Abstract

Spectroscopic polarimetry (SP) is a powerful tool for characterization of thin film, polarization optics, semiconductor, and others. However, mechanical polarization modulation of broadband light hampers its application for dynamic monitoring of a sample. In this article, we demonstrate the dynamic SP with features of polarization-modulation-free polarimetry and spectrometer-free spectroscopy benefiting from dual-comb spectroscopy (DCS) using a pair of optical frequency combs (OFCs). DCS enables the direct determination of polarization without the need for polarization modulation by using mode-resolved OFC spectra of amplitude and phase for two orthogonally linear-polarized lights while securing rapid, high-precision, broadband spectroscopy without the need for spectrometer. Effectiveness of the proposed system is highlighted by visualizing the hysteresis property of dynamic response in a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator at a sampling rate of 105 Hz.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

2018 (1)

Y. Shimizu, S. Okubo, A. Onae, K. M. T. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “Molecular gas thermometry on acetylene using dual-comb spectroscopy: analysis of rotational energy distribution,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 124(4), 71 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (3)

2015 (3)

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, H. Sasada, and F. L. Hong, “Ultra-broadband dual-comb spectroscopy across 1.0–1.9µm,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(8), 082402 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S. J. Moon, J. H. Yum, M. Topič, S. D. Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. M. Pedro, B. Jerez, and P. Acedo, “Dual electro-optic optical frequency combs for multiheterodyne molecular dispersion spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21149–21158 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5192 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Yim, M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, S. Winters, I. Mirza, J. G. Lunney, and G. S. Duesberg, “Investigation of the optical properties of MoS2 thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103114 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. L. Liu, C. C. Shen, S. H. Su, C. L. Hsu, M. Y. Li, and L. J. Li, “Optical properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 201905 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492(7428), 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Han and Y. F. Chao, “Photoelastic modulated imaging ellipsometry by stroboscopic illumination technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(2), 023107 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, “Time-domain mid-infrared frequency-comb spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1542–1544 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, S. Shinada, and M. Izutsu, “Optical frequency comb generator using optical fiber loops with single-sideband modulation,” IEICE Electron. Express 1(8), 217–221 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Z. H. Wang and G. Jin, “A label-free multisensing immunosensor based on imaging ellipsometry,” Anal. Chem. 75(22), 6119–6123 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

S. G. Lim, S. Kriventsov, and T. N. Jackson, “Dielectric functions and optical bandgaps of high-K dielectrics for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors by far ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(7), 4500–4505 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Schiller, “Spectrometry with frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 766–768 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

H. Arwin, “Is ellipsometry suitable for sensor applications?” Sens. Actuators, A 92(1-3), 43–51 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Niering, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, P. Pokasov, T. Udem, M. Weitz, T. W. Hänsch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, M. Abgrall, P. Laurent, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, “Measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S transition frequency by phase coherent comparison with a microwave cesium fountain clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5496–5499 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

K. Spaeth, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, “Studies on the biotin-avidin multilayer adsorption by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 196(2), 128–135 (1997).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, “A rotating-compensator Fourier ellipsometer,” Opt. Commun. 14(4), 431–437 (1975).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, “Fourier transform detection system for rotating-analyzer ellipsometers,” Opt. Commun. 8(3), 222–225 (1973).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, and H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand., Sect. A 67A(4), 363–377 (1963).
[Crossref]

Abgrall, M.

M. Niering, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, P. Pokasov, T. Udem, M. Weitz, T. W. Hänsch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, M. Abgrall, P. Laurent, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, “Measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S transition frequency by phase coherent comparison with a microwave cesium fountain clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5496–5499 (2000).
[Crossref]

Acedo, P.

Araki, T.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arwin, H.

H. Arwin, “Is ellipsometry suitable for sensor applications?” Sens. Actuators, A 92(1-3), 43–51 (2001).
[Crossref]

Asahara, A.

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Fourier transform detection system for rotating-analyzer ellipsometers,” Opt. Commun. 8(3), 222–225 (1973).
[Crossref]

Ballif, C.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S. J. Moon, J. H. Yum, M. Topič, S. D. Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bernhardt, B.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blaser, S.

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5192 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492(7428), 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brecht, A.

K. Spaeth, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, “Studies on the biotin-avidin multilayer adsorption by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 196(2), 128–135 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chao, Y. F.

C. Y. Han and Y. F. Chao, “Photoelastic modulated imaging ellipsometry by stroboscopic illumination technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(2), 023107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Clairon, A.

M. Niering, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, P. Pokasov, T. Udem, M. Weitz, T. W. Hänsch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, M. Abgrall, P. Laurent, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, “Measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S transition frequency by phase coherent comparison with a microwave cesium fountain clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5496–5499 (2000).
[Crossref]

Coddington, I.

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dill, F. H.

P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, “A rotating-compensator Fourier ellipsometer,” Opt. Commun. 14(4), 431–437 (1975).
[Crossref]

Duesberg, G. S.

C. Yim, M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, S. Winters, I. Mirza, J. G. Lunney, and G. S. Duesberg, “Investigation of the optical properties of MoS2 thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5192 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492(7428), 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Filipic, M.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S. J. Moon, J. H. Yum, M. Topič, S. D. Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gauglitz, G.

K. Spaeth, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, “Studies on the biotin-avidin multilayer adsorption by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 196(2), 128–135 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gohle, C.

Guelachvili, G.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, C. Y.

