Abstract

Using biogeochemical-Argo float measurements, we propose, for the first time, an optical proxy for particulate organic nitrogen concentration (PON) in the Western Tropical South Pacific, an area influenced by dinitrogen (N2) fixation. Our results show a significant relationship between the backscattering coefficient at 700 nm (bbp) and PON, especially when the latter is measured using the wet oxidation method (R2=0.87). bbp may be used to estimate PON concentrations (PONopt) between 0.02 and 0.95 µM, allowing for unprecedented monitoring using autonomous profiling floats. The bbp vs PON relationship can be used to study phytoplanktonic biomass dynamics at relevant seasonal temporal scales, with clear evidence of PONopt as a proxy of phytoplanktonic biomass, at least for this specific area. Temporal analyses of PONopt show significant increases (from 0.16 to 0.80 µM) likely related to new production associated to N2 fixation events measured during stratification periods in the Melanesian Archipelago.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

D. Roemmich, M. H. Alford, H. Claustre, K. Johnson, B. King, J. Moum, and M. Scanderbeg, “On the Future of Argo: A Global, Full-Depth, Multi-Disciplinary Array,” Front. Mar. Sci. 6, 439 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Xing, G. Qiu, E. Boss, and H. Wang, “Temporal and vertical variations of particulate and dissolved optical properties in the South China Sea,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 124(6), 3779–3795 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

T. Moutin, T. Wagener, M. Caffin, A. Fumenia, A. Gimenez, M. Baklouti, P. Bouruet-Aubertot, M. Pujo-Pay, K. Leblanc, D. Lefevre, S. Helias Nunige, N. Leblond, O. Grosso, and A. de Verneil, “Nutrient availability and the ultimate control of the biological carbon pump in the Western Tropical South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 15(9), 2961–2989 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Gimenez, M. Baklouti, T. Wagener, and T. Moutin, “Diazotrophy as the main driver of the oligotrophy gradient in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean: results from a one-dimensional biogeochemical–physical coupled model,” Biogeosciences 15(21), 6573–6589 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Bonnet, M. Caffin, H. Berthelot, O. Grosso, M. Benavides, S. Helias-Nunige, C. Guieu, M. Stenegren, and R. A. Foster, “In-depth characterization of diazotroph activity across the western tropical South Pacific hotspot of N2 fixation (OUTPACE cruise),” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4215–4232 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Bock, F. V. Wambeke, M. Dion, and S. Duhamel, “Microbial community structure in the western tropical South Pacific,” Biogeosciences 15(12), 3909–3925 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentilli, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, F. D’Ortenzio, and H. Claustre, “Assessing the variability in the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the chlorophyll a concentration from a global Biogeochemical-Argo database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Caffin, H. Berthelot, V. Cornet-Barthaux, A. Barani, and S. Bonnet, “Transfer of diazotroph-derived nitrogen to the planktonic food web across gradients of N2 fixation activity and diversity in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 15(12), 3795–3810 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, D. Dessailly, C. Jamet, L. Li, and R. A. Reynolds, “An inverse model for estimating the optical absorption and backscattering coefficients of seawater from remote-sensing reflectance over a broad range of oceanic and coastal marine environments,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(3), 2141–2171 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

A. de Verneil, L. Rousselet, A. M. Doglioli, A. A. Petrenko, and T. Moutin, “The fate of a southwest Pacific bloom: gauging the impact of submesoscale vs. mesoscale circulation on biological gradients in the subtropics,” Biogeosciences 14(14), 3471–3486 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Roesler, J. Uitz, H. Claustre, E. Boss, X. Xing, E. Organelli, N. Briggs, A. Bricaud, C. Schmechtig, A. Poteau, F. D’Ortenzio, J. Ras, S. Drapeau, N. Haëntjens, and M. Barbieux, “Recommendations for obtaining unbiased chlorophyll estimates from in situ chlorophyll fluorometers: A global analysis of WET Labs ECO sensors,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 15(6), 572–585 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Moutin, A. M. Doglioli, A. De Verneil, and S. Bonnet, “The Oligotrophy to the UlTra Oligotrophy PACific Experiment (OUTPACE cruise, Feb. 18 to Apr. 3, 2015),” Biogeosciences 14(13), 3207–3220 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. S. Johnson, J. N. Plant, L. J. Coletti, H. W. Jannasch, C. M. Sakamoto, S. C. Riser, D. D. Swift, N. L. Williams, E. Boss, N. Haentjens, L. D. Talley, and J. L. Sarmiento, “Biogeochemical sensor performance in the SOCCOM profiling float array,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(8), 6416–6436 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Bonnet, M. Caffin, H. Berthelot, and T. Moutin, “Hot spot of N2 fixation in the western tropical South Pacific pleads for a spatial decoupling between N2 fixation and denitrification,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 114(14), E2800–E2801 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

