Abstract

Low loss, single mode, Ge-on-Si rib waveguides are used to demonstrated optical sensing in the molecular fingerprint region of the mid-infrared spectrum. Sensing is carried out using two spin-coated films, with strong absorption in the mid-infrared. These films are used to calibrate the modal overlap with an analyte, and therefore experimentally demonstrate the potential for Ge-on-Si waveguides for mid-infrared sensing applications. The results are compared to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The advantage of waveguide spectroscopy is demonstrated in terms of the increased optical interaction, and a new multi-path length approach is demonstrated to improve the dynamic range, which is not possible with conventional FTIR or attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements. These results highlight the potential for Ge-on-Si as an integrated sensing platform for healthcare, pollution monitoring and defence applications.

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2019 (1)

V. Mittal, M. Nedeljkovic, L. G. Carpenter, A. Z. Khokhar, H. M. H. Chong, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Waveguide absorption spectroscopy of bovine serum albumin in the mid-infrared fingerprint region,” ACS Sens. 4(7), 1749–1753 (2019). PMID: 31264410.
[Crossref]

2018 (8)

K. Gallacher, R. Millar, U. Griškevičiūte, L. Baldassarre, M. Sorel, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Low loss Ge-on-Si waveguides operating in the 8 - 14 μm atmospheric transmission window,” Opt. Express 26(20), 25667–25675 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Han, L. Han, Y. Yao, Y. Li, and X. Liu, “Key factors in FTIR spectroscopic analysis of DNA: the sampling technique, pretreatment temperature and sample concentration,” Anal. Methods 10(21), 2436–2443 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Li, P. Anantha, K. H. Lee, H. D. Qiu, X. Guo, S. C. K. Goh, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. A. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Spiral waveguides on germanium-on-silicon nitride platform for mid-IR sensing applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. P. Fischer, A. Riede, K. Gallacher, J. Frigerio, G. Pellegrini, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Isella, A. Leitenstorfer, P. Biagioni, and D. Brida, “Plasmonic mid-infrared third harmonic generation in germanium nanoantennas,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 106 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. L. Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Osman, M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, Y. Wu, Z. Qu, A. Z. Khokhar, K. Debnath, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended low-loss germanium waveguides for the longwave infrared,” Opt. Lett. 43(24), 5997–6000 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramirez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, C. A. Ramos, and D. Marris-Morini, “Mid-infrared sensing between 5.2 and 6.6 μm wavelengths using Ge-rich SiGe waveguides [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1305 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kazmierczak, J. Flesch, J. Mitzloff, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, O. Skibitzki, C. You, M. Bettenhausen, B. Witzigmann, J. Piehler, T. Schroeder, and S. Guha, “Stable and selective self-assembly of α-lipoic acid on Ge(001) for biomolecule immobilization,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(17), 175305 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

O. Lawal, W. M. Ahmed, T. M. E. Nijsen, R. Goodacre, and S. J. Fowler, “Exhaled breath analysis: a review of ‘breath-taking’ methods for off-line analysis,” Metabolomics 13(10), 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Lin, F. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Huang, B. Song, S. Dai, X. Zhang, and W. Ji, “Mid-infrared optical properties of chalcogenide glasses within tin-antimony-selenium ternary system,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25674–25688 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

K. Gallacher, A. Ballabio, R. W. Millar, J. Frigerio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091114 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Araki, N. Yagi, Y. Ikemoto, H. Yagi, C.-J. Choong, H. Hayakawa, G. Beck, H. Sumi, H. Fujimura, T. Moriwaki, Y. Nagai, Y. Goto, and H. Mochizuki, “Synchrotron FTIR micro-spectroscopy for structural analysis of lewy bodies in the brain of parkinson’s disease patients,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17625 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. V. Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. V. Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. V. Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 91060A (2014).
[Crossref]

E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 91060A (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

B. Mizaikoff, “Waveguide-enhanced mid-infrared chem/bio sensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(22), 8683–8699 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. Van Der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. De Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Lewi and A. Katzir, “Silver halide single-mode strip waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2733–2735 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 30(6), 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. L. S. Mello and B. C. Vidal, “Changes in the infrared microspectroscopic characteristics of dna caused by cationic elements, different base richness and single-stranded form,” PLoS One 7(8), e43169 (2012).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Choi, M. J. Word, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Comparative study of thermally cured and electron-beam-exposed hydrogen silsesquioxane resists,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(5), 1654–1659 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

C. Charlton, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and B. Mizaikoff, “Fabrication and characterization of molecular beam epitaxy grown thin-film gaas waveguides for mid-infrared evanescent field chemical sensing,” Anal. Chem. 78(12), 4224–4227 (2006).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Davies, P. Spanel, and D. Smith, “Quantitative analysis of ammonia on the breath of patients in end-stage renal failure,” Kidney Int. 52(1), 223–228 (1997).
[Crossref]

Adesida, I.

