Abstract

We report the first demonstration of multibeam ptychography using synchrotron hard X-rays, which can enlarge the field of view of the reconstructed image of objects by efficiently using partially coherent X-rays. We measured the ptychographic diffraction patterns of a Pt test sample and MnO particles using three mutually incoherent coherent beams with a high intensity that were produced by using both the multiple slits and a pair of focusing mirrors. We successfully reconstructed the phase map of the samples at a spatial resolution of 25 nm in a field of view about twice as wide as that in the single-beam ptychography. We also computationally simulated a feasible experimental setup using random modulators to further enlarge the field of view by increasing the number of available beams. The present method has the potential to enable the high spatial resolution and large field-of-view observation of specimens in materials science and biology.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 253112 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive x-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. X. Huang, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, Y. S. Chu, and H. Yan, “Hard x-ray scanning imaging achieved with bonded multilayer laue lenses,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8698–8704 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray ptychography,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 9–17 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 113901 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9074 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for x-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(25), 251101 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. N. Burdet, K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, A. Suzuki, and Y. Takahashi, “Efficient use of coherent x-rays in ptychography: Towards high-resolution and high-throughput observation of weak-phase objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071103 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30250–30258 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Bevis, R. Karl, J. Reichanadter, D. F. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and D. Adams, “Multiple beam ptychography for large field-of-view, high throughput, quantitative phase contrast imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 184, 164–171 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. I. Rudin, S. Osher, and E. Fatemi, “Nonlinear total variation based noise removal algorithms,” Phys. D 60(1-4), 259–268 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. Horisaki, R. Egami, and J. Tanida, “Single-shot phase imaging with randomized light (spiral),” Opt. Express 24(4), 3765–3773 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  20. K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, “SPring-8 RIKEN beamline III for coherent X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686–689 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. M. Bioucas-Dias and M. A. T. Figueiredo, “A new twist: Two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithms for image restoration,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 16(12), 2992–3004 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1669 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. F. Zhang, B. Chen, G. R. Morrison, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and I. K. Robinson, “Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13367 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray ptychography,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 9–17 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Bevis, R. Karl, J. Reichanadter, D. F. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and D. Adams, “Multiple beam ptychography for large field-of-view, high throughput, quantitative phase contrast imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 184, 164–171 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (3)

N. Burdet, K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, A. Suzuki, and Y. Takahashi, “Efficient use of coherent x-rays in ptychography: Towards high-resolution and high-throughput observation of weak-phase objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071103 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Horisaki, R. Egami, and J. Tanida, “Single-shot phase imaging with randomized light (spiral),” Opt. Express 24(4), 3765–3773 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, B. Chen, G. R. Morrison, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and I. K. Robinson, “Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13367 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (3)

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for x-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(25), 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 113901 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1669 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 253112 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive x-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. M. Bioucas-Dias and M. A. T. Figueiredo, “A new twist: Two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithms for image restoration,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 16(12), 2992–3004 (2007).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, “SPring-8 RIKEN beamline III for coherent X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686–689 (2001).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. I. Rudin, S. Osher, and E. Fatemi, “Nonlinear total variation based noise removal algorithms,” Phys. D 60(1-4), 259–268 (1992).
[Crossref]

Adams, D.

C. Bevis, R. Karl, J. Reichanadter, D. F. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and D. Adams, “Multiple beam ptychography for large field-of-view, high throughput, quantitative phase contrast imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 184, 164–171 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30250–30258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Batey, D. J.

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bevis, C.

C. Bevis, R. Karl, J. Reichanadter, D. F. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and D. Adams, “Multiple beam ptychography for large field-of-view, high throughput, quantitative phase contrast imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 184, 164–171 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30250–30258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bioucas-Dias, J. M.

J. M. Bioucas-Dias and M. A. T. Figueiredo, “A new twist: Two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithms for image restoration,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 16(12), 2992–3004 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bouet, N.

Bunk, O.