E. D. Galbraith and A. C. Martiny, “A simple nutrient-dependence mechanism for predicting the stoichiometry of marine ecosystems,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112(27), 8199–8204 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Berthelot, T. Moutin, S. L’Helguen, K. Leblanc, S. Hélias, O. Grosso, N. Leblond, B. Charrière, and S. Bonnet, “Dinitrogen fixation and dissolved organic nitrogen fueled primary production and particulate export during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment (New Caledonia lagoon),” Biogeosciences 12(13), 4099–4112 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. R. Graff, T. K. Westberry, A. J. Milligan, M. B. Brown, G. Dall’Olmo, V. van Dongen-Vogels, K. M. Reifel, and J. B. Behrenfeld, “Analytical phytoplankton carbon measurements spanning diverse ecosystems,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 102, 16–25 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

A. C. Martiny, J. A. Vrugt, and M. W. Lomas, “Concentrations and ratios of particulate organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the global ocean,” Sci. Data 1(1), 140048 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

V. Martinez-Vicente, G. Dall’Olmo, G. Tarran, E. Boss, and S. Sathyendranath, “Optical backscattering is correlated with phytoplankton carbon across the Atlantic Ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(6), 1154–1158 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bayley, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee Jr, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, A. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. M. Moore, M. M. Mills, K. R. Arrigo, I. Berman-Frank, L. Bopp, P. W. Boyd, E. D. Galbraith, R. J. Geider, C. Guieu, S. L. Jaccard, T. D. Jickells, J. La Roche, T. M. Lenton, N. M. Mahowald, E. Marañón, I. Marinov, J. K. Moore, T. Nakatsuka, A. Oschlies, M. A. Saito, T. F. Thingstad, A. Tsuda, and O. Ulloa, “Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation,” Nat. Geosci. 6(9), 701–710 (2013).
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P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. W. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
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A. C. Martiny, J. A. Vrugt, F. W. Primeau, and M. W. Lomas, “Regional variation in the particulate organic carbon to nitrogen ratio in the surface ocean,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 27(3), 723–731 (2013).
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2012 (2)

V. Martinez-Vicente, G. H. Tilstone, S. Sathyendranath, P. I. Miller, and S. B. Groom, “Contributions of phytoplankton and bacteria to the optical backscattering coefficient over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge,” Mar. Ecol.: Prog. Ser. 445, 37–51 (2012).
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I. Cetinić, M. J. Perry, N. T. Briggs, E. Kallin, E. A. D’Asaro, and C. M. Lee, “Particulate organic carbon and inherent optical properties during 2008 North Atlantic Bloom Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C6), C06028(2012).
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2011 (1)

C. S. Law, E. M. S. Woodward, M. J. Ellwood, A. Marriner, S. J. Bury, and K. A. Safi, “Response of surface nutrient inventories and nitrogen fixation to a tropical cyclone in the southwest Pacific,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56(4), 1372–1385 (2011).
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2010 (3)

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15419–15425 (2010).
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L. Duforêt-Gaurier, H. Loisel, D. Dessailly, K. Nordkvist, and S. Alvain, “Estimates of particulate organic carbon over the euphotic depth from in situ measurements: Application to satellite data over the global ocean,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 57(3), 351–367 (2010).
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A. Morel, H. Claustre, and B. Gentili, “The most oligotrophic subtropical zones of the global ocean: Similarities and differences in terms of chlorophyll and yellow substance,” Biogeosciences 7(10), 3139–3151 (2010).
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2008 (6)