S. Choi, M. J. Word, V. Kumar, and I. Adesida, “Comparative study of thermally cured and electron-beam-exposed hydrogen silsesquioxane resists,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(5), 1654–1659 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, W. M.

O. Lawal, W. M. Ahmed, T. M. E. Nijsen, R. Goodacre, and S. J. Fowler, “Exhaled breath analysis: a review of ‘breath-taking’ methods for off-line analysis,” Metabolomics 13(10), 110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Allerbeck, J.

J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, C. Ciano, A. Mancini, L. Baldassarre, J. Allerbeck, J. Kuttruff, G. Isella, D. Brida, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Ge/SiGe asymmetric quantum wells for second harmonic generation in the mid-infrared,” in 2019 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe and European Quantum Electronics Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. cd p 7.

Anantha, P.

W. Li, P. Anantha, K. H. Lee, H. D. Qiu, X. Guo, S. C. K. Goh, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. A. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Spiral waveguides on germanium-on-silicon nitride platform for mid-IR sensing applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Araki, K.

K. Araki, N. Yagi, Y. Ikemoto, H. Yagi, C.-J. Choong, H. Hayakawa, G. Beck, H. Sumi, H. Fujimura, T. Moriwaki, Y. Nagai, Y. Goto, and H. Mochizuki, “Synchrotron FTIR micro-spectroscopy for structural analysis of lewy bodies in the brain of parkinson’s disease patients,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17625 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baier, M.

E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 91060A (2014).
[Crossref]

E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 91060A (2014).
[Crossref]

Baldassarre, L.

K. Gallacher, R. Millar, U. Griškevičiūte, L. Baldassarre, M. Sorel, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Low loss Ge-on-Si waveguides operating in the 8 - 14 μm atmospheric transmission window,” Opt. Express 26(20), 25667–25675 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7225–7231 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Paul, K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, E. Calandrini, L. Baldassarre, M. P. Fischer, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Sakat, G. Pellegrini, D. Brida, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “n-Ge on Si for mid-infrared plasmonic sensors,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (2017), pp. 125–126.

J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, C. Ciano, A. Mancini, L. Baldassarre, J. Allerbeck, J. Kuttruff, G. Isella, D. Brida, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Ge/SiGe asymmetric quantum wells for second harmonic generation in the mid-infrared,” in 2019 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe and European Quantum Electronics Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. cd p 7.

Ballabio, A.

Q. Liu, J. M. Ramirez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, C. A. Ramos, and D. Marris-Morini, “Mid-infrared sensing between 5.2 and 6.6 μm wavelengths using Ge-rich SiGe waveguides [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1305 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. L. Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, “Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared,” Opt. Express 26(2), 870–877 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Gallacher, A. Ballabio, R. W. Millar, J. Frigerio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091114 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. J. Paul, K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, E. Calandrini, L. Baldassarre, M. P. Fischer, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Sakat, G. Pellegrini, D. Brida, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “n-Ge on Si for mid-infrared plasmonic sensors,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (2017), pp. 125–126.

J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, C. Ciano, A. Mancini, L. Baldassarre, J. Allerbeck, J. Kuttruff, G. Isella, D. Brida, M. Virgilio, and M. Ortolani, “Ge/SiGe asymmetric quantum wells for second harmonic generation in the mid-infrared,” in 2019 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe and European Quantum Electronics Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. cd p 7.

Bartlett, P. N.

V. Mittal, M. Nedeljkovic, L. G. Carpenter, A. Z. Khokhar, H. M. H. Chong, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Waveguide absorption spectroscopy of bovine serum albumin in the mid-infrared fingerprint region,” ACS Sens. 4(7), 1749–1753 (2019). PMID: 31264410.
[Crossref]

Bashir, A.

K. Gallacher, A. Ballabio, R. W. Millar, J. Frigerio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091114 (2016).
[Crossref]

Beck, G.

K. Araki, N. Yagi, Y. Ikemoto, H. Yagi, C.-J. Choong, H. Hayakawa, G. Beck, H. Sumi, H. Fujimura, T. Moriwaki, Y. Nagai, Y. Goto, and H. Mochizuki, “Synchrotron FTIR micro-spectroscopy for structural analysis of lewy bodies in the brain of parkinson’s disease patients,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17625 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bettenhausen, M.

