Abstract

Parametric amplification of attosecond coherent pulses around 100 eV at the single–atom level is demonstrated for the first time by using the 3D time–dependent Schrödinger equation in high–harmonic generation processes from excited states of He+. We present the attosecond dynamics of the amplification process far from the ionization threshold and resolve the physics behind it. The amplification of a particular central photon energy requires the seed XUV pulses to be perfectly synchronized in time with the driving laser field for stimulated recombination to the He+ ground state and is only produced in a few specific laser cycles in agreement with the experimental measurements. Our simulations show that the amplified photon energy region can be controlled by varying the peak intensity of the laser field. Our results pave the way to the realization of compact attosecond pulse intense XUV lasers with broad applications.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2020 (1)

Y. Fu, K. Nishimura, R. Shao, A. Suda, K. Midorikawa, P. Lan, and E. J. Takahashi, “High efficiency ultrafast water–window harmonic generation for single–shot soft X–ray spectroscopy,” Commun. Phys. 3(1), 92 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (2)

V. A. Antonov, K. Ch. Han, T. R. Akhmedzhanov, M. Scully, and O. Kocharovskaya, “Attosecond Pulse Amplification in a Plasma–Based X–Ray Laser Dressed by an Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(24), 243903 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, J. Seres, E. Seres, and S. Namba, “Extreme–ultraviolet coherent pulse amplification in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 99(6), 063425 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

2017 (2)

T. Bredtmann, S. Patchkovskii, and M. Yu Ivanov, “Strong–field assisted extreme–ultraviolet lasing in atoms and molecules,” New J. Phys. 19(7), 073011 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. M. Heyl, C. L Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high–order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, “Intrapulse x–ray parametric amplification in high–order–harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 93(6), 063415 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, “Serrat replies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(10), 109402 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Patchkovskii and H. G. Muller, “Simple, accurate, and efficient implementation of 1–electron atomic time–dependent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 199, 153–169 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High–harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X–rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4234 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4254 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, D. Roca, and J. Seres, “Coherent amplification of attosecond light pulses in the water–window spectral region,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4867 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high–order harmonic generation boosted by below–threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).

2013 (1)

C. Serrat, “Coherent extreme ultraviolet light amplification by strong–field–enhanced forward scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133902 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Seres, E. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Classical model of strong–field parametric amplification of soft x rays,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013822 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser–driven amplification of soft X–rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X–ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. Y. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67(6), 813–855 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, V. Schyja, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Strong–field photoionization of argon: a comparison between experiment and the SAE approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 50(3-4), 451–459 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. A. L. Marques, A. Castro, G. F. Bertsch, and A. Rubio, “octopus: a first–principles tool for excited electron–ion dynamics,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 151(1), 60–78 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Ishikawa, “Photoemission and ionization of He+ under simultaneous irradiation of fundamental laser and high–order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 043002 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, R. Kopold, W. Becker, and J. M. Rost, “Resonant enhancements of high–order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023404 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. G. Muller, “Numerical simulation of high–order above–threshold–ionization enhancement in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 60(2), 1341–1350 (1999).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67(6), 813–855 (2004).
[Crossref]

Akhmedzhanov, T. R.

V. A. Antonov, K. Ch. Han, T. R. Akhmedzhanov, M. Scully, and O. Kocharovskaya, “Attosecond Pulse Amplification in a Plasma–Based X–Ray Laser Dressed by an Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(24), 243903 (2019).
[Crossref]

Antonov, V. A.

V. A. Antonov, K. Ch. Han, T. R. Akhmedzhanov, M. Scully, and O. Kocharovskaya, “Attosecond Pulse Amplification in a Plasma–Based X–Ray Laser Dressed by an Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(24), 243903 (2019).
[Crossref]

Arnold, C. L

C. M. Heyl, C. L Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high–order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arnold, C. L.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high–order harmonic generation boosted by below–threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).

Aurand, B.

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High–harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X–rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4234 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4254 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baba, M.

Bagnoud, V.

