Abstract

We demonstrate a full-color high dynamic range head-up display (HUD) based on a polarization selective optical combiner, which is a three-layer cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) film. Such a CLC film has three reflection bands corresponding to the three primary colors. A key component in our HUD system is a polarization modulation layer (PML) consisting of a twisted-nematic LC polarization rotator sandwiched by two quarter-wave plates. This spatially switchable PML generates opposite polarization states for the displayed image and its background area. Thus, this optical combiner reflects the displayed image to the observer and transmits the background noise, making the black state darker. Furthermore, by matching the reflection spectra of the optical combiner with the colors of the display panel, the bright state gets brighter. Therefore, both bright state and dark state are improved simultaneously. Our experimental results show that the dark state of the new HUD is lowered by 3x and bright state is boosted by 2.5x. By applying antireflection coating to the optical components and optimizing the degree of polarization, our simulation results indicate that the dynamic range can be improved by ∼50x (17 dB). Potential applications of the proposed HUDs for improving the driver’s safety are foreseeable.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  2. M. Weihrauch, G. Meloeny, and T. Goesch, “The First Head Up Display Introduced by General Motors,” SAE Technical Paper 890288, (1989). https://doi.org/10.4271/890288 .
  3. Y. C. Liu and M. H. Wen, “Comparison of head-up display (HUD) vs. head-down display (HDD): driving performance of commercial vehicle operators in Taiwan,” Int. J. Man-Mach. Stud. 61(5), 679–697 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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  6. T. Zhan, Y. H. Lee, J. Xiong, G. Tan, K. Yin, J. Yang, S. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency switchable optical elements for advanced head-up displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 223–231 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Chen, G. Tan, M. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Depolarization effect in liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11315–11328 (2017).
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    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini-LED and micro-LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(7), 387–401 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Nakagawa, H. Yamaguchi, and T. Yasuda, “Head up display with laser scanning unit,” Proc. SPIE 11125, 12 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. Ballard, V. Bhakta, M. Douglass, P. Gelabert, J. Kempf, W. McDonald, G. Pettitt, P. Rancuret, A. Rankin, J. Thompson, and P. I. Oden, “‘Steering’ Light with Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)-Past, Present & Future,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 28–31 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. O. Freeman, “MEMS scanned laser head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 7930, 79300G (2011).
    [Crossref]
  14. F. Rui, X. Zhang, and Z. Tu, “Influence of ambient temperature on OLED lifetime and uniformity based on modified equivalent lifetime detection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(10), 597–607 (2019).
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  16. A. Paranjpe, J. Montgomery, and S. M. Lee, “Manufacturing Solutions for Micro-LED Displays,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 50(S1), 169–172 (2019).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. P. Coni, N. Damamme, and J. L. Bardon, “The Future of Holographic Head-Up Display,” IEEE Consumer Electron. Mag. 8(5), 68–73 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. F. Weber, A. J. Ouderkirk, J. A. Wheatley, and J. Brodd, “Head-up display with polarized light source and wide-angle p-polarization reflective polarizer,” U. S. patent 6,952,312 (Oct 4, 2005).
  22. A. L. Berman, “Heads-up display combiner utilizing a cholesteric liquid crystal element,” U. S. patent 4,900,133 (Feb 13, 1990).
  23. N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “Broadband circular polarizer using stacked chiral polymer films,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6414–6419 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “Switchable focus using a polymeric lenticular microlens array and a polarization rotator,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7916–7925 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. W. D. St. John, W. J. Fritz, Z. J. Lu, and D. K. Yang, “Bragg reflection from cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Phys., Plasmas, Fluids, Relat. Interdiscip. Top. 51(2), 1191–1198 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. Mitov, “Cholesteric liquid crystals with a broad light reflection band,” Adv. Mater. 24(47), 6260–6276 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. L. Chen, J. C. Hsiang, Y. H. Wu, and C. L. Yang, “Multi-domain fringe-field switched mobile LCD for reducing color shift by zigzag-like pixel design,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 1709–1712 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2020 (1)

Y. Huang, E. L. Hsiang, M. Y. Deng, and S. T. Wu, “Mini-LED, Micro-LED and OLED displays: Present status and future perspectives,” Light: Sci. Appl. 9(1), 105 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (6)

