Abstract

Continuous noninvasive measurement of vital bio-signs, such as cardiovascular parameters, is an important tool in evaluation of the patient’s physiological condition and health monitoring. Based on new enabling technologies, continuous monitoring of heart and respiration rate, pulse wave velocity and blood pressure have been investigated, advanced and reflected in numerous papers published in recent years. In this paper, we introduce a new technique for noninvasive sensing of vital bio-signs based on a multimode optical fiber sensor that can be integrated into a fabric. The sensor consists of a laser, optical fiber, video camera and computer. Its operation is based on tracking of point-wise intensity variations on speckle patterns caused by interference of the light modes within the fiber subjected to deformation. The paper contains theoretical analysis and experimental validation of the proposed scheme. The main goal is to advance a simple low-cost sensor embedded in a cloth fabric to track changes in the cardiovascular condition of the wearer.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

H. L. Kim and S. H. Kim, “Pulse wave velocity in atherosclerosis,” Front. Cardiovasc. Med. 6, 41 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. E. Schwartz, P. U. Feig, and J. L. Izzo Jr, “Pulse Wave Velocities Derived From Cuff Ambulatory Pulse Wave Analysis: Effects of Age and Systolic Blood Pressure,” Hypertension 74(1), 111–116 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

V. V. Bonarjee, “Arterial stiffness: a prognostic marker in coronary heart disease. available methods and clinical application,” Front. Cardiovasc. Med. 5, 64 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

X. Ding, B. P. Yan, Y. T. Zhang, J. Liu, N. Zhao, and H. K. Tsang, “Pulse transit time based continuous cuffless blood pressure estimation: A new extension and a comprehensive evaluation,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11554 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sirkis, Y. Beiderman, S. Agdarov, Y. Beiderman, and Z. Zalevsky, “Fiber sensor for non-contact estimation of vital bio-signs,” Opt. Commun. 391, 63–67 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

C. Massaroni, P. Saccomandi, D. Formica, D. L. Presti, M. A. Caponero, G. Di Tomaso, F. Giurazza, M. Muto, and E. Schena, “Design and feasibility assessment of a magnetic resonance-compatible smart textile based on fiber Bragg grating sensors for respiratory monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(22), 8103–8110 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

R. Mukkamala, J. O. Hahn, O. T. Inan, L. K. Mestha, C. S. Kim, H. Töreyin, and S. Kyal, “Toward ubiquitous blood pressure monitoring via pulse transit time: theory and practice,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(8), 1879–1901 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ciocchetti, C. Massaroni, P. Saccomandi, M. Caponero, A. Polimadei, D. Formica, and E. Schena, “Smart textile based on fiber bragg grating sensors for respiratory monitoring: Design and preliminary trials,” Biosensors 5(3), 602–615 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, Z. Chen, C. S. M. Elvin, L. H. Y. Janice, S. H. Ng, J. T. Teo, and R. Wu, “Textile fiber optic microbend sensor used for heartbeat and respiration monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(2), 757–761 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Z. Chen, D. Lau, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, X. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Simultaneous measurement of breathing rate and heart rate using a microbend multimode fiber optic sensor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 057001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wo, H. Wang, Q. Sun, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Noninvasive respiration movement sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser with beat frequency interrogation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 017003 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Šprager and D. Zazula, “Detection of heartbeat and respiration from optical interferometric signal by using wavelet transform,” Comput. Meth. Prog. Bio. 111(1), 41–51 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Dziuda, F. W. Skibniewski, M. Krej, and P. M. Baran, “Fiber Bragg grating-based sensor for monitoring respiration and heart activity during magnetic resonance imaging examinations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 057006 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

L. Dziuda, F. W. Skibniewski, M. Krej, and J. Lewandowski, “Monitoring respiration and cardiac activity using fiber Bragg grating-based sensor,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(7), 1934–1942 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Nishyama, M. Miyamoto, and K. Watanabe, “Respiration and body movement analysis during sleep in bed using hetero-core fiber optic pressure sensors without constraint to human activity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 017002 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. J. Murphy, K. M. Tichauer, L. Sun, X. Chen, and T. Y. Lee, “Mean transit time as an index of cerebral perfusion pressure in experimental systemic hypotension,” Physiol. Meas. 32(4), 395–405 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