P. Raimbault, N. Garcia, and F. Cerutti, “Distribution of inorganic and organic nutrients in the South Pacific Ocean – evidence for long-term accumulation of organic matter in nitrogen-depleted waters,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 281–298 (2008).
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D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
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Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
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S. Blain S, S. Bonnet, and C. Guieu, “Dissolved iron distribution in the tropical and subtropical South Eastern Pacific,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 269–280 (2008).
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T. Moutin, D. M. Karl, S. Duhamel, P. Rimmelin, P. Raimbault, B. A. S. Van Mooy, and H. Claustre, “Phosphate availability and the ultimate control of new nitrogen,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 95–109 (2008).
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T. Wagener, C. Guieu, R. Losno, S. Bonnet, and N. Mahowald, “Revisiting atmospheric dust export to the Southern Hemisphere ocean: Biogeochemical implications,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22(2), GB2006 (2008).
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2007 (2)

D. J. McGillicuddy, L. A. Anderson, N. R. Bates, T. Bibby, K. O. Buesseler, C. A. Carlson, and D. A. Hansell, “Eddy/wind interactions stimulate extraordinary mid-ocean plankton blooms,” Science 316(5827), 1021–1026 (2007).
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S. Duhamel, T. Moutin, F. Van Wambeke, B. Van Mooy, P. Rimmelin, and H. Claustre, “Claustre Growth and specific P-uptake rates of bacterial and phytoplanktonic communities in the Southeast Pacific (BIOSOPE cruise),” Biogeosciences 4(6), 941–956 (2007).
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2005 (1)

Z. Liu, G. Stewart, J. K. Cochran, C. Lee, R. A. Armstrong, D. J. Hirschberg, B. Gasser, and J. C. Miquel, “Why do POC concentrations measured using Niskin bottle collections sometimes differ from those using in-situ pumps?” Deep Sea Res., Part I 52(7), 1324–1344 (2005).
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2004 (2)

C. G. de Boyer Montegut, A. S. Madec, A. Fischer, A. Lazar, and D. Iudicone, “Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 109(C12), C12003 (2004).
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D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
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2003 (3)

W. D. Gardner, M. J. Richardson, C. A. Carlson, D. Hansell, and A. V. Mishonov, “Determining true particulate organic carbon: bottles, pumps and methodologies,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 50(3-4), 655–674 (2003).
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A. Paytan, B. J. Cade-Menun, K. McLaughlin, and K. L. Faul, “Selective phosphorus regeneration of sinking marine particles: evidence from 31P-NMR,” Mar. Chem. 82(1-2), 55–70 (2003).
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B. Schneider, R. Schlitzer, G. Fischer, and E. M. Nöthig, “Depth-dependent elemental compositions of particulate organic matter (POM) in the ocean,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 17(2), 1032 (2003).
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2002 (4)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: A multi-band quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
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R. J. Geider and J. La Roche, “Redfield revisited: variability of C:N:P in marine microalgae and its biochemical basis,” Eur. J. Phycol. 37(1), 1–17 (2002).
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H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, P. Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, “Seasonal and inter-annual variability of particulate organic matter in the global ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(24), 49–49-4 (2002).
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D. Karl, A. Michaels, B. Bergman, D. Capone, E. Carpenter, R. Letelier, F. Lipschultz, H. Paerl, D. Sigman, and L. Stal, “Dinitrogen fixation in the world’s oceans,” Biogeochemistry 57(1), 47–98 (2002).
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2001 (3)

H. Loisel, E. Bosc, D. Stramski, K. Oubelkheir, and P. Y. Deschamps, “Seasonal variability of the backscattering coefficient in the Mediterranean Sea based on Satellite SeaWiFS imagery,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(22), 4203–4206 (2001).
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D. V. Hebel and D. M. Karl, “Seasonal, interannual and decadal variations in particulate matter concentrations and composition in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 48(8-9), 1669–1695 (2001).
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R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, and B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semi analytical model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 106(C4), 7125–7138 (2001).
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1999 (4)

L. A. Currie, “Detection and quantification limits: origins and historical overview,” Anal. Chim. Acta 391(2), 127–134 (1999).
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S. B. Moran, M. A. Charette, S. M. Pike, and C. A. Wicklund, “Differences in seawater particulate organic carbon concentration in samples collected using small-and large-volume methods: the importance of DOC adsorption to the filter blank,” Mar. Chem. 67(1-2), 33–42 (1999).
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P. Raimbault, F. Diaz, W. Pouvesle, and B. Boudjellal, “Simultaneous determination of particulate organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus collected on filters, using a semi-automatic wet-oxidation method,” Mar. Ecol.: Prog. Ser. 180, 289–295 (1999).
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D. Stramski, “Refractive index of planktonic cells as a measure of cellular carbon and chlorophyll a content,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 46(2), 335–351 (1999).
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1997 (1)