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser–driven amplification of soft X–rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bahabad, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X–ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Becker, W.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, R. Kopold, W. Becker, and J. M. Rost, “Resonant enhancements of high–order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023404 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bertsch, G. F.

M. A. L. Marques, A. Castro, G. F. Bertsch, and A. Rubio, “octopus: a first–principles tool for excited electron–ion dynamics,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 151(1), 60–78 (2003).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bredtmann, T.

T. Bredtmann, S. Patchkovskii, and M. Yu Ivanov, “Strong–field assisted extreme–ultraviolet lasing in atoms and molecules,” New J. Phys. 19(7), 073011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brizuela, F.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high–order harmonic generation boosted by below–threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).

Budesca, J. M.

Calendron, A.-L.

Castro, A.

M. A. L. Marques, A. Castro, G. F. Bertsch, and A. Rubio, “octopus: a first–principles tool for excited electron–ion dynamics,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 151(1), 60–78 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ch. Han, K.

V. A. Antonov, K. Ch. Han, T. R. Akhmedzhanov, M. Scully, and O. Kocharovskaya, “Attosecond Pulse Amplification in a Plasma–Based X–Ray Laser Dressed by an Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(24), 243903 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.-C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X–ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Christov, I. P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X–ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X–ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cormier, E.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, V. Schyja, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Strong–field photoionization of argon: a comparison between experiment and the SAE approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 50(3-4), 451–459 (2003).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

C. M. Heyl, C. L Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high–order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dahlström, J. M.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high–order harmonic generation boosted by below–threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).

DiMauro, L. F.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67(6), 813–855 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ecker, B.

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High–harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X–rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4234 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4254 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser–driven amplification of soft X–rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Falcão-Filho, E. L.

Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, R. Kopold, W. Becker, and J. M. Rost, “Resonant enhancements of high–order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023404 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu, K. Nishimura, R. Shao, A. Suda, K. Midorikawa, P. Lan, and E. J. Takahashi, “High efficiency ultrafast water–window harmonic generation for single–shot soft X–ray spectroscopy,” Commun. Phys. 3(1), 92 (2020).
[Crossref]

Gaarde, M. B.

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ganeev, R. A.

Gerrity, M.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X–ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heinrich, A.

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
[Crossref]

Helm, H.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, V. Schyja, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Strong–field photoionization of argon: a comparison between experiment and the SAE approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 50(3-4), 451–459 (2003).
[Crossref]

Heyl, C. M.

C. M. Heyl, C. L Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high–order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high–order harmonic generation boosted by below–threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).

Hochhaus, D.

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser–driven amplification of soft X–rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, A.

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4254 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hong, K.-H.

Ishikawa, K.

K. Ishikawa, “Photoemission and ionization of He+ under simultaneous irradiation of fundamental laser and high–order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 043002 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. Y.

F. Krausz and M. Y. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jin, C.

Johnsson, P.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high–order harmonic generation boosted by below–threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).

Kapteyn, H. C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X–ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

Keathley, P. D.

Keller, U.

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kocharovskaya, O.

V. A. Antonov, K. Ch. Han, T. R. Akhmedzhanov, M. Scully, and O. Kocharovskaya, “Attosecond Pulse Amplification in a Plasma–Based X–Ray Laser Dressed by an Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(24), 243903 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kopold, R.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, R. Kopold, W. Becker, and J. M. Rost, “Resonant enhancements of high–order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023404 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Y. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krogen, P.

Kroh, T.

Kroon, D.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high–order harmonic generation boosted by below–threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).

Kuehl, T.

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4254 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High–harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X–rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4234 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser–driven amplification of soft X–rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuroda, H.

L’Huillier, A.

C. M. Heyl, C. L Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high–order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high–order harmonic generation boosted by below–threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).

Lan, P.

Y. Fu, K. Nishimura, R. Shao, A. Suda, K. Midorikawa, P. Lan, and E. J. Takahashi, “High efficiency ultrafast water–window harmonic generation for single–shot soft X–ray spectroscopy,” Commun. Phys. 3(1), 92 (2020).
[Crossref]

Landgraf, E.