A. Paranjpe, J. Montgomery, and S. M. Lee, “Manufacturing Solutions for Micro-LED Displays,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 50(S1), 169–172 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Coni, N. Damamme, and J. L. Bardon, “The Future of Holographic Head-Up Display,” IEEE Consumer Electron. Mag. 8(5), 68–73 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini-LED and micro-LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(7), 387–401 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Nakagawa, H. Yamaguchi, and T. Yasuda, “Head up display with laser scanning unit,” Proc. SPIE 11125, 12 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Zhan, Y. H. Lee, J. Xiong, G. Tan, K. Yin, J. Yang, S. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency switchable optical elements for advanced head-up displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 223–231 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Rui, X. Zhang, and Z. Tu, “Influence of ambient temperature on OLED lifetime and uniformity based on modified equivalent lifetime detection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(10), 597–607 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

G. Tan, Y. Huang, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High dynamic range liquid crystal displays with a mini-LED backlight,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16572–16584 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

B. Ballard, V. Bhakta, M. Douglass, P. Gelabert, J. Kempf, W. McDonald, G. Pettitt, P. Rancuret, A. Rankin, J. Thompson, and P. I. Oden, “‘Steering’ Light with Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)-Past, Present & Future,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 28–31 (2016).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

M. Mitov, “Cholesteric liquid crystals with a broad light reflection band,” Adv. Mater. 24(47), 6260–6276 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. O. Freeman, “MEMS scanned laser head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 7930, 79300G (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

K. Blankenbach, R. Isele, D. Stindt, and E. Buckley, “Comparison of the Readability of Colour Head-up Displays Using LED and Laser Light Sources,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 1426–1429 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Chen, J. C. Hsiang, Y. H. Wu, and C. L. Yang, “Multi-domain fringe-field switched mobile LCD for reducing color shift by zigzag-like pixel design,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 1709–1712 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

Y. C. Liu and M. H. Wen, “Comparison of head-up display (HUD) vs. head-down display (HDD): driving performance of commercial vehicle operators in Taiwan,” Int. J. Man-Mach. Stud. 61(5), 679–697 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

Y. Ohe, M. Kume, Y. Demachi, T. Taguchi, and K. Ichimura, “Application of a novel photopolymer to a holographic head-up display,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 10(9), 544–553 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

W. D. St. John, W. J. Fritz, Z. J. Lu, and D. K. Yang, “Bragg reflection from cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Phys., Plasmas, Fluids, Relat. Interdiscip. Top. 51(2), 1191–1198 (1995).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[Crossref]

Ballard, B.

B. Ballard, V. Bhakta, M. Douglass, P. Gelabert, J. Kempf, W. McDonald, G. Pettitt, P. Rancuret, A. Rankin, J. Thompson, and P. I. Oden, “‘Steering’ Light with Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)-Past, Present & Future,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 28–31 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bardon, J. L.

P. Coni, N. Damamme, and J. L. Bardon, “The Future of Holographic Head-Up Display,” IEEE Consumer Electron. Mag. 8(5), 68–73 (2019).
[Crossref]

Berman, A. L.

A. L. Berman, “Heads-up display combiner utilizing a cholesteric liquid crystal element,” U. S. patent 4,900,133 (Feb 13, 1990).

Bhakta, V.

B. Ballard, V. Bhakta, M. Douglass, P. Gelabert, J. Kempf, W. McDonald, G. Pettitt, P. Rancuret, A. Rankin, J. Thompson, and P. I. Oden, “‘Steering’ Light with Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)-Past, Present & Future,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 28–31 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blankenbach, K.

K. Blankenbach, R. Isele, D. Stindt, and E. Buckley, “Comparison of the Readability of Colour Head-up Displays Using LED and Laser Light Sources,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 1426–1429 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brodd, J.

M. F. Weber, A. J. Ouderkirk, J. A. Wheatley, and J. Brodd, “Head-up display with polarized light source and wide-angle p-polarization reflective polarizer,” U. S. patent 6,952,312 (Oct 4, 2005).

Buckley, E.

K. Blankenbach, R. Isele, D. Stindt, and E. Buckley, “Comparison of the Readability of Colour Head-up Displays Using LED and Laser Light Sources,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 1426–1429 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, G. Tan, M. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Depolarization effect in liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11315–11328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. L.

Y. L. Chen, J. C. Hsiang, Y. H. Wu, and C. L. Yang, “Multi-domain fringe-field switched mobile LCD for reducing color shift by zigzag-like pixel design,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 1709–1712 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coni, P.

