Abstract

An innovative trace gas-sensing technique utilizing a single quartz crystal tuning fork (QCTF) based on a photoelectric detector and dual-frequency modulation technique was demonstrated for the first time for simultaneous multi-species detection. Instead of traditional semiconductor detectors and lock-in amplifier, we utilized the piezoelectric effect and resonant effect of the QCTF to measure the light intensity. A fast signal analysis method based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm is proposed for overlapping signal extraction. To explore the capabilities of this technique, a gas-sensing system based on two lasers having center emission wavelength of 1.653 µm (a DFB laser diode in the near-IR) and 7.66 µm (an EC QCL in the mid-IR) is successfully demonstrated for simultaneous CH4 spectroscopy measurements. The results indicate a normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficients of 1.33×10−9 cm−1W·Hz−1/2 at 1.653 µm and 2.20×10−10 cm−1W·Hz−1/2 at 7.66 µm, were achieved. This proposed sensor architecture has the advantages of easier optical alignment, lower cost, and a compactness compared to the design of a conventional TDLAS sensor using multiple semiconductor detectors for laser signal collection. The proposed technique can also be expanded to common QEPAS technique with multi-frequency modulation for multiple species detection simultaneously.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  30. Y. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. Li, J. Zhang, D. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 021106 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  31. Y. Ma, Y. He, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-tuning-fork enhanced photothermal spectroscopy for ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 26(24), 32103–32110 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  32. Y. Ma, Y. He, L. Zhang, X. Yu, J. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  33. H. Wu, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, S. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2S detection by means of a filev amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 666–672 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  34. Y. Yu, N. P. Sanchez, F. Yi, C. Zheng, W. Ye, H. Wu, R. J. Griffn, and F. K. Tittel, “Dual quantum cascade laser based sensor for simultaneous NO and NO2 detection using a wavelength modulation division multiplexing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 164 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2019 (3)

Y. He, Y. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy sensor with a high Q-factor quartz tuning fork and a multipass cell,” Opt. Lett. 44(8), 1904–1907 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Liu and L. Xu, “Laser absorption spectroscopy for combustiondiagnosis in reactive flows: A review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 54(1), 1–44 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Li, N. Liu, J. Ding, S. Zhou, T. He, and L. Zhang, “Piezoelectric effect-based detector for spectroscopic application,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 115, 141–148 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

Q. Zhang, J. Chang, Z. Cong, J. Sun, and Z. Wang, “QEPAS Sensor for Simultaneous Measurements of H2O, CH4, and C2H2 Using Different QTFs,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(6), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, Y. He, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-tuning-fork enhanced photothermal spectroscopy for ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 26(24), 32103–32110 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Giglio, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, A. Zifarelli, R. Blanchard, C. Pfluegl, M. F. Witinski, D. Vakhshoori, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Nitrous oxide quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection employing a broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(17), 171101 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, L. Dong, H. Wu, X. Yin, L. Xiao, S. Jia, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Application of acoustic micro-resonators in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas analysis,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 691, 462–472 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Recent advances in quartz enhanced photoacoustic sensing,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 5(1), 011106 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

D. Hussain, J. Song, H. Zhang, X. Meng, Y. Wen, and H. Xie, “Optimizing the Quality Factor of Quartz Tuning Fork Force Sensor for Atomic Force Microscopy: Impact of Additional Mass and Mass Rebalance,” IEEE Sens. J. 17(9), 2797–2806 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Človečko, M. Grajcar, M. Kupka, P. Neilinger, M. Rehák, P. Skyba, and F. Vavrek, “High Q value Quartz Tuning Fork in Vacuum as a Potential Thermometer in Millikelvin Temperature Range,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 187(5-6), 573–579 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, Y. He, L. Zhang, X. Yu, J. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, N. P. Sanchez, F. Yi, C. Zheng, W. Ye, H. Wu, R. J. Griffn, and F. K. Tittel, “Dual quantum cascade laser based sensor for simultaneous NO and NO2 detection using a wavelength modulation division multiplexing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 164 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Schwaighofer, M. Brandstetter, and B. Lendl, “Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) inbiomedical spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(19), 5903–5924 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