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High–harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X–rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4234 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4254 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Lin, C. D.

Marques, M. A. L.

M. A. L. Marques, A. Castro, G. F. Bertsch, and A. Rubio, “octopus: a first–principles tool for excited electron–ion dynamics,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 151(1), 60–78 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mauritsson, J.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high–order harmonic generation boosted by below–threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Fu, K. Nishimura, R. Shao, A. Suda, K. Midorikawa, P. Lan, and E. J. Takahashi, “High efficiency ultrafast water–window harmonic generation for single–shot soft X–ray spectroscopy,” Commun. Phys. 3(1), 92 (2020).
[Crossref]

Mukamel, S.

S. Mukamel, “Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy,” Oxford University, Oxford, 1995 (pp. 103).

Muller, H. G.

S. Patchkovskii and H. G. Muller, “Simple, accurate, and efficient implementation of 1–electron atomic time–dependent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 199, 153–169 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. G. Muller, “Numerical simulation of high–order above–threshold–ionization enhancement in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 60(2), 1341–1350 (1999).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X–ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Namba, S.

C. Serrat, J. Seres, E. Seres, and S. Namba, “Extreme–ultraviolet coherent pulse amplification in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 99(6), 063425 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4254 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, K.

Y. Fu, K. Nishimura, R. Shao, A. Suda, K. Midorikawa, P. Lan, and E. J. Takahashi, “High efficiency ultrafast water–window harmonic generation for single–shot soft X–ray spectroscopy,” Commun. Phys. 3(1), 92 (2020).
[Crossref]

Ozaki, T.

Patchkovskii, S.

T. Bredtmann, S. Patchkovskii, and M. Yu Ivanov, “Strong–field assisted extreme–ultraviolet lasing in atoms and molecules,” New J. Phys. 19(7), 073011 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Patchkovskii and H. G. Muller, “Simple, accurate, and efficient implementation of 1–electron atomic time–dependent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 199, 153–169 (2016).
[Crossref]

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X–ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rading, L.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high–order harmonic generation boosted by below–threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).

Roca, D.

Rost, J. M.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, R. Kopold, W. Becker, and J. M. Rost, “Resonant enhancements of high–order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023404 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rubio, A.

M. A. L. Marques, A. Castro, G. F. Bertsch, and A. Rubio, “octopus: a first–principles tool for excited electron–ion dynamics,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 151(1), 60–78 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rudawski, P.

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high–order harmonic generation boosted by below–threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).

Schafer, K. J.

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schyja, V.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, V. Schyja, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Strong–field photoionization of argon: a comparison between experiment and the SAE approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 50(3-4), 451–459 (2003).
[Crossref]

Scully, M.

V. A. Antonov, K. Ch. Han, T. R. Akhmedzhanov, M. Scully, and O. Kocharovskaya, “Attosecond Pulse Amplification in a Plasma–Based X–Ray Laser Dressed by an Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(24), 243903 (2019).
[Crossref]

Seres, E.

C. Serrat, J. Seres, E. Seres, and S. Namba, “Extreme–ultraviolet coherent pulse amplification in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 99(6), 063425 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4254 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High–harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X–rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4234 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Classical model of strong–field parametric amplification of soft x rays,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013822 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser–driven amplification of soft X–rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seres, J.

C. Serrat, J. Seres, E. Seres, and S. Namba, “Extreme–ultraviolet coherent pulse amplification in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 99(6), 063425 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High–harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X–rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4234 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4254 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, D. Roca, and J. Seres, “Coherent amplification of attosecond light pulses in the water–window spectral region,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4867 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Classical model of strong–field parametric amplification of soft x rays,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013822 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser–driven amplification of soft X–rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Serrat, C.