P. Coni, N. Damamme, and J. L. Bardon, “The Future of Holographic Head-Up Display,” IEEE Consumer Electron. Mag. 8(5), 68–73 (2019).
[Crossref]

Damamme, N.

P. Coni, N. Damamme, and J. L. Bardon, “The Future of Holographic Head-Up Display,” IEEE Consumer Electron. Mag. 8(5), 68–73 (2019).
[Crossref]

Demachi, Y.

Y. Ohe, M. Kume, Y. Demachi, T. Taguchi, and K. Ichimura, “Application of a novel photopolymer to a holographic head-up display,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 10(9), 544–553 (1999).
[Crossref]

Deng, M. Y.

Y. Huang, E. L. Hsiang, M. Y. Deng, and S. T. Wu, “Mini-LED, Micro-LED and OLED displays: Present status and future perspectives,” Light: Sci. Appl. 9(1), 105 (2020).
[Crossref]

Douglass, M.

B. Ballard, V. Bhakta, M. Douglass, P. Gelabert, J. Kempf, W. McDonald, G. Pettitt, P. Rancuret, A. Rankin, J. Thompson, and P. I. Oden, “‘Steering’ Light with Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)-Past, Present & Future,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 28–31 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ferrell, T.

C. R. Spitzer, U. Ferrell, and T. Ferrell, Digital Avionics Handbook (Taylor & Francis, 2014), Chap. 17.

Ferrell, U.

C. R. Spitzer, U. Ferrell, and T. Ferrell, Digital Avionics Handbook (Taylor & Francis, 2014), Chap. 17.

Freeman, M. O.

M. O. Freeman, “MEMS scanned laser head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 7930, 79300G (2011).
[Crossref]

Fritz, W. J.

W. D. St. John, W. J. Fritz, Z. J. Lu, and D. K. Yang, “Bragg reflection from cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Phys., Plasmas, Fluids, Relat. Interdiscip. Top. 51(2), 1191–1198 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gelabert, P.

B. Ballard, V. Bhakta, M. Douglass, P. Gelabert, J. Kempf, W. McDonald, G. Pettitt, P. Rancuret, A. Rankin, J. Thompson, and P. I. Oden, “‘Steering’ Light with Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)-Past, Present & Future,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 28–31 (2016).
[Crossref]

Goesch, T.

M. Weihrauch, G. Meloeny, and T. Goesch, “The First Head Up Display Introduced by General Motors,” SAE Technical Paper 890288, (1989). https://doi.org/10.4271/890288 .

Gou, F.

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini-LED and micro-LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(7), 387–401 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ha, N. Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref]

Helfrich, W.

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[Crossref]

Hsiang, E. L.

Y. Huang, E. L. Hsiang, M. Y. Deng, and S. T. Wu, “Mini-LED, Micro-LED and OLED displays: Present status and future perspectives,” Light: Sci. Appl. 9(1), 105 (2020).
[Crossref]

Hsiang, J. C.

Y. L. Chen, J. C. Hsiang, Y. H. Wu, and C. L. Yang, “Multi-domain fringe-field switched mobile LCD for reducing color shift by zigzag-like pixel design,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 1709–1712 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, E. L. Hsiang, M. Y. Deng, and S. T. Wu, “Mini-LED, Micro-LED and OLED displays: Present status and future perspectives,” Light: Sci. Appl. 9(1), 105 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini-LED and micro-LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(7), 387–401 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Tan, Y. Huang, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High dynamic range liquid crystal displays with a mini-LED backlight,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16572–16584 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “Broadband circular polarizer using stacked chiral polymer films,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6414–6419 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ichimura, K.

Y. Ohe, M. Kume, Y. Demachi, T. Taguchi, and K. Ichimura, “Application of a novel photopolymer to a holographic head-up display,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 10(9), 544–553 (1999).
[Crossref]

Isele, R.

K. Blankenbach, R. Isele, D. Stindt, and E. Buckley, “Comparison of the Readability of Colour Head-up Displays Using LED and Laser Light Sources,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 1426–1429 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S. M.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kempf, J.

B. Ballard, V. Bhakta, M. Douglass, P. Gelabert, J. Kempf, W. McDonald, G. Pettitt, P. Rancuret, A. Rankin, J. Thompson, and P. I. Oden, “‘Steering’ Light with Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)-Past, Present & Future,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 28–31 (2016).
[Crossref]

Klinker, G.

