Abstract

Structured beams, conventionally generated through the spatial mode conversion of the Gaussian laser beams, have attracted great interest in recent years. Optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) have demonstrated the potential for the generation of tunable structured beams directly from an input pump source. However, to date, a particular OPO design has been shown to produce such beams only in a specific configuration and different spatial structured beams require different system architectures. Here, we report the generation of multiple-structured beams from a single OPO device. Using a vortex-beam-pumped ultrafast OPO in singly-resonant oscillator design and through the control of the mode structure of the resonant beam using a simple intracavity aperture, we generate vortex, Airy, vortex Airy, and Gaussian signal beams over a tunable wavelength range across 1457-1680 nm, simultaneous with vortex beam in the non-resonant idler across 2902-3945 nm, from different ports of the device. The signal and idler vortices have output power in excess of 1 W and maximum vortex order of li=2, while the Airy beam and vortex Airy beam have output power of more than 200 mW. The generic experimental design can be used to provide multi-structured spatial beams with broad tunability across different spectral regions by proper selection of pump laser and nonlinear material and in all times-scales from continuous-wave to ultrafast femtosecond domain.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
  2. A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. V. Jabir, N. Apurv Chaitanya, M. Mathew, and G. K. Samanta, “Direct transfer of classical non-separable states into hybrid entangled two photon states,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7331 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. V. Berry and N. L. Balazs, “Nonspreading wave packets,” Am. J. Phys. 47(3), 264–267 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of accelerating Airy beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(21), 213901 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 395–398 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324(5924), 229–232 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light-sheet microscopy using an Airy beam,” Nat. Methods 11(5), 541–544 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. K. Singh, H. Nagar, Y. Roichman, and A. Arie, “Particle manipulation beyond the diffraction limit using structured super-oscillating light beams,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(9), e17050 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Comput. 38(8), 46–53 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. S. Grewal, A. Ghosh, and G. K. Samanta, “Simultaneous generation of high-power, ultrafast 1D and 2D Airy beams and their frequency-doubling characteristics,” Opt. Lett. 43(16), 3957–3960 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  18. N. A. Chaitanya, A. Aadhi, M. V. Jabir, and G. K. Samanta, “Frequency-doubling characteristics of high-power, ultrafast vortex beams,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2614–2617 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, S. C. Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and G. K. Samanta, “Breakthroughs in Photonics 2012: Breakthroughs in Optical Parametric Oscillators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0700105 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Aadhi, V. Sharma, and G. K. Samanta, “High-power, continuous-wave, tunable mid-IR, higher-order vortex beam optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 43(10), 2312–2315 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Aadhi, N. A. Chaitanya, M. V. Jabir, P. Vaity, R. P. Singh, and G. K. Samanta, “Airy beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25245 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. Aadhi, V. Sharma, R. P. Singh, and G. K. Samanta, “Continuous-wave, singly resonant parametric oscillator-based mid-infrared optical vortex source,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3674–3677 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  23. V. Sharma, S. C. Kumar, A. Aadhi, H. Ye, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Tunable vector-vortex beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 9578 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  24. V. Sharma, S. C. Kumar, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in a picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3606–3609 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Martinelli, J. A. O. Huguenin, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Z. Khoury, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 013812 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. Aadhi, G. K. Samanta, S. C. Kumar, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Controlled switching of orbital angular momentum in an optical parametric oscillator,” Optica 4(3), 349–355 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  27. P. Vaity, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Measuring the topological charge of an optical vortex by using a tilted convex lens,” Phys. Lett. A 377(15), 1154–1156 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

V. Sharma, S. C. Kumar, A. Aadhi, H. Ye, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Tunable vector-vortex beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 9578 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

2017 (4)

B. K. Singh, H. Nagar, Y. Roichman, and A. Arie, “Particle manipulation beyond the diffraction limit using structured super-oscillating light beams,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(9), e17050 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. V. Jabir, N. Apurv Chaitanya, M. Mathew, and G. K. Samanta, “Direct transfer of classical non-separable states into hybrid entangled two photon states,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7331 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Aadhi, G. K. Samanta, S. C. Kumar, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Controlled switching of orbital angular momentum in an optical parametric oscillator,” Optica 4(3), 349–355 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Aadhi, V. Sharma, R. P. Singh, and G. K. Samanta, “Continuous-wave, singly resonant parametric oscillator-based mid-infrared optical vortex source,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3674–3677 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