M. Kazmierczak, J. Flesch, J. Mitzloff, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, O. Skibitzki, C. You, M. Bettenhausen, B. Witzigmann, J. Piehler, T. Schroeder, and S. Guha, “Stable and selective self-assembly of α-lipoic acid on Ge(001) for biomolecule immobilization,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(17), 175305 (2018).
[Crossref]

Biagioni, P.

M. P. Fischer, A. Riede, K. Gallacher, J. Frigerio, G. Pellegrini, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Isella, A. Leitenstorfer, P. Biagioni, and D. Brida, “Plasmonic mid-infrared third harmonic generation in germanium nanoantennas,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 106 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Mashanovich, G. Z.

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Millar, R. W.

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O. Lawal, W. M. Ahmed, T. M. E. Nijsen, R. Goodacre, and S. J. Fowler, “Exhaled breath analysis: a review of ‘breath-taking’ methods for off-line analysis,” Metabolomics 13(10), 110 (2017).
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Ortolani, M.

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Paeder, V.

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L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7225–7231 (2015).
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Pellegrini, G.

M. P. Fischer, A. Riede, K. Gallacher, J. Frigerio, G. Pellegrini, M. Ortolani, D. J. Paul, G. Isella, A. Leitenstorfer, P. Biagioni, and D. Brida, “Plasmonic mid-infrared third harmonic generation in germanium nanoantennas,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 106 (2018).
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D. J. Paul, K. Gallacher, R. W. Millar, V. Giliberti, E. Calandrini, L. Baldassarre, M. P. Fischer, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Sakat, G. Pellegrini, D. Brida, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “n-Ge on Si for mid-infrared plasmonic sensors,” in 2017 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM), (2017), pp. 125–126.

Penades, J. S.

Peter Herzig, H.

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. Van Der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. De Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
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W. Li, P. Anantha, K. H. Lee, H. D. Qiu, X. Guo, S. C. K. Goh, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. A. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Spiral waveguides on germanium-on-silicon nitride platform for mid-IR sensing applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 1–7 (2018).
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L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7225–7231 (2015).
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L. Baldassarre, E. Sakat, J. Frigerio, A. Samarelli, K. Gallacher, E. Calandrini, G. Isella, D. J. Paul, M. Ortolani, and P. Biagioni, “Midinfrared plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy with germanium antennas on silicon substrates,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7225–7231 (2015).
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M. Kazmierczak, J. Flesch, J. Mitzloff, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, O. Skibitzki, C. You, M. Bettenhausen, B. Witzigmann, J. Piehler, T. Schroeder, and S. Guha, “Stable and selective self-assembly of α-lipoic acid on Ge(001) for biomolecule immobilization,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(17), 175305 (2018).
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Skibitzki, O.

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W. Li, P. Anantha, K. H. Lee, H. D. Qiu, X. Guo, S. C. K. Goh, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. A. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Spiral waveguides on germanium-on-silicon nitride platform for mid-IR sensing applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 1–7 (2018).
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M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 30(6), 06FF02 (2012).
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Van Der Wal, P.

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. Van Der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. De Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
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Vanherle, W.

Velha, P.

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 30(6), 06FF02 (2012).
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M. L. S. Mello and B. C. Vidal, “Changes in the infrared microspectroscopic characteristics of dna caused by cationic elements, different base richness and single-stranded form,” PLoS One 7(8), e43169 (2012).
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Vivien, L.

Wägli, P.

Y. C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. Van Der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. De Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
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Wilkinson, J. S.

V. Mittal, M. Nedeljkovic, L. G. Carpenter, A. Z. Khokhar, H. M. H. Chong, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Waveguide absorption spectroscopy of bovine serum albumin in the mid-infrared fingerprint region,” ACS Sens. 4(7), 1749–1753 (2019). PMID: 31264410.
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M. Kazmierczak, J. Flesch, J. Mitzloff, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, O. Skibitzki, C. You, M. Bettenhausen, B. Witzigmann, J. Piehler, T. Schroeder, and S. Guha, “Stable and selective self-assembly of α-lipoic acid on Ge(001) for biomolecule immobilization,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(17), 175305 (2018).
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K. Araki, N. Yagi, Y. Ikemoto, H. Yagi, C.-J. Choong, H. Hayakawa, G. Beck, H. Sumi, H. Fujimura, T. Moriwaki, Y. Nagai, Y. Goto, and H. Mochizuki, “Synchrotron FTIR micro-spectroscopy for structural analysis of lewy bodies in the brain of parkinson’s disease patients,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17625 (2015).
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E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 91060A (2014).
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M. Kazmierczak, J. Flesch, J. Mitzloff, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, O. Skibitzki, C. You, M. Bettenhausen, B. Witzigmann, J. Piehler, T. Schroeder, and S. Guha, “Stable and selective self-assembly of α-lipoic acid on Ge(001) for biomolecule immobilization,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(17), 175305 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zafiriou, K.