J. S. Li, H. Deng, J. Sun, B. Yu, and H. Fischer, “Simultaneous atmospheric CO, N2O and H2O detection using a single quantum cascade laser sensor based on dual-spectroscopy techniques,” Sens. Actuators, B 231, 723–732 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, H. Deng, N. Liu, H. Wang, B. Yu, and J. S. Li, “Mid-infrared gas absorption sensor based on a broadband external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(12), 123101 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

K. Liu, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. Wang, W. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Highly sensitive detection of methane by near-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using a compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sens. Actuators, B 220, 1000–1005 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, S. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2S detection by means of a filev amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 666–672 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. Li, J. Zhang, D. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. K. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. S. Li, W. Chen, and H. Fischer, “Quantum cascade laser spectrometry techniques: a new trend in atmospheric chemistry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 48(7), 523–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Waszczuk, G. Gula, M. Swiatkowski, J. Olszewski, W. Herwich, Z. Drulis-Kawa, J. Gutowicz, and T. GotszalkaL, “Evaluation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation using piezoelectric tuning fork mass sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 170, 7–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. A. Hedberg, A. Lal, Y. Miyahara, P. Grütter, G. Gervais, M. Hilke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Low temperature electrostatic force microscopy of a deep two-dimensional electron gas using a quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 143107 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. W. Van Nestea, M. E. Morales-Rodríguez, L. R. Senesac, S. M. Mahajan, and T. Thundat, “Quartz crystal tuning fork photoacoustic point sensing,” Sens. Actuators, B 150(1), 402–405 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

C. W. Van Neste, L. R. Senesac, and T. Thundat, “Standoff photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 234102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. M. Friedt and E. Carry, “Introduction to the quartz tuning fork,” Am. J. Phys. 75(5), 415–422 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1902 (2002).
[Crossref]

X. Su, C. Dai, J. Zhang, and S. J. O’ Shea, “Quartz tuning fork biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17(1-2), 111–117 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, C. Dai, X. Su, and S. J. O’ Shea, “Determination of liquid density with a low frequency mechanical sensor based on quartz tuning fork,” Sens. Actuators, B 84(2-3), 123–128 (2002).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Söderkvist, “Micromachined gyroscopes,” Sens. Actuators, A 43(1-3), 65–71 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Miicke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57(2), 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Akikusa, N.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Barbe, A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

M. Giglio, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, A. Zifarelli, R. Blanchard, C. Pfluegl, M. F. Witinski, D. Vakhshoori, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Nitrous oxide quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection employing a broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(17), 171101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Borri, S.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
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Carry, E.

J. M. Friedt and E. Carry, “Introduction to the quartz tuning fork,” Am. J. Phys. 75(5), 415–422 (2007).
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Chance, K. V.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Chang, J.

Q. Zhang, J. Chang, Z. Cong, J. Sun, and Z. Wang, “QEPAS Sensor for Simultaneous Measurements of H2O, CH4, and C2H2 Using Different QTFs,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(6), 1–8 (2018).
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Chen, D.

Y. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. Li, J. Zhang, D. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 021106 (2015).
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Chen, W.

K. Liu, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. Wang, W. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Highly sensitive detection of methane by near-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using a compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sens. Actuators, B 220, 1000–1005 (2015).
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J. S. Li, W. Chen, and H. Fischer, “Quantum cascade laser spectrometry techniques: a new trend in atmospheric chemistry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 48(7), 523–559 (2013).
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K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
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Clovecko, M.