P. G. Falkowski, “Evolution of the nitrogen cycle and its influence on the biological sequestration of CO2 in the ocean,” Nature 387(6630), 272–275 (1997).
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1995 (1)

C. D. Winn, J. Campbell, J. R. Christian, R. M. Letelier, D. V. Hebel, J. E. Dore, L. Fujieki, and D. M. Karl, “Seasonal variability in the phytoplankton community of the north pacific subtropical gyre,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 9(4), 605–620 (1995).
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1994 (1)

M. Pujo-Pay and P. Raimbault, “Improvement of the wet-oxidation procedure for simultaneous determination of particulate organic nitrogen and phosphorus collected on filters,” Mar. Ecol.: Prog. Ser. 105, 203–207 (1994).
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1993 (1)

R. M. Letelier, R. Bidigare, D. V. Hebel, M. Ondrusek, C. D. Winn, and D. M. Karl, “Temporal variability of phytoplankton community structure-based on pigment analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(7), 1420–1437 (1993).
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1991 (1)

P. Raimbault and G. S. Slawyk, “A semiautomatic, wet-oxidation method for the determination of particulate organic nitrogen collected on filters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 36(2), 405–408 (1991).
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1982 (1)

J. J. Cullen, “The Deep Chlorophyll Maximum: Comparing Vertical Profiles of Chlorophyll a,” Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39(5), 791–803 (1982).
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1964 (1)

D. W. Menzel and J. H. Ryther, “The composition of particulate organic matter in the western north Atlantic,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 9(2), 179–186 (1964).
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1961 (1)

R. C. Dugdale, D. W. Menzel, and J. H. Ryther, “Nitrogen fixation in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 7(4), 297–300 (1961).
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D. Roemmich, M. H. Alford, H. Claustre, K. Johnson, B. King, J. Moum, and M. Scanderbeg, “On the Future of Argo: A Global, Full-Depth, Multi-Disciplinary Array,” Front. Mar. Sci. 6, 439 (2019).
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Alvain, S.

L. Duforêt-Gaurier, H. Loisel, D. Dessailly, K. Nordkvist, and S. Alvain, “Estimates of particulate organic carbon over the euphotic depth from in situ measurements: Application to satellite data over the global ocean,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 57(3), 351–367 (2010).
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A. Aminot and R. Kérouel, Dosage automatique des nutriments dans les eaux marines : méthodes en flux continu, (Ifremer, 2007).

Anderson, L. A.

D. J. McGillicuddy, L. A. Anderson, N. R. Bates, T. Bibby, K. O. Buesseler, C. A. Carlson, and D. A. Hansell, “Eddy/wind interactions stimulate extraordinary mid-ocean plankton blooms,” Science 316(5827), 1021–1026 (2007).
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Antoine, D.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bayley, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee Jr, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, A. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
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Armstrong, R. A.

Z. Liu, G. Stewart, J. K. Cochran, C. Lee, R. A. Armstrong, D. J. Hirschberg, B. Gasser, and J. C. Miquel, “Why do POC concentrations measured using Niskin bottle collections sometimes differ from those using in-situ pumps?” Deep Sea Res., Part I 52(7), 1324–1344 (2005).
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Arrigo, K. R.

C. M. Moore, M. M. Mills, K. R. Arrigo, I. Berman-Frank, L. Bopp, P. W. Boyd, E. D. Galbraith, R. J. Geider, C. Guieu, S. L. Jaccard, T. D. Jickells, J. La Roche, T. M. Lenton, N. M. Mahowald, E. Marañón, I. Marinov, J. K. Moore, T. Nakatsuka, A. Oschlies, M. A. Saito, T. F. Thingstad, A. Tsuda, and O. Ulloa, “Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation,” Nat. Geosci. 6(9), 701–710 (2013).
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Babin, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
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Bailey, S. W.

Baklouti, M.