C. Y. Han and Y. F. Chao, “Photoelastic modulated imaging ellipsometry by stroboscopic illumination technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(2), 023107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Niering, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, P. Pokasov, T. Udem, M. Weitz, T. W. Hänsch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, M. Abgrall, P. Laurent, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, “Measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S transition frequency by phase coherent comparison with a microwave cesium fountain clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5496–5499 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Accurate measurement of large optical frequency differences with a mode-locked laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(13), 881–883 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hase, E.

T. Minamikawa, Y. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hauge, P. S.

P. S. Hauge and F. H. Dill, “A rotating-compensator Fourier ellipsometer,” Opt. Commun. 14(4), 431–437 (1975).
[Crossref]

Holzner, S.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, “Time-domain mid-infrared frequency-comb spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1542–1544 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Niering, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, P. Pokasov, T. Udem, M. Weitz, T. W. Hänsch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, M. Abgrall, P. Laurent, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, “Measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S transition frequency by phase coherent comparison with a microwave cesium fountain clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5496–5499 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Accurate measurement of large optical frequency differences with a mode-locked laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(13), 881–883 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hong, F. L.

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, H. Sasada, and F. L. Hong, “Ultra-broadband dual-comb spectroscopy across 1.0–1.9µm,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(8), 082402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hosaka, K.

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, H. Sasada, and F. L. Hong, “Ultra-broadband dual-comb spectroscopy across 1.0–1.9µm,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(8), 082402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, Y.

T. Minamikawa, Y. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C. L.

H. L. Liu, C. C. Shen, S. H. Su, C. L. Hsu, M. Y. Li, and L. J. Li, “Optical properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 201905 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hugi, A.

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5192 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492(7428), 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ideguchi, T.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref]

Inaba, H.

K. A. Sumihara, S. Okubo, K. Oguchi, M. Okano, H. Inaba, and S. Watanabe, “Polarization-sensitive dual-comb spectroscopy with an electro-optic modulator for determination of anisotropic optical responses of materials,” Opt. Express 27(24), 35141–35165 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimizu, S. Okubo, A. Onae, K. M. T. Yamada, and H. Inaba, “Molecular gas thermometry on acetylene using dual-comb spectroscopy: analysis of rotational energy distribution,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 124(4), 71 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Minamikawa, Y. Hsieh, K. Shibuya, E. Hase, Y. Kaneoka, S. Okubo, H. Inaba, Y. Mizutani, H. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, and T. Yasui, “Dual-comb spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 610 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. A. Sumihara, S. Okubo, M. Okano, H. Inaba, and S. Watanabe, “Polarization-sensitive dual-comb spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(1), 154–159 (2017).
[Crossref]

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T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
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Anal. Chem. (1)

Z. H. Wang and G. Jin, “A label-free multisensing immunosensor based on imaging ellipsometry,” Anal. Chem. 75(22), 6119–6123 (2003).
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Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

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Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. Okubo, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, H. Sasada, and F. L. Hong, “Ultra-broadband dual-comb spectroscopy across 1.0–1.9µm,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(8), 082402 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. L. Liu, C. C. Shen, S. H. Su, C. L. Hsu, M. Y. Li, and L. J. Li, “Optical properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 201905 (2014).
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C. Yim, M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, S. Winters, I. Mirza, J. G. Lunney, and G. S. Duesberg, “Investigation of the optical properties of MoS2 thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103114 (2014).
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IEICE Electron. Express (1)

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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. G. Lim, S. Kriventsov, and T. N. Jackson, “Dielectric functions and optical bandgaps of high-K dielectrics for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors by far ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(7), 4500–4505 (2002).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Trajectory of polarization change on the Poincare sphere.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. Signal and local OFCs, signal and local optical frequency combs; CWL, narrow-linewidth CW laser; Rb-FS, rubidium frequency standard; PC, polarization controller; BS, non-polarizing beamsplitter cube; SLM, reflective spatial light modulator; BPF, 1560 ±12 nm band-pass filter; PBS, polarization beam splitter; PDs, photodetectors.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Static characterization of Δ and ψ in SLM. 3D plots of (a) Δ and (b) ψ with respect to optical frequency and SLM grayscale value. (c) Δ and (d) ψ at 192.000 THz with respect to SLM grayscale value.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Temporal stability of (a) Δ and (b) ψ with respect to accumulation time in SLM.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Dynamics characterization of Δ and ψ in SLM. 3D plots of (a) Δ and (b) ψ with respect to optical frequency and elapsed time. Temporal response of Δ and ψ at 192.000 THz within the time range of (c) 0 to 3.5 s and (d) 1.89 s to 2.51 s. (e) Trajectory of polarization change on the Poincare sphere. The corresponding movie is shown in Visualization 1.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Hysteresis property of dynamic response in SLM. Temporal behavior of (a) Δ and (b) ψ at 192.000 THz when the SLM grayscale level in the solid image was increased as a step function from 0 to 30. Temporal behavior of (c) Δ and (d) ψ at 192.000 THz when the SLM grayscale level was decreased as a step function from 30 to 0.

Equations (9)

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S 0 = E x 2 + E y 2 ,
S 1 = E x 2 E y 2 ,
S 2 = 2 E x E y cos Δ ,
S 3 = 2 E x E y sin Δ ,
S 0 = 1 ,
S 1 = E x 2 E y 2 E x 2 + E y 2 = 1 tan 2 ψ 1 + tan 2 ψ ,
S 2 = 2 E x E y cos Δ E x + E y = 2 tan ψ cos Δ 1 + tan 2 ψ ,
S 3 = 2 E x E y sin Δ E x 2 + E y 2 = 2 tan ψ sin Δ 1 + tan 2 ψ .
Δ v = f rep 1 ( f rep 1 + Δ f rep ) 2 Δ f rep f rep 1 2 2 Δ f rep