband transitions at energies E12,FTIR and E13,FTIR are clearly visible in S1 and S2, becoming less intense in less doped S6. The undoped sample S7 shows no evidence of ISBTs. The shaded areas highlight the FEL pulse energy range (blue) and the region where the strongest impurity-like transitions occur in the Si substrate (gray, see text). A sketch of the processes involved in (b) saturable absorption and (c) ISBT-photoluminescence in Ge/Si0.2Ge0.8 ACQWs, with the potential profile and the relevant wavefunctions. (d) A sketch of the single-pass 70° slab waveguide used for the optical measurements. The vertical arrow indicates the radiation electric field direction. (e) A representative transmission electron microscopy image of the ACQW structures (sample S7). (f) Numerical simulations of the temporal dynamics of the normalized population ni=Ni/Ntot for sample S1 under optical pumping. The time envelope of the pump pulse used in the simulations is reported as dotted lines in both panels. Lattice temperature was set to 6 K.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) A sketch of the experimental setup used for the absorption-saturation measurements. For each pump power level, the incoming (Pin) and the transmitted (PT) peak power are simultaneously recorded with pyroelectric detectors: a fraction c << 1 is taken with a mylar beamsplitter (BS) to account for instantaneous FEL power fluctuations. The different pump power levels are selected with metal mesh attenuators. (b-e) The transmittance as a function of the pump pulse fluence Fp for different samples, pump photon energies and temperatures, as indicated in each panel. The experimental points are reported as symbols, while the continuous lines are obtained via a fitting procedure. (f) The transmission spectrum model for zero-fluence (Fp=0) and maximum pump fluence (Fp,max) at 6 K. Note that the vertical scale for panels (d, f) is the same and the dotted lines connect values of the transmittance at zero fluence for different pump photon energy. (g-h) The relative transmittance change ΔT/T0 for sample S1 at 6 K (g) directly compared to simulations (h). The dashed line in (g) is the ratio between S1 and S7 data in (b). The zero-fluence FTIR transmittance value T0 has been subtracted from the data in panel (d) to calculate ΔT. Note that the abscissa of (b-e, g-h) represents the fluence inside the sample corrected for the optical loss factor $\ell$.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) A sketch of the experimental setup used for the THz-PL measurements. (b) Details of the collection angle of the PL emission, in a top view, are also reported: note that the PL emission is isotropic in the in-plane direction (red shaded circular region), but the emission is collected with a f/2 parabolic mirror hence with a maximum marginal angle φ = ± 14° (corresponding to φin = ± 4° inside the sample, according to Snell’s law.) (c) The Fourier-Transform emission spectra of sample S2 corresponding to the TM- and TE-polarized emitted signals (green and purple curves, respectively), plotted together with the polarization-dependent FTIR transmission spectra of the quartz plate (light blue -TM- and pink -TE- curves) and the FEL pump signal (blue curve- attenuated to 10−4), all on a log scale. The pink arrow indicates the z-cut quartz phonon absorption present only in TE-polarization. (d) A zoomed image of the TM and TE signals on a linear scale. The color arrows are located at the position of the theoretical transition energy. The PL process is sketched in the inset of the panel (d). Cryostat base temperature was 6 K in all experiments.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Intersubband Transition Energies and Oscillator Strengthsa

Tables Icon

Table 2. Best-fit parameters of the fitting function in Eq. (1) for the data of Fig. 2.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

= T F T I R T d i a m 0.009 0.7 = 6 10 3
T ( F p ) = T n s ln ( 1 + T l i n / T n s ( e F p / F p , s a t , exp 1 ) ) F p / F p , s a t , exp e F p / F p F p , a b s F p , a b s
F p = c p P i n Δ t p π r 2 = P i n Δ t p π r 2

Metrics