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive x-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Burdet, N.

N. Burdet, K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, A. Suzuki, and Y. Takahashi, “Efficient use of coherent x-rays in ptychography: Towards high-resolution and high-throughput observation of weak-phase objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

F. Zhang, B. Chen, G. R. Morrison, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and I. K. Robinson, “Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13367 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y. S.

X. Huang, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, Y. S. Chu, and H. Yan, “Hard x-ray scanning imaging achieved with bonded multilayer laue lenses,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8698–8704 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9074 (2015).
[Crossref]

Clark, J. N.

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9074 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 113901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Claus, D.

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cullis, A. G.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

David, C.

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive x-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

Dierolf, M.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dobson, B. R.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Egami, R.

Falkenberg, G.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 253112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fatemi, E.

L. I. Rudin, S. Osher, and E. Fatemi, “Nonlinear total variation based noise removal algorithms,” Phys. D 60(1-4), 259–268 (1992).
[Crossref]

Figueiredo, M. A. T.

J. M. Bioucas-Dias and M. A. T. Figueiredo, “A new twist: Two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithms for image restoration,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 16(12), 2992–3004 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gardner, D.

Gardner, D. F.

C. Bevis, R. Karl, J. Reichanadter, D. F. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and D. Adams, “Multiple beam ptychography for large field-of-view, high throughput, quantitative phase contrast imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 184, 164–171 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gianoncelli, A.

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1669 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

F. Zhang, B. Chen, G. R. Morrison, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and I. K. Robinson, “Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13367 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for x-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(25), 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive x-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref]

Harder, R.

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9074 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harder, R. J.

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 113901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hirose, M.

N. Burdet, K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, A. Suzuki, and Y. Takahashi, “Efficient use of coherent x-rays in ptychography: Towards high-resolution and high-throughput observation of weak-phase objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Holler, M.

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for x-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(25), 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hoppe, R.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 253112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Horisaki, R.

Huang, X.

X. Huang, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, Y. S. Chu, and H. Yan, “Hard x-ray scanning imaging achieved with bonded multilayer laue lenses,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8698–8704 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9074 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 113901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hurst, A. C.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, T.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, “SPring-8 RIKEN beamline III for coherent X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686–689 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jefimovs, K.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Johnson, I.

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for x-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(25), 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H.

C. Bevis, R. Karl, J. Reichanadter, D. F. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and D. Adams, “Multiple beam ptychography for large field-of-view, high throughput, quantitative phase contrast imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 184, 164–171 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30250–30258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Karl, R.

C. Bevis, R. Karl, J. Reichanadter, D. F. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and D. Adams, “Multiple beam ptychography for large field-of-view, high throughput, quantitative phase contrast imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 184, 164–171 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30250–30258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kaulich, B.

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1669 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kawamura, N.

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, “SPring-8 RIKEN beamline III for coherent X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686–689 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kewish, C. M.

Kohmura, Y.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lauer, K.

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9074 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lopez-Rios, R.

Maiden, A. M.

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1669 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mancini, G. F.

C. Bevis, R. Karl, J. Reichanadter, D. F. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and D. Adams, “Multiple beam ptychography for large field-of-view, high throughput, quantitative phase contrast imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 184, 164–171 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30250–30258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mantion, A.

Menzel, A.

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for x-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(25), 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive x-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Morrison, G. R.

F. Zhang, B. Chen, G. R. Morrison, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and I. K. Robinson, “Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13367 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1669 (2013).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M.

C. Bevis, R. Karl, J. Reichanadter, D. F. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and D. Adams, “Multiple beam ptychography for large field-of-view, high throughput, quantitative phase contrast imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 184, 164–171 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30250–30258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nazaretski, E.

X. Huang, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, Y. S. Chu, and H. Yan, “Hard x-ray scanning imaging achieved with bonded multilayer laue lenses,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8698–8704 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9074 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ohashi, H.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Osher, S.