A. Gimenez, M. Baklouti, T. Wagener, and T. Moutin, “Diazotrophy as the main driver of the oligotrophy gradient in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean: results from a one-dimensional biogeochemical–physical coupled model,” Biogeosciences 15(21), 6573–6589 (2018).
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T. Moutin, T. Wagener, M. Caffin, A. Fumenia, A. Gimenez, M. Baklouti, P. Bouruet-Aubertot, M. Pujo-Pay, K. Leblanc, D. Lefevre, S. Helias Nunige, N. Leblond, O. Grosso, and A. de Verneil, “Nutrient availability and the ultimate control of the biological carbon pump in the Western Tropical South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 15(9), 2961–2989 (2018).
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Barani, A.

M. Caffin, H. Berthelot, V. Cornet-Barthaux, A. Barani, and S. Bonnet, “Transfer of diazotroph-derived nitrogen to the planktonic food web across gradients of N2 fixation activity and diversity in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 15(12), 3795–3810 (2018).
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M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentilli, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, F. D’Ortenzio, and H. Claustre, “Assessing the variability in the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the chlorophyll a concentration from a global Biogeochemical-Argo database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
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C. Roesler, J. Uitz, H. Claustre, E. Boss, X. Xing, E. Organelli, N. Briggs, A. Bricaud, C. Schmechtig, A. Poteau, F. D’Ortenzio, J. Ras, S. Drapeau, N. Haëntjens, and M. Barbieux, “Recommendations for obtaining unbiased chlorophyll estimates from in situ chlorophyll fluorometers: A global analysis of WET Labs ECO sensors,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 15(6), 572–585 (2017).
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Bates, N. R.

D. J. McGillicuddy, L. A. Anderson, N. R. Bates, T. Bibby, K. O. Buesseler, C. A. Carlson, and D. A. Hansell, “Eddy/wind interactions stimulate extraordinary mid-ocean plankton blooms,” Science 316(5827), 1021–1026 (2007).
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Bayley, S. W.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bayley, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee Jr, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, A. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
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Behrenfeld, J. B.

J. R. Graff, T. K. Westberry, A. J. Milligan, M. B. Brown, G. Dall’Olmo, V. van Dongen-Vogels, K. M. Reifel, and J. B. Behrenfeld, “Analytical phytoplankton carbon measurements spanning diverse ecosystems,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 102, 16–25 (2015).
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Behrenfeld, M. J.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bayley, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee Jr, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, A. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15419–15425 (2010).
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Benavides, M.

S. Bonnet, M. Caffin, H. Berthelot, O. Grosso, M. Benavides, S. Helias-Nunige, C. Guieu, M. Stenegren, and R. A. Foster, “In-depth characterization of diazotroph activity across the western tropical South Pacific hotspot of N2 fixation (OUTPACE cruise),” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4215–4232 (2018).
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Bergman, B.

D. Karl, A. Michaels, B. Bergman, D. Capone, E. Carpenter, R. Letelier, F. Lipschultz, H. Paerl, D. Sigman, and L. Stal, “Dinitrogen fixation in the world’s oceans,” Biogeochemistry 57(1), 47–98 (2002).
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Berman-Frank, I.

C. M. Moore, M. M. Mills, K. R. Arrigo, I. Berman-Frank, L. Bopp, P. W. Boyd, E. D. Galbraith, R. J. Geider, C. Guieu, S. L. Jaccard, T. D. Jickells, J. La Roche, T. M. Lenton, N. M. Mahowald, E. Marañón, I. Marinov, J. K. Moore, T. Nakatsuka, A. Oschlies, M. A. Saito, T. F. Thingstad, A. Tsuda, and O. Ulloa, “Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation,” Nat. Geosci. 6(9), 701–710 (2013).
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Berthelot, H.