A. Aadhi, N. A. Chaitanya, M. V. Jabir, P. Vaity, R. P. Singh, and G. K. Samanta, “Airy beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25245 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light-sheet microscopy using an Airy beam,” Nat. Methods 11(5), 541–544 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, S. C. Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and G. K. Samanta, “Breakthroughs in Photonics 2012: Breakthroughs in Optical Parametric Oscillators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0700105 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Vaity, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Measuring the topological charge of an optical vortex by using a tilted convex lens,” Phys. Lett. A 377(15), 1154–1156 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 395–398 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324(5924), 229–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of accelerating Airy beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(21), 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Comput. 38(8), 46–53 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Martinelli, J. A. O. Huguenin, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Z. Khoury, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 013812 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

M. V. Berry and N. L. Balazs, “Nonspreading wave packets,” Am. J. Phys. 47(3), 264–267 (1979).
[Crossref]

Aadhi, A.

Ahmed, N.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Aoki, N.

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

Apurv Chaitanya, N.

M. V. Jabir, N. Apurv Chaitanya, M. Mathew, and G. K. Samanta, “Direct transfer of classical non-separable states into hybrid entangled two photon states,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7331 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arie, A.

B. K. Singh, H. Nagar, Y. Roichman, and A. Arie, “Particle manipulation beyond the diffraction limit using structured super-oscillating light beams,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(9), e17050 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 395–398 (2009).
[Crossref]

Balazs, N. L.

M. V. Berry and N. L. Balazs, “Nonspreading wave packets,” Am. J. Phys. 47(3), 264–267 (1979).
[Crossref]

Banerji, J.

P. Vaity, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Measuring the topological charge of an optical vortex by using a tilted convex lens,” Phys. Lett. A 377(15), 1154–1156 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry and N. L. Balazs, “Nonspreading wave packets,” Am. J. Phys. 47(3), 264–267 (1979).
[Crossref]

Broky, J.

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of accelerating Airy beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(21), 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cameron, C.

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Comput. 38(8), 46–53 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chaitanya, N. A.

A. Aadhi, N. A. Chaitanya, M. V. Jabir, P. Vaity, R. P. Singh, and G. K. Samanta, “Airy beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25245 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. A. Chaitanya, A. Aadhi, M. V. Jabir, and G. K. Samanta, “Frequency-doubling characteristics of high-power, ultrafast vortex beams,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2614–2617 (2015).
[Crossref]

Christodoulides, D. N.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324(5924), 229–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of accelerating Airy beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(21), 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cižmár, T.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light-sheet microscopy using an Airy beam,” Nat. Methods 11(5), 541–544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Coerwinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Coll-Lladó, C.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light-sheet microscopy using an Airy beam,” Nat. Methods 11(5), 541–544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dalgarno, H. I. C.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light-sheet microscopy using an Airy beam,” Nat. Methods 11(5), 541–544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light-sheet microscopy using an Airy beam,” Nat. Methods 11(5), 541–544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dogariu, A.

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of accelerating Airy beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(21), 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

V. Sharma, S. C. Kumar, A. Aadhi, H. Ye, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Tunable vector-vortex beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 9578 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Sharma, S. C. Kumar, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in a picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3606–3609 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Aadhi, G. K. Samanta, S. C. Kumar, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Controlled switching of orbital angular momentum in an optical parametric oscillator,” Optica 4(3), 349–355 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, S. C. Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and G. K. Samanta, “Breakthroughs in Photonics 2012: Breakthroughs in Optical Parametric Oscillators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0700105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ellenbogen, T.

T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 395–398 (2009).
[Crossref]

Esteban-Martin, A.

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, S. C. Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and G. K. Samanta, “Breakthroughs in Photonics 2012: Breakthroughs in Optical Parametric Oscillators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0700105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferrier, D. E. K.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light-sheet microscopy using an Airy beam,” Nat. Methods 11(5), 541–544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ganany-Padowicz, A.

T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 395–398 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, A.

Grewal, R. S.

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gunn-Moore, F. J.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light-sheet microscopy using an Airy beam,” Nat. Methods 11(5), 541–544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huguenin, J. A. O.

M. Martinelli, J. A. O. Huguenin, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Z. Khoury, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 013812 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jabir, M. V.

M. V. Jabir, N. Apurv Chaitanya, M. Mathew, and G. K. Samanta, “Direct transfer of classical non-separable states into hybrid entangled two photon states,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7331 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Aadhi, N. A. Chaitanya, M. V. Jabir, P. Vaity, R. P. Singh, and G. K. Samanta, “Airy beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25245 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. A. Chaitanya, A. Aadhi, M. V. Jabir, and G. K. Samanta, “Frequency-doubling characteristics of high-power, ultrafast vortex beams,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2614–2617 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khoury, A. Z.