C. Serrat, J. Seres, E. Seres, and S. Namba, “Extreme–ultraviolet coherent pulse amplification in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 99(6), 063425 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, “Intrapulse x–ray parametric amplification in high–order–harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 93(6), 063415 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, “Serrat replies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(10), 109402 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, D. Roca, and J. Seres, “Coherent amplification of attosecond light pulses in the water–window spectral region,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4867 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, “Coherent extreme ultraviolet light amplification by strong–field–enhanced forward scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133902 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shao, R.

Y. Fu, K. Nishimura, R. Shao, A. Suda, K. Midorikawa, P. Lan, and E. J. Takahashi, “High efficiency ultrafast water–window harmonic generation for single–shot soft X–ray spectroscopy,” Commun. Phys. 3(1), 92 (2020).
[Crossref]

Sidorenko, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X–ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Siqueira, J. P.

Spielmann, C.

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High–harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X–rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4234 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4254 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Classical model of strong–field parametric amplification of soft x rays,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013822 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser–driven amplification of soft X–rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Suda, A.

Y. Fu, K. Nishimura, R. Shao, A. Suda, K. Midorikawa, P. Lan, and E. J. Takahashi, “High efficiency ultrafast water–window harmonic generation for single–shot soft X–ray spectroscopy,” Commun. Phys. 3(1), 92 (2020).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, M.

Takahashi, E. J.

Y. Fu, K. Nishimura, R. Shao, A. Suda, K. Midorikawa, P. Lan, and E. J. Takahashi, “High efficiency ultrafast water–window harmonic generation for single–shot soft X–ray spectroscopy,” Commun. Phys. 3(1), 92 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wiehle, R.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, V. Schyja, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Strong–field photoionization of argon: a comparison between experiment and the SAE approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 50(3-4), 451–459 (2003).
[Crossref]

Winkler, G.

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4254 (2015).
[Crossref]

Witzel, B.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, V. Schyja, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Strong–field photoionization of argon: a comparison between experiment and the SAE approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 50(3-4), 451–459 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yu Ivanov, M.

T. Bredtmann, S. Patchkovskii, and M. Yu Ivanov, “Strong–field assisted extreme–ultraviolet lasing in atoms and molecules,” New J. Phys. 19(7), 073011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zimmer, D.

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser–driven amplification of soft X–rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Commun. Phys. (1)

Y. Fu, K. Nishimura, R. Shao, A. Suda, K. Midorikawa, P. Lan, and E. J. Takahashi, “High efficiency ultrafast water–window harmonic generation for single–shot soft X–ray spectroscopy,” Commun. Phys. 3(1), 92 (2020).
[Crossref]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (2)

S. Patchkovskii and H. G. Muller, “Simple, accurate, and efficient implementation of 1–electron atomic time–dependent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 199, 153–169 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. L. Marques, A. Castro, G. F. Bertsch, and A. Rubio, “octopus: a first–principles tool for excited electron–ion dynamics,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 151(1), 60–78 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, V. Schyja, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Strong–field photoionization of argon: a comparison between experiment and the SAE approximation,” J. Mod. Opt. 50(3-4), 451–459 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

C. M. Heyl, C. L Arnold, A. Couairon, and A. L’Huillier, “Introduction to macroscopic power scaling principles for high–order harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 50(1), 013001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser–driven amplification of soft X–rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6(6), 455–461 (2010).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

T. Bredtmann, S. Patchkovskii, and M. Yu Ivanov, “Strong–field assisted extreme–ultraviolet lasing in atoms and molecules,” New J. Phys. 19(7), 073011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

H. G. Muller, “Numerical simulation of high–order above–threshold–ionization enhancement in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 60(2), 1341–1350 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, R. Kopold, W. Becker, and J. M. Rost, “Resonant enhancements of high–order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 65(2), 023404 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, “Intrapulse x–ray parametric amplification in high–order–harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 93(6), 063415 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, J. Seres, E. Seres, and S. Namba, “Extreme–ultraviolet coherent pulse amplification in argon,” Phys. Rev. A 99(6), 063425 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Classical model of strong–field parametric amplification of soft x rays,” Phys. Rev. A 86(1), 013822 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