M. Človečko, M. Grajcar, M. Kupka, P. Neilinger, M. Rehák, P. Skyba, and F. Vavrek, “High Q value Quartz Tuning Fork in Vacuum as a Potential Thermometer in Millikelvin Temperature Range,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 187(5-6), 573–579 (2017).
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Cong, Z.

Q. Zhang, J. Chang, Z. Cong, J. Sun, and Z. Wang, “QEPAS Sensor for Simultaneous Measurements of H2O, CH4, and C2H2 Using Different QTFs,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(6), 1–8 (2018).
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I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Curl, R. F.

H. Zheng, L. Dong, H. Wu, X. Yin, L. Xiao, S. Jia, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Application of acoustic micro-resonators in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas analysis,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 691, 462–472 (2018).
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R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
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A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1902 (2002).
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Dai, C.

X. Su, C. Dai, J. Zhang, and S. J. O’ Shea, “Quartz tuning fork biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17(1-2), 111–117 (2002).
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J. Zhang, C. Dai, X. Su, and S. J. O’ Shea, “Determination of liquid density with a low frequency mechanical sensor based on quartz tuning fork,” Sens. Actuators, B 84(2-3), 123–128 (2002).
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De Natale, P.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
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Deng, H.

J. S. Li, H. Deng, J. Sun, B. Yu, and H. Fischer, “Simultaneous atmospheric CO, N2O and H2O detection using a single quantum cascade laser sensor based on dual-spectroscopy techniques,” Sens. Actuators, B 231, 723–732 (2016).
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J. Sun, H. Deng, N. Liu, H. Wang, B. Yu, and J. S. Li, “Mid-infrared gas absorption sensor based on a broadband external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(12), 123101 (2016).
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Devi, V. M.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Ding, J.

J. Li, N. Liu, J. Ding, S. Zhou, T. He, and L. Zhang, “Piezoelectric effect-based detector for spectroscopic application,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 115, 141–148 (2019).
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Dong, L.

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Recent advances in quartz enhanced photoacoustic sensing,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 5(1), 011106 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, L. Dong, H. Wu, X. Yin, L. Xiao, S. Jia, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Application of acoustic micro-resonators in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas analysis,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 691, 462–472 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, S. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2S detection by means of a filev amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 666–672 (2015).
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Drouin, B. J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Drulis-Kawa, Z.

K. Waszczuk, G. Gula, M. Swiatkowski, J. Olszewski, W. Herwich, Z. Drulis-Kawa, J. Gutowicz, and T. GotszalkaL, “Evaluation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation using piezoelectric tuning fork mass sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 170, 7–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fischer, H.

J. S. Li, H. Deng, J. Sun, B. Yu, and H. Fischer, “Simultaneous atmospheric CO, N2O and H2O detection using a single quantum cascade laser sensor based on dual-spectroscopy techniques,” Sens. Actuators, B 231, 723–732 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. S. Li, W. Chen, and H. Fischer, “Quantum cascade laser spectrometry techniques: a new trend in atmospheric chemistry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 48(7), 523–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

Flaud, J. M.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Friedt, J. M.

J. M. Friedt and E. Carry, “Introduction to the quartz tuning fork,” Am. J. Phys. 75(5), 415–422 (2007).
[Crossref]

Furtenbacher, T.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Galli, I.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gamache, R. R.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, X.

K. Liu, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. Wang, W. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Highly sensitive detection of methane by near-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using a compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sens. Actuators, B 220, 1000–1005 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gervais, G.

J. A. Hedberg, A. Lal, Y. Miyahara, P. Grütter, G. Gervais, M. Hilke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Low temperature electrostatic force microscopy of a deep two-dimensional electron gas using a quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 143107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Giglio, M.

M. Giglio, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, A. Zifarelli, R. Blanchard, C. Pfluegl, M. F. Witinski, D. Vakhshoori, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Nitrous oxide quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection employing a broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(17), 171101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Giusfredi, G.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gmachl, C.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gordon, I. E.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

GotszalkaL, T.