M. Martinelli, J. A. O. Huguenin, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Z. Khoury, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 013812 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kolesik, M.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324(5924), 229–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S. C.

V. Sharma, S. C. Kumar, A. Aadhi, H. Ye, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Tunable vector-vortex beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 9578 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Sharma, S. C. Kumar, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in a picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3606–3609 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Aadhi, G. K. Samanta, S. C. Kumar, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Controlled switching of orbital angular momentum in an optical parametric oscillator,” Optica 4(3), 349–355 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, S. C. Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and G. K. Samanta, “Breakthroughs in Photonics 2012: Breakthroughs in Optical Parametric Oscillators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0700105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lavery, M. P. J.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref]

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, M.

M. Martinelli, J. A. O. Huguenin, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Z. Khoury, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 013812 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mathew, M.

M. V. Jabir, N. Apurv Chaitanya, M. Mathew, and G. K. Samanta, “Direct transfer of classical non-separable states into hybrid entangled two photon states,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7331 (2017).
[Crossref]

Miyamoto, K.

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

Molisch, A. F.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moloney, J. V.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324(5924), 229–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

Morita, R.

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nagar, H.

B. K. Singh, H. Nagar, Y. Roichman, and A. Arie, “Particle manipulation beyond the diffraction limit using structured super-oscillating light beams,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(9), e17050 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nussenzveig, P.

M. Martinelli, J. A. O. Huguenin, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Z. Khoury, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 013812 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nylk, J.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light-sheet microscopy using an Airy beam,” Nat. Methods 11(5), 541–544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Omatsu, T.

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M. J.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Polynkin, P.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324(5924), 229–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Roichman, Y.

B. K. Singh, H. Nagar, Y. Roichman, and A. Arie, “Particle manipulation beyond the diffraction limit using structured super-oscillating light beams,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(9), e17050 (2017).
[Crossref]

Samanta, G. K.

V. Sharma, S. C. Kumar, A. Aadhi, H. Ye, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Tunable vector-vortex beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 9578 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Aadhi, V. Sharma, and G. K. Samanta, “High-power, continuous-wave, tunable mid-IR, higher-order vortex beam optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 43(10), 2312–2315 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Sharma, S. C. Kumar, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in a picosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3606–3609 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. S. Grewal, A. Ghosh, and G. K. Samanta, “Simultaneous generation of high-power, ultrafast 1D and 2D Airy beams and their frequency-doubling characteristics,” Opt. Lett. 43(16), 3957–3960 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. V. Jabir, N. Apurv Chaitanya, M. Mathew, and G. K. Samanta, “Direct transfer of classical non-separable states into hybrid entangled two photon states,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7331 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Aadhi, G. K. Samanta, S. C. Kumar, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Controlled switching of orbital angular momentum in an optical parametric oscillator,” Optica 4(3), 349–355 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Aadhi, V. Sharma, R. P. Singh, and G. K. Samanta, “Continuous-wave, singly resonant parametric oscillator-based mid-infrared optical vortex source,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3674–3677 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Aadhi, N. A. Chaitanya, M. V. Jabir, P. Vaity, R. P. Singh, and G. K. Samanta, “Airy beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25245 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. A. Chaitanya, A. Aadhi, M. V. Jabir, and G. K. Samanta, “Frequency-doubling characteristics of high-power, ultrafast vortex beams,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2614–2617 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, S. C. Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and G. K. Samanta, “Breakthroughs in Photonics 2012: Breakthroughs in Optical Parametric Oscillators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0700105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sharma, V.

Singh, B. K.

B. K. Singh, H. Nagar, Y. Roichman, and A. Arie, “Particle manipulation beyond the diffraction limit using structured super-oscillating light beams,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(9), e17050 (2017).
[Crossref]

Singh, R. P.

A. Aadhi, V. Sharma, R. P. Singh, and G. K. Samanta, “Continuous-wave, singly resonant parametric oscillator-based mid-infrared optical vortex source,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3674–3677 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Aadhi, N. A. Chaitanya, M. V. Jabir, P. Vaity, R. P. Singh, and G. K. Samanta, “Airy beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25245 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Vaity, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Measuring the topological charge of an optical vortex by using a tilted convex lens,” Phys. Lett. A 377(15), 1154–1156 (2013).
[Crossref]

Siviloglou, G. A.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324(5924), 229–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of accelerating Airy beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(21), 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Slinger, C.