L. I. Rudin, S. Osher, and E. Fatemi, “Nonlinear total variation based noise removal algorithms,” Phys. D 60(1-4), 259–268 (1992).
[Crossref]

Patommel, J.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 253112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pelz, P. M.

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for x-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(25), 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, F.

F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray ptychography,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 9–17 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Porter, C.

C. Bevis, R. Karl, J. Reichanadter, D. F. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and D. Adams, “Multiple beam ptychography for large field-of-view, high throughput, quantitative phase contrast imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 184, 164–171 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30250–30258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Reichanadter, J.

C. Bevis, R. Karl, J. Reichanadter, D. F. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and D. Adams, “Multiple beam ptychography for large field-of-view, high throughput, quantitative phase contrast imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 184, 164–171 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30250–30258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Robinson, I. K.

F. Zhang, B. Chen, G. R. Morrison, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and I. K. Robinson, “Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13367 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9074 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 113901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rodenburg, J. M.

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1669 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rudin, L. I.

L. I. Rudin, S. Osher, and E. Fatemi, “Nonlinear total variation based noise removal algorithms,” Phys. D 60(1-4), 259–268 (1992).
[Crossref]

Samberg, D.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 253112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schroer, C. G.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 253112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schropp, A.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 253112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seiboth, F.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 253112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Senba, Y.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shanblatt, E.

C. Bevis, R. Karl, J. Reichanadter, D. F. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and D. Adams, “Multiple beam ptychography for large field-of-view, high throughput, quantitative phase contrast imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 184, 164–171 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30250–30258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shimomura, K.

N. Burdet, K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, A. Suzuki, and Y. Takahashi, “Efficient use of coherent x-rays in ptychography: Towards high-resolution and high-throughput observation of weak-phase objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stephan, S.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 253112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, A.

N. Burdet, K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, A. Suzuki, and Y. Takahashi, “Efficient use of coherent x-rays in ptychography: Towards high-resolution and high-throughput observation of weak-phase objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, M.

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, “SPring-8 RIKEN beamline III for coherent X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686–689 (2001).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, Y.

N. Burdet, K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, A. Suzuki, and Y. Takahashi, “Efficient use of coherent x-rays in ptychography: Towards high-resolution and high-throughput observation of weak-phase objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tamasaku, K.

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, “SPring-8 RIKEN beamline III for coherent X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686–689 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, “SPring-8 RIKEN beamline III for coherent X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686–689 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tanida, J.

Tanksalvala, M.

C. Bevis, R. Karl, J. Reichanadter, D. F. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and D. Adams, “Multiple beam ptychography for large field-of-view, high throughput, quantitative phase contrast imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 184, 164–171 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30250–30258 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thibault, P.

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for x-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(25), 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vila-Comamala, J.

Wellenreuther, G.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 253112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

X. Huang, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, Y. S. Chu, and H. Yan, “Hard x-ray scanning imaging achieved with bonded multilayer laue lenses,” Opt. Express 25(8), 8698–8704 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9074 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yabashi, M.

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, “SPring-8 RIKEN beamline III for coherent X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686–689 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yamauchi, K.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamazaki, H.

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, “SPring-8 RIKEN beamline III for coherent X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686–689 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

Zettsu, N.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, B. Chen, G. R. Morrison, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and I. K. Robinson, “Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13367 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 253112 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. M. Pelz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, M. Holler, and A. Menzel, “On-the-fly scans for x-ray ptychography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(25), 251101 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Burdet, K. Shimomura, M. Hirose, A. Suzuki, and Y. Takahashi, “Efficient use of coherent x-rays in ptychography: Towards high-resolution and high-throughput observation of weak-phase objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071103 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. on Image Process. (1)

J. M. Bioucas-Dias and M. A. T. Figueiredo, “A new twist: Two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithms for image restoration,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 16(12), 2992–3004 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 1669 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, B. Chen, G. R. Morrison, J. Vila-Comamala, M. Guizar-Sicairos, and I. K. Robinson, “Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13367 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray ptychography,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 9–17 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A (1)