M. Tonnis, C. Lange, and G. Klinker, “Visual longitudinal and lateral driving assistance in the head-up display of cars,” IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (IEEE, 2007), pp. 91–94.

Kume, M.

Y. Ohe, M. Kume, Y. Demachi, T. Taguchi, and K. Ichimura, “Application of a novel photopolymer to a holographic head-up display,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 10(9), 544–553 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lange, C.

M. Tonnis, C. Lange, and G. Klinker, “Visual longitudinal and lateral driving assistance in the head-up display of cars,” IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (IEEE, 2007), pp. 91–94.

Lee, J. H.

H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

Lee, S. M.

A. Paranjpe, J. Montgomery, and S. M. Lee, “Manufacturing Solutions for Micro-LED Displays,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 50(S1), 169–172 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

T. Zhan, Y. H. Lee, J. Xiong, G. Tan, K. Yin, J. Yang, S. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency switchable optical elements for advanced head-up displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 223–231 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

Li, M. C.

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini-LED and micro-LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(7), 387–401 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Tan, Y. Huang, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High dynamic range liquid crystal displays with a mini-LED backlight,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16572–16584 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lin, B.

H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

T. Zhan, Y. H. Lee, J. Xiong, G. Tan, K. Yin, J. Yang, S. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency switchable optical elements for advanced head-up displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 223–231 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. C.

Y. C. Liu and M. H. Wen, “Comparison of head-up display (HUD) vs. head-down display (HDD): driving performance of commercial vehicle operators in Taiwan,” Int. J. Man-Mach. Stud. 61(5), 679–697 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z. J.

W. D. St. John, W. J. Fritz, Z. J. Lu, and D. K. Yang, “Bragg reflection from cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Phys., Plasmas, Fluids, Relat. Interdiscip. Top. 51(2), 1191–1198 (1995).
[Crossref]

McDonald, W.

B. Ballard, V. Bhakta, M. Douglass, P. Gelabert, J. Kempf, W. McDonald, G. Pettitt, P. Rancuret, A. Rankin, J. Thompson, and P. I. Oden, “‘Steering’ Light with Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)-Past, Present & Future,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 28–31 (2016).
[Crossref]

Meloeny, G.

M. Weihrauch, G. Meloeny, and T. Goesch, “The First Head Up Display Introduced by General Motors,” SAE Technical Paper 890288, (1989). https://doi.org/10.4271/890288 .

Mitov, M.

M. Mitov, “Cholesteric liquid crystals with a broad light reflection band,” Adv. Mater. 24(47), 6260–6276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Montgomery, J.

A. Paranjpe, J. Montgomery, and S. M. Lee, “Manufacturing Solutions for Micro-LED Displays,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 50(S1), 169–172 (2019).
[Crossref]

Naish, J. M.

J. M. Naish, “A system for presenting steering information during visual flight (the head-up display): Part 1: the effect of location of the instrument display on combined instrument and visual flying,” http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:30549a4c-69a4-4674-8e3b-5ce51bf41aed .

Nakagawa, J.

J. Nakagawa, H. Yamaguchi, and T. Yasuda, “Head up display with laser scanning unit,” Proc. SPIE 11125, 12 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, S.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oden, P. I.

B. Ballard, V. Bhakta, M. Douglass, P. Gelabert, J. Kempf, W. McDonald, G. Pettitt, P. Rancuret, A. Rankin, J. Thompson, and P. I. Oden, “‘Steering’ Light with Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)-Past, Present & Future,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 28–31 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ohe, Y.

Y. Ohe, M. Kume, Y. Demachi, T. Taguchi, and K. Ichimura, “Application of a novel photopolymer to a holographic head-up display,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 10(9), 544–553 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ohtsuka, Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ouderkirk, A. J.

M. F. Weber, A. J. Ouderkirk, J. A. Wheatley, and J. Brodd, “Head-up display with polarized light source and wide-angle p-polarization reflective polarizer,” U. S. patent 6,952,312 (Oct 4, 2005).

Paranjpe, A.

A. Paranjpe, J. Montgomery, and S. M. Lee, “Manufacturing Solutions for Micro-LED Displays,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 50(S1), 169–172 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pettitt, G.

B. Ballard, V. Bhakta, M. Douglass, P. Gelabert, J. Kempf, W. McDonald, G. Pettitt, P. Rancuret, A. Rankin, J. Thompson, and P. I. Oden, “‘Steering’ Light with Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)-Past, Present & Future,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 28–31 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rancuret, P.