L. J. Epstein, D. Kristo, P. J. Strollo, N. Friedman, A. Malhotra, S. P. Patil, K. Ramar, R. Rogers, R. J. Schwab, and E. M. Weaver, “Clinical guideline for the evaluation, management and long-term care of obstructive sleep apnea in adults,” J. Clin. Sleep Med. 05(03), 263–276 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit, S. Gingold, M. Teicher, V. Mico, and J. Garcia, “Simultaneous remote extraction of multiple speech sources and heart beats from secondary speckles pattern,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21566–21580 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Alarhabi, M. S. Mohamed, S. Ibrahim, T. M. Hun, K. I. Musa, and Z. Yusof, “Pulse wave velocity as a marker of severity of coronary artery disease,” J. Clin. Hypertens. (Hoboken, NJ, U. S.) 11(1), 17–21 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depré, “Optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for healthcare monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1215–1222 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

X. N. Liu, H. Q. Gao, B. Y. Li, M. Cheng, Y. B. Ma, Z. M. Zhang, X. M. Gao, Y. P. Liu, and M. Wang, “Pulse wave velocity as a marker of arteriosclerosis and its comorbidities in Chinese patients,” Hypertens. Res. 30(3), 237–242 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. J. Kim, C. G. Park, J. Park, S. Suh, C. U. Choi, J. W. Kim, S. Kim, H. E. Lim, S. W. Rha, and H. S. Seo, “Relationship between blood pressure parameters and pulse wave velocity in normotensive and hypertensive subjects: invasive study,” J. Hum. Hypertens. 21(2), 141–148 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Massey, “Cardiac assessment part 2: Auscultation,” Br. J. Card. Nurs. 1(3), 126–130 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Szustakowski and N. Palka, “Contrast sensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometer as elongation sensor,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 13, 19–26 (2005).

2004 (3)

W. SpillmanJr, M. Mayer, J. Bennett, J. Gong, K. Meissner, B. Davis, R. Claus, A. MuelenaerJr, and X. Xu, “A ‘smart’bed for non-intrusive monitoring of patient physiological factors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(8), 1614–1620 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Koji, H. Tomiyama, H. Ichihashi, T. Nagae, N. Tanaka, K. Takazawa, S. Ishimaru, and A. Yamashina, “Comparison of ankle-brachial pressure index and pulse wave velocity as markers of the presence of coronary artery disease in subjects with a high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease,” Am. J. Cardiol. 94(7), 868–872 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Yambe, H. Tomiyama, Y. Hirayama, Z. Gulniza, Y. Takata, Y. Koji, K. Motobe, and A. Yamashina, “Arterial stiffening as a possible risk factor for both atherosclerosis and diastolic heart failure,” Hypertens. Res. 27(9), 625–631 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Nürnberger, S. Dammer, A. O. Saez, T. Philipp, and R. Schäfers, “Diastolic blood pressure is an important determinant of augmentation index and pulse wave velocity in young, healthy males,” J. Hum. Hypertens. 17(3), 153–158 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

J. Blacher, R. Asmar, S. Djane, G. M. London, and M. E. Safar, “Aortic pulse wave velocity as a marker of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients,” Hypertension 33(5), 1111–1117 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Folgering, “The pathophysiology of hyperventilation syndrome,” Monaldi archives for chest disease = Archivio Monaldi per le malattie del torace 54, 365–372 (1999).

1995 (1)

J. W. Berthold, “Historical review of microbend fiber-optic sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1193–1199 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

J. F. Fieselmann, M. S. Hendryx, C. M. Helms, and D. S. Wakefield, “Respiratory rate predicts cardiopulmonary arrest for internal medicine inpatients,” J. Gen. Intern. Med. 8(7), 354–360 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Francis, M. Wen, S. Yin, and C. M. Uang, “Submicrometer displacement sensing using inner-product multimode fiber speckle fields,” Appl. Opt. 32(25), 4685–4689 (1993).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

D. S. Cowley and P. P. Roy-Byrne, “Hyperventilation and panic disorder,” Am. J. Med. 83(5), 929–937 (1987).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

J. C. Missri and S. Alexander, “Hyperventilation syndrome: A brief review,” JAMA 240(19), 2093–2096 (1978).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

B. Gribbin, A. Steptoe, and P. Sleight, “Pulse wave velocity as a measure of blood pressure change,” Psychophysiology 13(1), 86–90 (1976).
[Crossref]

1922 (1)

J. C. Bramwell and A. V. Hill, “The velocity of pulse wave in man,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 93(652), 298–306 (1922).
[Crossref]

Agdarov, S.