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Comput. 38(8), 46–53 (2005).
[Crossref]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Stanley, M.

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Comput. 38(8), 46–53 (2005).
[Crossref]

Toyoda, K.

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vaity, P.

A. Aadhi, N. A. Chaitanya, M. V. Jabir, P. Vaity, R. P. Singh, and G. K. Samanta, “Airy beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25245 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Vaity, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Measuring the topological charge of an optical vortex by using a tilted convex lens,” Phys. Lett. A 377(15), 1154–1156 (2013).
[Crossref]

van der Veen, H. E. L. O.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vettenburg, T.

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light-sheet microscopy using an Airy beam,” Nat. Methods 11(5), 541–544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Voloch, N.

T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 395–398 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, H.

V. Sharma, S. C. Kumar, A. Aadhi, H. Ye, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Tunable vector-vortex beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 9578 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

M. V. Berry and N. L. Balazs, “Nonspreading wave packets,” Am. J. Phys. 47(3), 264–267 (1979).
[Crossref]

Comput. (1)

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Comput. 38(8), 46–53 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, S. C. Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and G. K. Samanta, “Breakthroughs in Photonics 2012: Breakthroughs in Optical Parametric Oscillators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0700105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

B. K. Singh, H. Nagar, Y. Roichman, and A. Arie, “Particle manipulation beyond the diffraction limit using structured super-oscillating light beams,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(9), e17050 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, and T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. Yan, G. Xie, M. P. J. Lavery, H. Huang, N. Ahmed, C. Bao, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, L. Li, Z. Zhao, A. F. Molisch, M. Tur, M. J. Padgett, and A. E. Willner, “High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4876 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Methods (1)

T. Vettenburg, H. I. C. Dalgarno, J. Nylk, C. Coll-Lladó, D. E. K. Ferrier, T. Čižmár, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light-sheet microscopy using an Airy beam,” Nat. Methods 11(5), 541–544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 395–398 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

P. Vaity, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Measuring the topological charge of an optical vortex by using a tilted convex lens,” Phys. Lett. A 377(15), 1154–1156 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. Martinelli, J. A. O. Huguenin, P. Nussenzveig, and A. Z. Khoury, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 013812 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of accelerating Airy beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(21), 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

M. V. Jabir, N. Apurv Chaitanya, M. Mathew, and G. K. Samanta, “Direct transfer of classical non-separable states into hybrid entangled two photon states,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7331 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Sharma, S. C. Kumar, A. Aadhi, H. Ye, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Tunable vector-vortex beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 9578 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Aadhi, N. A. Chaitanya, M. V. Jabir, P. Vaity, R. P. Singh, and G. K. Samanta, “Airy beam optical parametric oscillator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25245 (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324(5924), 229–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the experimental setup. λ/2, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter cube; L1-3, plano-convex lenses of different focal lengths; SPP: spiral phase plate, M1-4: OPO mirrors; OC, output coupler; C, MgO: PPLN crystal; CPM, cubic phase mask. Also shown is the 3-D intensity pattern of the Airy beam.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Intensity and (b) lobe structure of the pump. Idler (c) intensity and (d) lobe structure, and (e) Gaussian and (f) Airy profile of the signal generated in presence of aperture. Idler (g) intensity and (h) lobe structure, vortex signal (i) intensity and (j) lobe structure, vortex Airy signal (k) intensity profile, and (l) interference pattern generated in absence of aperture. (inset) Magnified image with black lines to show the presence of fork pattern in the self-interference of the vortex-Airy beam.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a): Experimental (circles) trajectory of the 2D Airy beam and vortex Airy beam along with theoretical fit (solid lines). (b) Width of the central lobe of the beam along propagation distance. Intensity profile of the Airy beam (c-f) and vortex Airy beam (g-j) along beam propagation.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Intensity profile of the Gaussian signal (a-c), Airy signal (d-f), vortex idler (g-i), and corresponding lobe structure (j-l) generated in presence of aperture. Intensity profile of the vortex signal (m-o), lobe structure (p-r), vortex Airy (s-u), and corresponding vortex idler (v-x) and lobe structure (y-a1) generated in absence of the aperture.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Output power across the tuning range, and (b) the power scaling characteristics of Gaussian signal, Airy signal and vortex idler. (c) variation of output power across the tuning range and (d) the power scaling of vortex signal, vortex Airy signal and vortex idler.

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