K. Tamasaku, Y. Tanaka, M. Yabashi, H. Yamazaki, N. Kawamura, M. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, “SPring-8 RIKEN beamline III for coherent X-ray optics,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 467-468, 686–689 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. D (1)

L. I. Rudin, S. Osher, and E. Fatemi, “Nonlinear total variation based noise removal algorithms,” Phys. D 60(1-4), 259–268 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Towards high-resolution ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. N. Clark, X. Huang, R. J. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Dynamic imaging using ptychography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(11), 113901 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

X. Huang, K. Lauer, J. N. Clark, W. Xu, E. Nazaretski, R. Harder, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Fly-scan ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9074 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ultramicroscopy (4)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Bevis, R. Karl, J. Reichanadter, D. F. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and D. Adams, “Multiple beam ptychography for large field-of-view, high throughput, quantitative phase contrast imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 184, 164–171 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of multibeam X-ray ptychography experiment at SPring-8. (b) SIM image of the multiple slits. The scale bar represents 100 $\mu$m. (c) Focal intensity profiles in the horizontal direction using the single beam and three beams. The beam spacing in the three beams depends on the demagnification factor of the horizontal focusing mirror.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) FE-SEM image of the Pt test sample and schematic of scanning points for each beam. The scale bar represents 2 $\mu$m. (b) Diffraction patterns of the Pt test sample obtained using the single beam and three beams. Part of the central area of the diffraction patterns is missing owing to the edge of the Si attenuator. The scale bars represent 10 $\mu$m$^{-1}$. (c) Reconstructed images of the Pt test sample for the single beam and three beams. The scale bars represent 2 $\mu$m. (d) Reconstructed probe for the single beam measurement. The scale bar represents 2 $\mu$m. (e) Reconstructed probe for the three beams measurement. The scale bar represents 2 $\mu$m. (f) Diffraction pattern calculated from the reconstructed images. (g) PRTF curves of the reconstructed sample images for the single beam and three beams. The full-period spatial resolution can be determined by the intersection of 1/e threshold.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) FE-SEM image of the MnO particles and schematic of scanning points for each beam. (b) Reconstructed image of the MnO particles for the three beams. All the scale bars represent 2 $\mu$m.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Incident wave field without the modulator. (b) Diffraction pattern obtained using four beams without modulators. (c) Incident wave field with the modulators. (d) Diffraction pattern obtained using 11 beams with the modulator. (e) Beam number dependence of the real-space error of the reconstructed image with/without random modulators in multibeam X-ray ptychography. (f) Reconstructed images for 11-beam with the modulator. The dashed region in the sample image was used for calculating the real-space error. All the scale bars in the real-space represent 2 $\mu$m, and all the scale bars in the reciprocal-space represent 10 $\mu$m$^{-1}$.

Equations (8)

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I ( k ) = n = 1 n = N | F [ ψ n ( r ) ] | 2
Ψ n , j ( k ) = I ( k ) n = 1 n = N | Ψ n , j ( k ) | 2 Ψ n , j ( k )
O n , j + 1 ( r ) = O n , j ( r ) + α P n , j ( r ) P n , m a x { ψ n , j ( r ) ψ n , j ( r ) }
P n , j + 1 ( r ) = P n , j ( r ) + β O n , j ( r ) O n , m a x { ψ n , j ( r ) ψ n , j ( r ) }
O n ( r ) = arg min O n | Ψ n ( k ) F [ P n ( r ) O n ( r ) ] | l 2 + λ | O n ( r ) | T V
E r e c i = k , a | I ( k , a ) n = 1 n = N | Ψ n , r e c ( k , a ) | 2 | 2 k , a I ( k , a )
E r e a l = r | O ( r ) γ O r e c ( r ) | 2 r | O ( r ) | 2
γ = r O ( r ) O r e c ( r ) r | O r e c ( r ) | 2

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