T. Sirkis, Y. Beiderman, S. Agdarov, Y. Beiderman, and Z. Zalevsky, “Fiber sensor for non-contact estimation of vital bio-signs,” Opt. Commun. 391, 63–67 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alarhabi, A. Y.

A. Y. Alarhabi, M. S. Mohamed, S. Ibrahim, T. M. Hun, K. I. Musa, and Z. Yusof, “Pulse wave velocity as a marker of severity of coronary artery disease,” J. Clin. Hypertens. (Hoboken, NJ, U. S.) 11(1), 17–21 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alexander, S.

J. C. Missri and S. Alexander, “Hyperventilation syndrome: A brief review,” JAMA 240(19), 2093–2096 (1978).
[Crossref]

Allsop, T. D.

T. D. Allsop, T. Earthrowl, R. Revees, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, B. W. Jones, and I. Bennion, “Application of long-period grating sensors to respiratory function monitoring,” in Smart Medical and Biomedical Sensor Technology II (International Society for Optics and Photonics), pp. 148–156 (2004).

Asmar, R.

J. Blacher, R. Asmar, S. Djane, G. M. London, and M. E. Safar, “Aortic pulse wave velocity as a marker of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients,” Hypertension 33(5), 1111–1117 (1999).
[Crossref]

Baran, P. M.

L. Dziuda, F. W. Skibniewski, M. Krej, and P. M. Baran, “Fiber Bragg grating-based sensor for monitoring respiration and heart activity during magnetic resonance imaging examinations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 057006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bashte, T. M.

T. M. Bashte, Hydraulic Machines and Drives (Moscow), (1970).

Beiderman, Y.

T. Sirkis, Y. Beiderman, S. Agdarov, Y. Beiderman, and Z. Zalevsky, “Fiber sensor for non-contact estimation of vital bio-signs,” Opt. Commun. 391, 63–67 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sirkis, Y. Beiderman, S. Agdarov, Y. Beiderman, and Z. Zalevsky, “Fiber sensor for non-contact estimation of vital bio-signs,” Opt. Commun. 391, 63–67 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zalevsky, Y. Beiderman, I. Margalit, S. Gingold, M. Teicher, V. Mico, and J. Garcia, “Simultaneous remote extraction of multiple speech sources and heart beats from secondary speckles pattern,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21566–21580 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bennett, J.

W. SpillmanJr, M. Mayer, J. Bennett, J. Gong, K. Meissner, B. Davis, R. Claus, A. MuelenaerJr, and X. Xu, “A ‘smart’bed for non-intrusive monitoring of patient physiological factors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(8), 1614–1620 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bennion, I.

T. D. Allsop, T. Earthrowl, R. Revees, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, B. W. Jones, and I. Bennion, “Application of long-period grating sensors to respiratory function monitoring,” in Smart Medical and Biomedical Sensor Technology II (International Society for Optics and Photonics), pp. 148–156 (2004).

Berthold, J. W.

J. W. Berthold, “Historical review of microbend fiber-optic sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1193–1199 (1995).
[Crossref]

Blacher, J.

J. Blacher, R. Asmar, S. Djane, G. M. London, and M. E. Safar, “Aortic pulse wave velocity as a marker of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients,” Hypertension 33(5), 1111–1117 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bonarjee, V. V.

V. V. Bonarjee, “Arterial stiffness: a prognostic marker in coronary heart disease. available methods and clinical application,” Front. Cardiovasc. Med. 5, 64 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bramwell, J. C.

J. C. Bramwell and A. V. Hill, “The velocity of pulse wave in man,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 93(652), 298–306 (1922).
[Crossref]

Caponero, M.

M. Ciocchetti, C. Massaroni, P. Saccomandi, M. Caponero, A. Polimadei, D. Formica, and E. Schena, “Smart textile based on fiber bragg grating sensors for respiratory monitoring: Design and preliminary trials,” Biosensors 5(3), 602–615 (2015).
[Crossref]

Caponero, M. A.