E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 91060A (2014).
[Crossref]

E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 91060A (2014).
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W. Li, P. Anantha, K. H. Lee, H. D. Qiu, X. Guo, S. C. K. Goh, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. A. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Spiral waveguides on germanium-on-silicon nitride platform for mid-IR sensing applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

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E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 91060A (2014).
[Crossref]

E. R. Deutsch, P. Kotidis, N. Zhu, A. K. Goyal, J. Ye, A. Mazurenko, M. Norman, K. Zafiriou, M. Baier, and R. Connors, “Active and passive infrared spectroscopy for the detection of environmental threats,” Proc. SPIE 9106, 91060A (2014).
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Anal. Methods (1)

Y. Han, L. Han, Y. Yao, Y. Li, and X. Liu, “Key factors in FTIR spectroscopic analysis of DNA: the sampling technique, pretreatment temperature and sample concentration,” Anal. Methods 10(21), 2436–2443 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Gallacher, A. Ballabio, R. W. Millar, J. Frigerio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, M. Ortolani, and D. J. Paul, “Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(9), 091114 (2016).
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B. Mizaikoff, “Waveguide-enhanced mid-infrared chem/bio sensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(22), 8683–8699 (2013).
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W. Li, P. Anantha, K. H. Lee, H. D. Qiu, X. Guo, S. C. K. Goh, L. Zhang, H. Wang, R. A. Soref, and C. S. Tan, “Spiral waveguides on germanium-on-silicon nitride platform for mid-IR sensing applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(3), 1–7 (2018).
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M. Kazmierczak, J. Flesch, J. Mitzloff, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, O. Skibitzki, C. You, M. Bettenhausen, B. Witzigmann, J. Piehler, T. Schroeder, and S. Guha, “Stable and selective self-assembly of α-lipoic acid on Ge(001) for biomolecule immobilization,” J. Appl. Phys. 123(17), 175305 (2018).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. A transmission measurement of PMMA using both FTIR and waveguide spectroscopy. The black curve is from FTIR, whilst the blue and red curves demonstrate waveguide measurements (from separate QCL lasers).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) A top down image of Ge-on-Si rib waveguides, with various lengths of HSQ coatings. (b) A scanning electron microscope image of a Ge-on-Si rib waveguide with a 10 $\mu$m section coated with HSQ.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The absorption coefficient of a thermally cured HSQ film, as measured by FTIR spectroscopy. (b) The modal loss from HSQ films of varying path length, on a 3 $\mu$m wide Ge-on-Si waveguide in TM polarisation.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Transmission measurements of three Ge-on-Si rib waveguides. The first is with no HSQ analyte present (bare), whilst the second and third have sections of the waveguide covered with HSQ (10 $\mu$m and 100 $\mu$m sections, respectively). (b) The corresponding measured modal absorption coefficients for the coated waveguides. The length of the HSQ coating is labelled on the figure.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) The measured absorption coefficient of two HSQ films cured at different temperatures. (b) The calculated modal overlaps at 9.4 $\mu$m wavelength, based on the measured modal absorptions in waveguides of various widths, and the HSQ absorption coefficient. The upper and lower bounds are calculated using the absorption from part (a). The simulated overlap with the analyte is shown as a square. (c) AFM scan of a Ge waveguide coated by a 10$\mu$m strip of HSQ, used to measure the HSQ profile for simulations.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Simulated modal overlap with a conformal thin film coating a range of rib-waveguides with widths of 3 $\mu$m (blue), 4 $\mu$m (green) and 5 $\mu$m (red), for TE (solid) and TM polarisation (dashed). (a) Shows the optical overlap for films of thicknesses between 10 and 70 nm. (b) Shows optical overlaps of a film up to 2000 nm thick, with a logarithmic scale on the x-axis. The inset shows a schematic of a conformal film (blue) coating a Ge rib waveguide; the region in which the optical power is integrated.

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