M. Caffin, H. Berthelot, V. Cornet-Barthaux, A. Barani, and S. Bonnet, “Transfer of diazotroph-derived nitrogen to the planktonic food web across gradients of N2 fixation activity and diversity in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 15(12), 3795–3810 (2018).
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S. Bonnet, M. Caffin, H. Berthelot, O. Grosso, M. Benavides, S. Helias-Nunige, C. Guieu, M. Stenegren, and R. A. Foster, “In-depth characterization of diazotroph activity across the western tropical South Pacific hotspot of N2 fixation (OUTPACE cruise),” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4215–4232 (2018).
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S. Bonnet, M. Caffin, H. Berthelot, and T. Moutin, “Hot spot of N2 fixation in the western tropical South Pacific pleads for a spatial decoupling between N2 fixation and denitrification,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 114(14), E2800–E2801 (2017).
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H. Berthelot, T. Moutin, S. L’Helguen, K. Leblanc, S. Hélias, O. Grosso, N. Leblond, B. Charrière, and S. Bonnet, “Dinitrogen fixation and dissolved organic nitrogen fueled primary production and particulate export during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment (New Caledonia lagoon),” Biogeosciences 12(13), 4099–4112 (2015).
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Bibby, T.

D. J. McGillicuddy, L. A. Anderson, N. R. Bates, T. Bibby, K. O. Buesseler, C. A. Carlson, and D. A. Hansell, “Eddy/wind interactions stimulate extraordinary mid-ocean plankton blooms,” Science 316(5827), 1021–1026 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bidigare, R.

R. M. Letelier, R. Bidigare, D. V. Hebel, M. Ondrusek, C. D. Winn, and D. M. Karl, “Temporal variability of phytoplankton community structure-based on pigment analysis,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(7), 1420–1437 (1993).
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Blain S, S.

S. Blain S, S. Bonnet, and C. Guieu, “Dissolved iron distribution in the tropical and subtropical South Eastern Pacific,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 269–280 (2008).
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Bock, N.

N. Bock, F. V. Wambeke, M. Dion, and S. Duhamel, “Microbial community structure in the western tropical South Pacific,” Biogeosciences 15(12), 3909–3925 (2018).
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Bogucki, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
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Bonnet, S.

S. Bonnet, M. Caffin, H. Berthelot, O. Grosso, M. Benavides, S. Helias-Nunige, C. Guieu, M. Stenegren, and R. A. Foster, “In-depth characterization of diazotroph activity across the western tropical South Pacific hotspot of N2 fixation (OUTPACE cruise),” Biogeosciences 15(13), 4215–4232 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Caffin, H. Berthelot, V. Cornet-Barthaux, A. Barani, and S. Bonnet, “Transfer of diazotroph-derived nitrogen to the planktonic food web across gradients of N2 fixation activity and diversity in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 15(12), 3795–3810 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Bonnet, M. Caffin, H. Berthelot, and T. Moutin, “Hot spot of N2 fixation in the western tropical South Pacific pleads for a spatial decoupling between N2 fixation and denitrification,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 114(14), E2800–E2801 (2017).
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T. Moutin, A. M. Doglioli, A. De Verneil, and S. Bonnet, “The Oligotrophy to the UlTra Oligotrophy PACific Experiment (OUTPACE cruise, Feb. 18 to Apr. 3, 2015),” Biogeosciences 14(13), 3207–3220 (2017).
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H. Berthelot, T. Moutin, S. L’Helguen, K. Leblanc, S. Hélias, O. Grosso, N. Leblond, B. Charrière, and S. Bonnet, “Dinitrogen fixation and dissolved organic nitrogen fueled primary production and particulate export during the VAHINE mesocosm experiment (New Caledonia lagoon),” Biogeosciences 12(13), 4099–4112 (2015).
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T. Wagener, C. Guieu, R. Losno, S. Bonnet, and N. Mahowald, “Revisiting atmospheric dust export to the Southern Hemisphere ocean: Biogeochemical implications,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22(2), GB2006 (2008).
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S. Blain S, S. Bonnet, and C. Guieu, “Dissolved iron distribution in the tropical and subtropical South Eastern Pacific,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 269–280 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bontempi, P. S.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bayley, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee Jr, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, A. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bopp, L.