C. Serrat, “Coherent extreme ultraviolet light amplification by strong–field–enhanced forward scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(13), 133902 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. A. Antonov, K. Ch. Han, T. R. Akhmedzhanov, M. Scully, and O. Kocharovskaya, “Attosecond Pulse Amplification in a Plasma–Based X–Ray Laser Dressed by an Infrared Laser Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 123(24), 243903 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Ishikawa, “Photoemission and ionization of He+ under simultaneous irradiation of fundamental laser and high–order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(4), 043002 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Serrat, “Serrat replies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(10), 109402 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X–ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67(6), 813–855 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Y. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High–harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X–rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4234 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, E. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4254 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Brizuela, C. M. Heyl, P. Rudawski, D. Kroon, L. Rading, J. M. Dahlström, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, and A. L’Huillier, “Efficient high–order harmonic generation boosted by below–threshold harmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).

Other (1)

S. Mukamel, “Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy,” Oxford University, Oxford, 1995 (pp. 103).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Simplified draw showing the ionization energies of He and He$^+$. The combination of the IR and HHG XUV pulses produce He$^+$ ions and promote them to excited states. (b) He$^+$ ions initially in excited states oscillate in the intense IR laser field and the recombination from continuum states to the ground state of He$^+$ is stimulated by XUV pulses optimally synchronized with the IR field. (c) IR field together with a train of attosecond pulses consisting on its odd H9–H29 harmonics. (d) Depletion of the electronic charge in He due to the interaction with an IR pulse alone, the IR together with its odd H9–H29 harmonics, and with only the train of harmonics, as indicated.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Spectrally integrated single–atom XUV absorption signal $S_a$ (in barns) as a function of the delay (time) between the XUV and the IR pulses. The calculations are performed for H61, H71 and H81, and the IR peak intensities $4\times 10^{14}$ W/cm$^2$, $5\times 10^{14}$ W/cm$^2$, and $6\times 10^{14}$ W/cm$^2$, as indicated. The different lines in each plot correspond to the system initially in the He$^+$ ion 2p, 2s, 3p, 4p, and 5d bound states. The vertical left axis is reversed for clarity, so that the peaks mean "gain". Note also that the horizontal axis is labeled as "time", which is chosen to coincide with the time delay between the IR and the XUV pulses.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Frequency–time analysis of the high–order harmonics intensities generated by an IR alone with peak intensity of 5$\times$10$^{14}$ W/cm$^2$, in the case that the system is initially in the He$^+$ ion 3p bound state. The intensity of the generated harmonics is shown in logarithmic scale and arbitrary units, so that the background that can be seen for values below $-$25 is numerical noise. (b) Zoom of the frequency–time analysis in (a) close to the harmonic H61. The intensity of the generated harmonics is here in linear scale and arbitrary units. The calculated spectrally integrated single–atom XUV absorption signal $S_a$ for H61 (Fig. 2(b) – red–dashed line) is plotted on top of the spectra (light gray line) without vertical units. As in Fig. 2, the vertical axis of the light gray line has been reversed for clarity, so that its peaks mean "gain".
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Experimental setup of the two–jet arrangement. (b) Harmonic spectra measured from the jets separately (seed and unseeded) and the two jets together (seeded) with the transmission curve of the used Zr thin–film filter.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Delay dependence of two representative harmonic lines, H61 and H77, with the fitted reference Gaussian shapes. (b) Comparison of the measured and the calculated parametric gain together with the harmonic beam waist. As it is clear, the gain occurs at the same time as the beam waist decreases. (c) Measured gain dynamics at three harmonic lines: H61, H71 and H77. (d) Comparison of the measured and the calculated parametric gain considering a train of H61 pulses as seed.

Equations (2)

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S ( ω ) = ω X Im [ E X ( ω ) D X ( ω ) ] ϵ 0 c d ω | E X ( ω ) | 2 ,
S a = 0 d ω S ( ω ) .