B. Ballard, V. Bhakta, M. Douglass, P. Gelabert, J. Kempf, W. McDonald, G. Pettitt, P. Rancuret, A. Rankin, J. Thompson, and P. I. Oden, “‘Steering’ Light with Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)-Past, Present & Future,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 28–31 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rankin, A.

B. Ballard, V. Bhakta, M. Douglass, P. Gelabert, J. Kempf, W. McDonald, G. Pettitt, P. Rancuret, A. Rankin, J. Thompson, and P. I. Oden, “‘Steering’ Light with Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)-Past, Present & Future,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 28–31 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

Rui, F.

F. Rui, X. Zhang, and Z. Tu, “Influence of ambient temperature on OLED lifetime and uniformity based on modified equivalent lifetime detection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(10), 597–607 (2019).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[Crossref]

Spitzer, C. R.

C. R. Spitzer, U. Ferrell, and T. Ferrell, Digital Avionics Handbook (Taylor & Francis, 2014), Chap. 17.

St. John, W. D.

W. D. St. John, W. J. Fritz, Z. J. Lu, and D. K. Yang, “Bragg reflection from cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Phys., Plasmas, Fluids, Relat. Interdiscip. Top. 51(2), 1191–1198 (1995).
[Crossref]

Stindt, D.

K. Blankenbach, R. Isele, D. Stindt, and E. Buckley, “Comparison of the Readability of Colour Head-up Displays Using LED and Laser Light Sources,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 1426–1429 (2010).
[Crossref]

Suzaki, G.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taguchi, T.

Y. Ohe, M. Kume, Y. Demachi, T. Taguchi, and K. Ichimura, “Application of a novel photopolymer to a holographic head-up display,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 10(9), 544–553 (1999).
[Crossref]

Takanishi, Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tan, G.

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini-LED and micro-LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(7), 387–401 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Zhan, Y. H. Lee, J. Xiong, G. Tan, K. Yin, J. Yang, S. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency switchable optical elements for advanced head-up displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 223–231 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Tan, Y. Huang, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High dynamic range liquid crystal displays with a mini-LED backlight,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16572–16584 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, G. Tan, M. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Depolarization effect in liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11315–11328 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thompson, J.

B. Ballard, V. Bhakta, M. Douglass, P. Gelabert, J. Kempf, W. McDonald, G. Pettitt, P. Rancuret, A. Rankin, J. Thompson, and P. I. Oden, “‘Steering’ Light with Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)-Past, Present & Future,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 28–31 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tonnis, M.

M. Tonnis, C. Lange, and G. Klinker, “Visual longitudinal and lateral driving assistance in the head-up display of cars,” IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (IEEE, 2007), pp. 91–94.

Tu, Z.

F. Rui, X. Zhang, and Z. Tu, “Influence of ambient temperature on OLED lifetime and uniformity based on modified equivalent lifetime detection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(10), 597–607 (2019).
[Crossref]

Weber, M. F.

M. F. Weber, A. J. Ouderkirk, J. A. Wheatley, and J. Brodd, “Head-up display with polarized light source and wide-angle p-polarization reflective polarizer,” U. S. patent 6,952,312 (Oct 4, 2005).

Weihrauch, M.

M. Weihrauch, G. Meloeny, and T. Goesch, “The First Head Up Display Introduced by General Motors,” SAE Technical Paper 890288, (1989). https://doi.org/10.4271/890288 .

Wen, M. H.

Y. C. Liu and M. H. Wen, “Comparison of head-up display (HUD) vs. head-down display (HDD): driving performance of commercial vehicle operators in Taiwan,” Int. J. Man-Mach. Stud. 61(5), 679–697 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wheatley, J. A.

M. F. Weber, A. J. Ouderkirk, J. A. Wheatley, and J. Brodd, “Head-up display with polarized light source and wide-angle p-polarization reflective polarizer,” U. S. patent 6,952,312 (Oct 4, 2005).

Wu, S. T.