C. M. Moore, M. M. Mills, K. R. Arrigo, I. Berman-Frank, L. Bopp, P. W. Boyd, E. D. Galbraith, R. J. Geider, C. Guieu, S. L. Jaccard, T. D. Jickells, J. La Roche, T. M. Lenton, N. M. Mahowald, E. Marañón, I. Marinov, J. K. Moore, T. Nakatsuka, A. Oschlies, M. A. Saito, T. F. Thingstad, A. Tsuda, and O. Ulloa, “Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation,” Nat. Geosci. 6(9), 701–710 (2013).
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D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bayley, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee Jr, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, A. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional to global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 135, 77–91 (2013).
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M. Caffin, H. Berthelot, V. Cornet-Barthaux, A. Barani, and S. Bonnet, “Transfer of diazotroph-derived nitrogen to the planktonic food web across gradients of N2 fixation activity and diversity in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 15(12), 3795–3810 (2018).
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M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentilli, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, F. D’Ortenzio, and H. Claustre, “Assessing the variability in the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the chlorophyll a concentration from a global Biogeochemical-Argo database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
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C. Schmechtig, H. Claustre, A. Poteau, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Bio-Argo quality control manual for the Chlorophyll-A concentration”, (2018).

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J. R. Graff, T. K. Westberry, A. J. Milligan, M. B. Brown, G. Dall’Olmo, V. van Dongen-Vogels, K. M. Reifel, and J. B. Behrenfeld, “Analytical phytoplankton carbon measurements spanning diverse ecosystems,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 102, 16–25 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Trajectory of the BGC-Argo floats deployed in this study (green triangle = FA, red triangle = FB, blue triangle = FC). The location of the OUTPACE section is represented by black (Western and Eastern Melanesian Archipelago) and grey (South Pacific gyre) circles. Open circles represent the location of available in situ PON measurements in the South Pacific [24]. (b) Zoom on the trajectory of the BGC-Argo floats. Colors represent the time (years) and the black dashed boxes show the “bloom periods” defined in the text.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a, b, c) Comparison between the respective concentrations of Chla (mg m-3) measured by the CTD 067/151/199 (black dashed lines), uncorrected Chla (mg m-3) concentrations measured by floats FA / FB / FC (gray lines), and corrected (colored lines) Chla, depending on the density (kg m-3).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Ratio of bbp/PON(wet) vs Pressure, (b) Chla concentrations vs Pressure, and scatter plots between bbp (m-1) measured during the first profiles of the FA, FB and FC floats and (c) PON(wet), (d) PON(CHN), and (e) POP(wet). (The yellow, grey, and black lines represent the best linear regression fits for the data points in the ML, 0-150 dbar, and 0-500 dbar, respectively). Mixed layer = yellow markers/yellow lines, 0-150 dbar = yellow + grey markers/ grey lines, 0-500 dbar = yellow + grey + black markers/ black lines. (f) bbp vs PON(wet) slopes in the mixed layer, between the surface and 150 dbar, and between the surface and 500 dbar (note: circle = FA/LDA, square = FB/LDB, triangle = FC/LDC). Red lines correspond to quantification limits. Statistical parameters are in Table 2.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Temporal variations of the mixed layer depth (dbar) (black line) and the mixed layer average Chla (mg m-3) concentration for floats (a) FA (green line), (c) FB (red line), and (e) FC (blue line), along with temporal variations of (b) the mixed layer average PONopt concentration (µM) (± sd) for float FA (green line), (d) float FB (red line), and (f) float FC (blue line). Lighter colors show standard deviation around the mean (the uncertainty in the regression has been incorporated into the error propagation). Black dashed frames show the “bloom periods” as defined in the text.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Temporal variations of (a) the average salinity (±sd) in the mixed layer for float FA (green line) and (b) float FB (red line). Black dashed frames show the “bloom periods” defined in the text.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Equipment details for each float used in this study, (the first fifteen, nineteen, and eleven profiles were recorded every day for floats FA, FB and FC, respectively, before starting to sample every five days).

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Table 2. Statistical parameters for bbpvs PON(wet), PON(CHN), and POP(wet) for the three depth categories: 0-500 dbar, 0-150 dbar, and Mixed Layer. n is the number of data points, R2 is the determination coefficient, RMSE the Roots Mean Square Error (µM), Median of residuals (residuals = observed minus fitted values), and 75th and 25th percentile represents the interquartile range of residuals).

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Table 3. Slopes and intercepts for the bbpvs PON(wet) and bbpvs POP(wet) relationships for FA-FB/LDA-LDB, and FA/FB/FC in the 0-150 m layer. (R2 = the determination coefficient, p is the p-value).

Equations (1)

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P O N o p t = 1280 × b b p ( 700 ) 0.38 ( μ M )