K. Waszczuk, G. Gula, M. Swiatkowski, J. Olszewski, W. Herwich, Z. Drulis-Kawa, J. Gutowicz, and T. GotszalkaL, “Evaluation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation using piezoelectric tuning fork mass sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 170, 7–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grajcar, M.

M. Človečko, M. Grajcar, M. Kupka, P. Neilinger, M. Rehák, P. Skyba, and F. Vavrek, “High Q value Quartz Tuning Fork in Vacuum as a Potential Thermometer in Millikelvin Temperature Range,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 187(5-6), 573–579 (2017).
[Crossref]

Griffn, R. J.

Y. Yu, N. P. Sanchez, F. Yi, C. Zheng, W. Ye, H. Wu, R. J. Griffn, and F. K. Tittel, “Dual quantum cascade laser based sensor for simultaneous NO and NO2 detection using a wavelength modulation division multiplexing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Grütter, P.

J. A. Hedberg, A. Lal, Y. Miyahara, P. Grütter, G. Gervais, M. Hilke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Low temperature electrostatic force microscopy of a deep two-dimensional electron gas using a quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 143107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gula, G.

K. Waszczuk, G. Gula, M. Swiatkowski, J. Olszewski, W. Herwich, Z. Drulis-Kawa, J. Gutowicz, and T. GotszalkaL, “Evaluation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation using piezoelectric tuning fork mass sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 170, 7–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Gutowicz, J.

K. Waszczuk, G. Gula, M. Swiatkowski, J. Olszewski, W. Herwich, Z. Drulis-Kawa, J. Gutowicz, and T. GotszalkaL, “Evaluation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation using piezoelectric tuning fork mass sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 170, 7–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Harrison, J. J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
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Hartmann, J. M.

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J. A. Hedberg, A. Lal, Y. Miyahara, P. Grütter, G. Gervais, M. Hilke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Low temperature electrostatic force microscopy of a deep two-dimensional electron gas using a quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 143107 (2010).
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J. Li, N. Liu, J. Ding, S. Zhou, T. He, and L. Zhang, “Piezoelectric effect-based detector for spectroscopic application,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 115, 141–148 (2019).
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J. Li, N. Liu, J. Ding, S. Zhou, T. He, and L. Zhang, “Piezoelectric effect-based detector for spectroscopic application,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 115, 141–148 (2019).
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J. Sun, H. Deng, N. Liu, H. Wang, B. Yu, and J. S. Li, “Mid-infrared gas absorption sensor based on a broadband external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(12), 123101 (2016).
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H. Wu, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, S. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2S detection by means of a filev amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 666–672 (2015).
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C. W. Van Nestea, M. E. Morales-Rodríguez, L. R. Senesac, S. M. Mahajan, and T. Thundat, “Quartz crystal tuning fork photoacoustic point sensing,” Sens. Actuators, B 150(1), 402–405 (2010).
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[Crossref]

Witinski, M. F.

M. Giglio, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, A. Zifarelli, R. Blanchard, C. Pfluegl, M. F. Witinski, D. Vakhshoori, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Nitrous oxide quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection employing a broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(17), 171101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

H. Zheng, L. Dong, H. Wu, X. Yin, L. Xiao, S. Jia, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Application of acoustic micro-resonators in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas analysis,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 691, 462–472 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, N. P. Sanchez, F. Yi, C. Zheng, W. Ye, H. Wu, R. J. Griffn, and F. K. Tittel, “Dual quantum cascade laser based sensor for simultaneous NO and NO2 detection using a wavelength modulation division multiplexing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 164 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, S. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2S detection by means of a filev amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 666–672 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wysocki, G.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xiao, L.

H. Zheng, L. Dong, H. Wu, X. Yin, L. Xiao, S. Jia, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Application of acoustic micro-resonators in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas analysis,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 691, 462–472 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xie, H.