Y. Huang, E. L. Hsiang, M. Y. Deng, and S. T. Wu, “Mini-LED, Micro-LED and OLED displays: Present status and future perspectives,” Light: Sci. Appl. 9(1), 105 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini-LED and micro-LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(7), 387–401 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Zhan, Y. H. Lee, J. Xiong, G. Tan, K. Yin, J. Yang, S. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency switchable optical elements for advanced head-up displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 223–231 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Tan, Y. Huang, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “High dynamic range liquid crystal displays with a mini-LED backlight,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16572–16584 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, G. Tan, M. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Depolarization effect in liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11315–11328 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, S. Xu, Y. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “Switchable focus using a polymeric lenticular microlens array and a polarization rotator,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7916–7925 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S. T. Wu, “Broadband circular polarizer using stacked chiral polymer films,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6414–6419 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. H.

Y. L. Chen, J. C. Hsiang, Y. H. Wu, and C. L. Yang, “Multi-domain fringe-field switched mobile LCD for reducing color shift by zigzag-like pixel design,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 1709–1712 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xiong, J.

T. Zhan, Y. H. Lee, J. Xiong, G. Tan, K. Yin, J. Yang, S. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency switchable optical elements for advanced head-up displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 223–231 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

Yamaguchi, H.

J. Nakagawa, H. Yamaguchi, and T. Yasuda, “Head up display with laser scanning unit,” Proc. SPIE 11125, 12 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. L.

Y. L. Chen, J. C. Hsiang, Y. H. Wu, and C. L. Yang, “Multi-domain fringe-field switched mobile LCD for reducing color shift by zigzag-like pixel design,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 1709–1712 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. K.

W. D. St. John, W. J. Fritz, Z. J. Lu, and D. K. Yang, “Bragg reflection from cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Phys., Plasmas, Fluids, Relat. Interdiscip. Top. 51(2), 1191–1198 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

T. Zhan, Y. H. Lee, J. Xiong, G. Tan, K. Yin, J. Yang, S. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency switchable optical elements for advanced head-up displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 223–231 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yasuda, T.

J. Nakagawa, H. Yamaguchi, and T. Yasuda, “Head up display with laser scanning unit,” Proc. SPIE 11125, 12 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yin, K.

T. Zhan, Y. H. Lee, J. Xiong, G. Tan, K. Yin, J. Yang, S. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency switchable optical elements for advanced head-up displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 223–231 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhan, T.

T. Zhan, Y. H. Lee, J. Xiong, G. Tan, K. Yin, J. Yang, S. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency switchable optical elements for advanced head-up displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 223–231 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

F. Rui, X. Zhang, and Z. Tu, “Influence of ambient temperature on OLED lifetime and uniformity based on modified equivalent lifetime detection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(10), 597–607 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Mitov, “Cholesteric liquid crystals with a broad light reflection band,” Adv. Mater. 24(47), 6260–6276 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[Crossref]

Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. (4)

Y. L. Chen, J. C. Hsiang, Y. H. Wu, and C. L. Yang, “Multi-domain fringe-field switched mobile LCD for reducing color shift by zigzag-like pixel design,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 1709–1712 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Blankenbach, R. Isele, D. Stindt, and E. Buckley, “Comparison of the Readability of Colour Head-up Displays Using LED and Laser Light Sources,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 41(1), 1426–1429 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Ballard, V. Bhakta, M. Douglass, P. Gelabert, J. Kempf, W. McDonald, G. Pettitt, P. Rancuret, A. Rankin, J. Thompson, and P. I. Oden, “‘Steering’ Light with Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)-Past, Present & Future,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 47(1), 28–31 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Paranjpe, J. Montgomery, and S. M. Lee, “Manufacturing Solutions for Micro-LED Displays,” Dig. Tech. Pap. - Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. 50(S1), 169–172 (2019).
[Crossref]

IEEE Consumer Electron. Mag. (1)

P. Coni, N. Damamme, and J. L. Bardon, “The Future of Holographic Head-Up Display,” IEEE Consumer Electron. Mag. 8(5), 68–73 (2019).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Man-Mach. Stud. (1)

Y. C. Liu and M. H. Wen, “Comparison of head-up display (HUD) vs. head-down display (HDD): driving performance of commercial vehicle operators in Taiwan,” Int. J. Man-Mach. Stud. 61(5), 679–697 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (3)

F. Rui, X. Zhang, and Z. Tu, “Influence of ambient temperature on OLED lifetime and uniformity based on modified equivalent lifetime detection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(10), 597–607 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, G. Tan, F. Gou, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects and challenges of mini-LED and micro-LED displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(7), 387–401 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Zhan, Y. H. Lee, J. Xiong, G. Tan, K. Yin, J. Yang, S. Liu, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency switchable optical elements for advanced head-up displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 27(4), 223–231 (2019).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (2)

