Abstract

An optical phased array (OPA) in silicon nitride (SiN) is conspicuously highlighted as a vital alternative to its counterpart in silicon. However, a limited number of studies have been conducted on this array in terms of wavelength-tuned beam steering. A SiN OPA has been proposed and implemented with a grating antenna that incorporated an array of shallow-etched waveguides, rendering wavelength-tuned beam steering along the longitudinal direction. To accomplish a superior directionality on a wavelength-tuned beam steering, the spectral beam emission characteristics of the antenna have been explored from the viewpoint of a planar structure that entails a buried oxide (BOX), a SiN waveguide core, and an upper cladding. Two OPA devices having substantially different thicknesses of the resonant cavities, established by combining the BOX and SiN core, were considered theoretically and experimentally to scrutinize the spectral emission characteristics of the antenna on beam steering. Both of the fabricated OPA devices steered light by an angle of 7.4° along the longitudinal direction for a wavelength ranging from 1530 to 1630 nm, while they maintained a divergence angle of 0.2°×0.6° in the longitudinal and lateral directions. Meanwhile, the OPA fabricated on a substantially thick BOX layer featured a limited steering performance to attain a stabilized response over a broad spectral region. We examined the influence of the cavity thickness on the spectral response of the antenna in terms of optical thickness. Based on the two antenna characteristics, it was confirmed that the grating antenna emitted the beam with a higher efficiency when the optical thickness of the cavity corresponded to odd integer multiples of the quarter wavelength. This work is a considerable strategy for designing a stabilized SiN OPA over a desired spectral region.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (2)

2018 (1)

2017 (4)

M. J. R. Heck, “Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 93–107 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Rahim, E. Ryckeboer, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, A. Dhakal, A. Raza, A. Hermans, M. Muneeb, S. Dhoore, Y. Li, U. Dave, P. Bienstman, N. L. Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, P. Helin, S. Severi, X. Rottenberg, and R. Baets, “Expanding the silicon photonics portfolio with silicon nitride photonic integrated circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 639–649 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, M. Raval, Z. Su, N. Li, E. Timurdogan, D. Coolbaugh, D. Vermeulen, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale silicon nitride nanophotonic phased arrays at infrared and visible wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 21–24 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2013 (3)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Romero-García, F. Merget, F. Zhong, H. Finkelstein, and J. Witzens, “Silicon nitride CMOS-compatible platform for integrated photonics applications at visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14036–14046 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. T. Bovington, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid III/V silicon photonic source with integrated 1D free-space beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4257–4259 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

Abe, H.

Acoleyen, K. V.

Alemany, R.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

Baets, R.

Baños, R.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J. E.

Bru, L. A.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Byrd, M. J.

Cassan, E.

Chen, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. K.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cirera, J. M.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Clemmen, S.

Coldren, L. A.

Coolbaugh, D.

Dave, U.

Davenport, M. L.

Dhakal, A.

Dhoore, S.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

Doménech, J. D.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Domínguez, C.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Doylend, J. K.

Fernández, J.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Finkelstein, H.

Fowler, D.

Furukado, Y.

Gaeta, A. L.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, G.

Garcia, S.

Gargallo, B.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Giannone, D.

Griol, A.

Grosse, P.

Gylfason, K.

Ha, Y. G.

Heck, M. J. R.

Helin, P.

Hermans, A.

Hill, D.

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

Houdré, R.

Huang, Q.

Huang, Z.

Hulme, J. C.

Ito, H.

Jágerská, J.

Kang, G.

Kazmierczak, A.

Kim, S. H.

Komorowska, K.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. V. Acoleyen, K. Komorowska, W. Bogaerts, and R. Baets, “One-dimensional off-chip beam steering and shaping using optical phased arrays on silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(23), 3500–3505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kondo, K.

Kuyken, B.

Lee, D. S.

Lee, D. W.

Li, D.

Li, N.

Li, Y.

Lipson, M.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2010), Chapters 2 and 9.

Maire, G.

Malhouitre, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mas, R.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Merget, F.

Micó, G.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moss, D. J.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Muneeb, M.

Muñoz, P.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, H. H.

Pastor, D.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pérez, D.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peters, J. D.

Poulton, C. V.

Rabaud, W.

Rahim, A.

Raval, M.

Raza, A.

Roelkens, G.

Romero-García, S.

Rottenberg, X.

Ryckeboer, E.

Sanchez, B.

Sánchez, A. M.

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sattler, G.

Selvaraja, S.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

Severi, S.

Sohlström, H.

Su, Z.

Subramanian, A. Z.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

Szelag, B.

Takeuchi, G.

Takeuchi, M.

Thomas, N. L.

Thourhout, D. V.

Timurdogan, E.

Tyler, N. A.

Verheyen, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vermeulen, D.

Vivien, L.

Wang, Y.

Watts, M. R.

Witzens, J.

Xia, J.

Yaacobi, A.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yokokawa, T.

Yoo, D. E.

Yoon, H.

You, J. B.

Youn, C. H.

Yu, K.

Zeng, C.

Zhao, X.

Zhong, F.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Z. Subramanian, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, A. Dhakal, K. Komorowska, and R. Baets, “Near-infrared grating couplers for silicon nitride photonic wires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1700–1703 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nanophotonics (1)

M. J. R. Heck, “Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 93–107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Sensors (1)

P. Muñoz, G. Micó, L. A. Bru, D. Pastor, D. Pérez, J. D. Doménech, J. Fernández, R. Baños, B. Gargallo, R. Alemany, A. M. Sánchez, J. M. Cirera, R. Mas, and C. Domínguez, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared application,” Sensors 17(9), 2088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-film Optical Filters, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2010), Chapters 2 and 9.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic configuration of the proposed silicon nitride (SiN) optical phased array (OPA) which incorporates a surface relief grating antenna that is addressed by a five-stage multimode interference (MMI) based splitter connected to a spot size converter (SSC).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Modeled structure of the SiN waveguide grating antenna in two-dimension (2D). Calculated upward spectral emission responses with the HSiN for the cases of (b) HBOX = 5.0 µm and (c) 14.5 µm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Microscope image of the fabricated SiN OPA device, inclusive of a scanning electron microscope image of the grating antenna. FIB images of the cross-section of the antenna along the (b) x- and (c) y-directions.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Test setup for evaluating the steering range and emission efficiency of the OPA. (b) Emitted beam as captured on a sensing card. (c) Measured relative displacement in x-direction of the beam at λ = 1550 nm at different distances of d from 8 cm to 12 cm. Cross-section of the normalized beam profiles along the (d) longitudinal and (e) lateral directions.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Observed angular beam steering along the longitudinal direction for (a) Device A and (b) Device B, when the wavelength is scanned from 1530 to 1630 nm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Demonstrated total efficiencies of the two OPAs of Devices A and B with wavelengths in the range of 1530 to 1630 nm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Description of the diffracted waves for the 2D modeled grating antenna, which are propagating in the downward (dashed line) and upward directions (solid line) toward the substrate and air, respectively.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Experimentally estimated spectral efficiencies and (b) calculated upward emission responses of the fabricated grating antennas (Devices A and B).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Measured propagation loss of the fabricated waveguide. (b) Measured coupling efficiency variation at λ = 1550 nm of a single output port of the MMI splitter from a five-stage MMI test structure. The inset shows the test device for a five-stage MMI.

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