D. Hussain, J. Song, H. Zhang, X. Meng, Y. Wen, and H. Xie, “Optimizing the Quality Factor of Quartz Tuning Fork Force Sensor for Atomic Force Microscopy: Impact of Additional Mass and Mass Rebalance,” IEEE Sens. J. 17(9), 2797–2806 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

C. Liu and L. Xu, “Laser absorption spectroscopy for combustiondiagnosis in reactive flows: A review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 54(1), 1–44 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yamanishi, M.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, W.

Y. Yu, N. P. Sanchez, F. Yi, C. Zheng, W. Ye, H. Wu, R. J. Griffn, and F. K. Tittel, “Dual quantum cascade laser based sensor for simultaneous NO and NO2 detection using a wavelength modulation division multiplexing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yi, F.

Y. Yu, N. P. Sanchez, F. Yi, C. Zheng, W. Ye, H. Wu, R. J. Griffn, and F. K. Tittel, “Dual quantum cascade laser based sensor for simultaneous NO and NO2 detection using a wavelength modulation division multiplexing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yi, H.

Yin, W.

H. Wu, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, S. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2S detection by means of a filev amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 666–672 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

H. Zheng, L. Dong, H. Wu, X. Yin, L. Xiao, S. Jia, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Application of acoustic micro-resonators in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas analysis,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 691, 462–472 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, S. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2S detection by means of a filev amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 666–672 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, B.

J. Sun, H. Deng, N. Liu, H. Wang, B. Yu, and J. S. Li, “Mid-infrared gas absorption sensor based on a broadband external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(12), 123101 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. S. Li, H. Deng, J. Sun, B. Yu, and H. Fischer, “Simultaneous atmospheric CO, N2O and H2O detection using a single quantum cascade laser sensor based on dual-spectroscopy techniques,” Sens. Actuators, B 231, 723–732 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, G.

Y. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. Li, J. Zhang, D. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Y. He, Y. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy sensor with a high Q-factor quartz tuning fork and a multipass cell,” Opt. Lett. 44(8), 1904–1907 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, Y. He, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-tuning-fork enhanced photothermal spectroscopy for ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 26(24), 32103–32110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, Y. He, L. Zhang, X. Yu, J. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. Li, J. Zhang, D. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, N. P. Sanchez, F. Yi, C. Zheng, W. Ye, H. Wu, R. J. Griffn, and F. K. Tittel, “Dual quantum cascade laser based sensor for simultaneous NO and NO2 detection using a wavelength modulation division multiplexing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zak, E. J.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

D. Hussain, J. Song, H. Zhang, X. Meng, Y. Wen, and H. Xie, “Optimizing the Quality Factor of Quartz Tuning Fork Force Sensor for Atomic Force Microscopy: Impact of Additional Mass and Mass Rebalance,” IEEE Sens. J. 17(9), 2797–2806 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Y. Ma, Y. He, L. Zhang, X. Yu, J. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. Li, J. Zhang, D. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Su, C. Dai, J. Zhang, and S. J. O’ Shea, “Quartz tuning fork biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17(1-2), 111–117 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, C. Dai, X. Su, and S. J. O’ Shea, “Determination of liquid density with a low frequency mechanical sensor based on quartz tuning fork,” Sens. Actuators, B 84(2-3), 123–128 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

J. Li, N. Liu, J. Ding, S. Zhou, T. He, and L. Zhang, “Piezoelectric effect-based detector for spectroscopic application,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 115, 141–148 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, Y. He, L. Zhang, X. Yu, J. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, S. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2S detection by means of a filev amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 666–672 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, J. Chang, Z. Cong, J. Sun, and Z. Wang, “QEPAS Sensor for Simultaneous Measurements of H2O, CH4, and C2H2 Using Different QTFs,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(6), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

K. Liu, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. Wang, W. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Highly sensitive detection of methane by near-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using a compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sens. Actuators, B 220, 1000–1005 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1594–1596 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheng, C.