Y. Huang, E. L. Hsiang, M. Y. Deng, and S. T. Wu, “Mini-LED, Micro-LED and OLED displays: Present status and future perspectives,” Light: Sci. Appl. 9(1), 105 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, J. H. Lee, B. Lin, S. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting diode display: present status and future perspectives,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17168 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Phys., Plasmas, Fluids, Relat. Interdiscip. Top. (1)

W. D. St. John, W. J. Fritz, Z. J. Lu, and D. K. Yang, “Bragg reflection from cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Phys., Plasmas, Fluids, Relat. Interdiscip. Top. 51(2), 1191–1198 (1995).
[Crossref]

Polym. Adv. Technol. (1)

Y. Ohe, M. Kume, Y. Demachi, T. Taguchi, and K. Ichimura, “Application of a novel photopolymer to a holographic head-up display,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 10(9), 544–553 (1999).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Nakagawa, H. Yamaguchi, and T. Yasuda, “Head up display with laser scanning unit,” Proc. SPIE 11125, 12 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. O. Freeman, “MEMS scanned laser head-up display,” Proc. SPIE 7930, 79300G (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

Renesas white paper, “Implementing Laser Scanned-MEMS Projection in Automotive Head-Up Displays” (Renesas Electronics, 2018). https://www.renesas.com/us/en/doc/whitepapers/optoelectronics/laser-scanned-mems-automotive-hud.pdf .

J. M. Naish, “A system for presenting steering information during visual flight (the head-up display): Part 1: the effect of location of the instrument display on combined instrument and visual flying,” http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:30549a4c-69a4-4674-8e3b-5ce51bf41aed .

M. Weihrauch, G. Meloeny, and T. Goesch, “The First Head Up Display Introduced by General Motors,” SAE Technical Paper 890288, (1989). https://doi.org/10.4271/890288 .

M. Tonnis, C. Lange, and G. Klinker, “Visual longitudinal and lateral driving assistance in the head-up display of cars,” IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (IEEE, 2007), pp. 91–94.

C. R. Spitzer, U. Ferrell, and T. Ferrell, Digital Avionics Handbook (Taylor & Francis, 2014), Chap. 17.

M. F. Weber, A. J. Ouderkirk, J. A. Wheatley, and J. Brodd, “Head-up display with polarized light source and wide-angle p-polarization reflective polarizer,” U. S. patent 6,952,312 (Oct 4, 2005).

A. L. Berman, “Heads-up display combiner utilizing a cholesteric liquid crystal element,” U. S. patent 4,900,133 (Feb 13, 1990).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Recorded video of the Imaging results of our proposed HUD system.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Problems in current commercial HUD: (a) postcard effect and (b) image washout.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Ambient light transmittance and display light reflectance of (a) conventional OC and (b) polarization selective OC based on LCP and RCP.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schematic diagram of the HUD system, and (b) polarization state evolution in the polarization modulation layer. Here, we assume the display panel emits LCP light, while the OC reflects LCP and transmits RCP.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Three-layer CLC film structure, (b) measured reflection spectrum (normalized to a glass substrate) of the green CLC layer, blue & red CLC layers, and three-layer RGB CLC film with LCP input, and (c) measured transmission spectrum of the three-layer CLC film with an unpolarized light, which is also normalized to a glass substrate.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Image results of HUD system with (a) CLC film-based OC, and (b) glass OC in a bright environment (∼500 lux).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Original and reflection spectrum of the display panel, and (b) original and transmission spectrum of ambient light. Light source: iPhone 8.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Imaging results of proposed HUD system when the PML is (a) off and (b) on in dark environment (dotted lines stand for the effective area of PML), and the signal input to the TN panel when the PML is (c) off and (d) on. (Visualization 1 shows the recorded video. It is recommended to watch the video in dark ambient so that the contrast ratio improvement is more obvious than those photos (a) and (b) taken by a camera.)
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Contrast ratio improvement of the proposed HUD system for dark state (a) without antireflection film and (b) with antireflection film.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Reflection spectrum of narrowband three-layer CLC OC with LCP input, (b) original and reflection spectrum of the display with narrowband CLC OC, (c) original and transmission spectrum of ambient light with narrowband CLC OC.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. White points of the display, ambient light, reflection, and transmission spectrums in CIE 1976 color space. D65: Ambient light.