Y. Yu, N. P. Sanchez, F. Yi, C. Zheng, W. Ye, H. Wu, R. J. Griffn, and F. K. Tittel, “Dual quantum cascade laser based sensor for simultaneous NO and NO2 detection using a wavelength modulation division multiplexing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

H. Zheng, L. Dong, H. Wu, X. Yin, L. Xiao, S. Jia, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Application of acoustic micro-resonators in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas analysis,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 691, 462–472 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, S. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2S detection by means of a filev amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 666–672 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

J. Li, N. Liu, J. Ding, S. Zhou, T. He, and L. Zhang, “Piezoelectric effect-based detector for spectroscopic application,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 115, 141–148 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zifarelli, A.

M. Giglio, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, A. Zifarelli, R. Blanchard, C. Pfluegl, M. F. Witinski, D. Vakhshoori, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Nitrous oxide quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection employing a broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(17), 171101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

J. M. Friedt and E. Carry, “Introduction to the quartz tuning fork,” Am. J. Phys. 75(5), 415–422 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. K. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
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Y. Yu, N. P. Sanchez, F. Yi, C. Zheng, W. Ye, H. Wu, R. J. Griffn, and F. K. Tittel, “Dual quantum cascade laser based sensor for simultaneous NO and NO2 detection using a wavelength modulation division multiplexing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Y. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. Li, J. Zhang, D. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, Y. He, L. Zhang, X. Yu, J. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Giglio, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, A. Zifarelli, R. Blanchard, C. Pfluegl, M. F. Witinski, D. Vakhshoori, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Nitrous oxide quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection employing a broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(17), 171101 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. A. Hedberg, A. Lal, Y. Miyahara, P. Grütter, G. Gervais, M. Hilke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Low temperature electrostatic force microscopy of a deep two-dimensional electron gas using a quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 143107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Rev. (1)

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Recent advances in quartz enhanced photoacoustic sensing,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 5(1), 011106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (2)

C. Liu and L. Xu, “Laser absorption spectroscopy for combustiondiagnosis in reactive flows: A review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 54(1), 1–44 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. S. Li, W. Chen, and H. Fischer, “Quantum cascade laser spectrometry techniques: a new trend in atmospheric chemistry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 48(7), 523–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

X. Su, C. Dai, J. Zhang, and S. J. O’ Shea, “Quartz tuning fork biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 17(1-2), 111–117 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Zheng, L. Dong, H. Wu, X. Yin, L. Xiao, S. Jia, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Application of acoustic micro-resonators in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas analysis,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 691, 462–472 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487(1-3), 1–18 (2010).
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Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

A. Schwaighofer, M. Brandstetter, and B. Lendl, “Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) inbiomedical spectroscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(19), 5903–5924 (2017).
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IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Q. Zhang, J. Chang, Z. Cong, J. Sun, and Z. Wang, “QEPAS Sensor for Simultaneous Measurements of H2O, CH4, and C2H2 Using Different QTFs,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(6), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

D. Hussain, J. Song, H. Zhang, X. Meng, Y. Wen, and H. Xie, “Optimizing the Quality Factor of Quartz Tuning Fork Force Sensor for Atomic Force Microscopy: Impact of Additional Mass and Mass Rebalance,” IEEE Sens. J. 17(9), 2797–2806 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Low Temp. Phys. (1)

M. Človečko, M. Grajcar, M. Kupka, P. Neilinger, M. Rehák, P. Skyba, and F. Vavrek, “High Q value Quartz Tuning Fork in Vacuum as a Potential Thermometer in Millikelvin Temperature Range,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 187(5-6), 573–579 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, C. Hill, R. V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, A. Campargue, K. V. Chance, B. J. Drouin, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, K. P. Shine, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, H. Tran, V. G. Tyuterev, A. Barbe, A. G. Csaszar, V. M. Devi, T. Furtenbacher, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, A. Jolly, T. J. Johnson, T. Karman, I. Kleiner, A. A. Kyuberis, J. Loos, O. M. Lyulin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, H. S. P. Mueller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, O. L. Polyansky, M. Rey, M. Rotger, S. W. Sharpe, K. Sung, E. Starikova, S. A. Tashkun, J. Vander Auwera, G. Wagner, J. Wilzewski, P. Wcislo, S. Yu, and E. J. Zak, “The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 203, 3–69 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser. Eng. (1)

J. Li, N. Liu, J. Ding, S. Zhou, T. He, and L. Zhang, “Piezoelectric effect-based detector for spectroscopic application,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 115, 141–148 (2019).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Sun, H. Deng, N. Liu, H. Wang, B. Yu, and J. S. Li, “Mid-infrared gas absorption sensor based on a broadband external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(12), 123101 (2016).
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Sens. Actuators, B (6)

J. Zhang, C. Dai, X. Su, and S. J. O’ Shea, “Determination of liquid density with a low frequency mechanical sensor based on quartz tuning fork,” Sens. Actuators, B 84(2-3), 123–128 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Waszczuk, G. Gula, M. Swiatkowski, J. Olszewski, W. Herwich, Z. Drulis-Kawa, J. Gutowicz, and T. GotszalkaL, “Evaluation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation using piezoelectric tuning fork mass sensors,” Sens. Actuators, B 170, 7–12 (2012).
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C. W. Van Nestea, M. E. Morales-Rodríguez, L. R. Senesac, S. M. Mahajan, and T. Thundat, “Quartz crystal tuning fork photoacoustic point sensing,” Sens. Actuators, B 150(1), 402–405 (2010).
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J. S. Li, H. Deng, J. Sun, B. Yu, and H. Fischer, “Simultaneous atmospheric CO, N2O and H2O detection using a single quantum cascade laser sensor based on dual-spectroscopy techniques,” Sens. Actuators, B 231, 723–732 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. Wang, W. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Gao, “Highly sensitive detection of methane by near-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using a compact dense-pattern multipass cell,” Sens. Actuators, B 220, 1000–1005 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, X. Yin, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, S. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2S detection by means of a filev amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sens. Actuators, B 221, 666–672 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic configuration of the multi-species gas sensor system.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimentally measured resonant profile of the QCTF at ambient air and the fitted curve with a Lorentzian distribution, the inset shows the dual-frequency modulation scheme.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The QCTF signals recorded in different conditions and the results of theoretical fitting. (a) and (b) are experimentally measured signal in time domain solely excited by the MIR ECQCL laser f1=32.764 kHz and the DFB diode laser at f2=32.766 kHz, respectively, (c) and (d) are the results simultaneously excited by both lasers, and the corresponding frequency spectrum, respectively. (Details see text)
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) The WMS-2f signal amplitudes as a function of the DFB diode laser modulation amplitude; (b)The relationship between the ECQCL laser power and its pulse duration.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Results extracted from the NIR diode laser. (a) WMS-2f absorption spectra under different CH4 mixing ratio, (b) WMS-2f signal amplitude at as a function of CH4 gas concentration.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Results extracted from the MIR ECQCL laser. (a) DAS spectra under different CH4 mixing ratio before and after normalizing process (upper panel and middle panel), and HITRAN simulation (lower panel), (b) Absorption coefficient (at 1305 cm−1) as a function of CH4 gas concentration.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Allan-Werle plot analysis for WMS-2f detection with the NIR diode laser and DAS detection with the MIR ECQCL laser.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of sensitivity achieved with previous publications.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ( t , f ) = S sin ( 2 π f t + φ ) + f i , n o i s e
S ( t ) = i S i sin ( 2 π f i t + φ i ) + f i , n o i s e
y = y 0 + 2 A π Δ f [ 4 ( f f 0 ) 2 + Δ f 2 ]
Q = f 0 Δ f / 2