C. Massaroni, P. Saccomandi, D. Formica, D. L. Presti, M. A. Caponero, G. Di Tomaso, F. Giurazza, M. Muto, and E. Schena, “Design and feasibility assessment of a magnetic resonance-compatible smart textile based on fiber Bragg grating sensors for respiratory monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(22), 8103–8110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

M. J. Murphy, K. M. Tichauer, L. Sun, X. Chen, and T. Y. Lee, “Mean transit time as an index of cerebral perfusion pressure in experimental systemic hypotension,” Physiol. Meas. 32(4), 395–405 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

X. Yang, Z. Chen, C. S. M. Elvin, L. H. Y. Janice, S. H. Ng, J. T. Teo, and R. Wu, “Textile fiber optic microbend sensor used for heartbeat and respiration monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(2), 757–761 (2015).
[Crossref]

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L. Dziuda, F. W. Skibniewski, M. Krej, and P. M. Baran, “Fiber Bragg grating-based sensor for monitoring respiration and heart activity during magnetic resonance imaging examinations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 057006 (2013).
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X. Yang, Z. Chen, C. S. M. Elvin, L. H. Y. Janice, S. H. Ng, J. T. Teo, and R. Wu, “Textile fiber optic microbend sensor used for heartbeat and respiration monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(2), 757–761 (2015).
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Friedman, N.

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J. F. Fieselmann, M. S. Hendryx, C. M. Helms, and D. S. Wakefield, “Respiratory rate predicts cardiopulmonary arrest for internal medicine inpatients,” J. Gen. Intern. Med. 8(7), 354–360 (1993).
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A. Y. Alarhabi, M. S. Mohamed, S. Ibrahim, T. M. Hun, K. I. Musa, and Z. Yusof, “Pulse wave velocity as a marker of severity of coronary artery disease,” J. Clin. Hypertens. (Hoboken, NJ, U. S.) 11(1), 17–21 (2009).
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J. E. Schwartz, P. U. Feig, and J. L. Izzo Jr, “Pulse Wave Velocities Derived From Cuff Ambulatory Pulse Wave Analysis: Effects of Age and Systolic Blood Pressure,” Hypertension 74(1), 111–116 (2019).
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X. Yang, Z. Chen, C. S. M. Elvin, L. H. Y. Janice, S. H. Ng, J. T. Teo, and R. Wu, “Textile fiber optic microbend sensor used for heartbeat and respiration monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(2), 757–761 (2015).
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Jones, B. W.

T. D. Allsop, T. Earthrowl, R. Revees, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, B. W. Jones, and I. Bennion, “Application of long-period grating sensors to respiratory function monitoring,” in Smart Medical and Biomedical Sensor Technology II (International Society for Optics and Photonics), pp. 148–156 (2004).

Kei, P. L.

Z. Chen, D. Lau, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, X. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Simultaneous measurement of breathing rate and heart rate using a microbend multimode fiber optic sensor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 057001 (2014).
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R. Mukkamala, J. O. Hahn, O. T. Inan, L. K. Mestha, C. S. Kim, H. Töreyin, and S. Kyal, “Toward ubiquitous blood pressure monitoring via pulse transit time: theory and practice,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(8), 1879–1901 (2015).
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Y. Koji, H. Tomiyama, H. Ichihashi, T. Nagae, N. Tanaka, K. Takazawa, S. Ishimaru, and A. Yamashina, “Comparison of ankle-brachial pressure index and pulse wave velocity as markers of the presence of coronary artery disease in subjects with a high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease,” Am. J. Cardiol. 94(7), 868–872 (2004).
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M. Yambe, H. Tomiyama, Y. Hirayama, Z. Gulniza, Y. Takata, Y. Koji, K. Motobe, and A. Yamashina, “Arterial stiffening as a possible risk factor for both atherosclerosis and diastolic heart failure,” Hypertens. Res. 27(9), 625–631 (2004).
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A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depré, “Optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for healthcare monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1215–1222 (2008).
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L. Dziuda, F. W. Skibniewski, M. Krej, and P. M. Baran, “Fiber Bragg grating-based sensor for monitoring respiration and heart activity during magnetic resonance imaging examinations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 057006 (2013).
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L. Dziuda, F. W. Skibniewski, M. Krej, and J. Lewandowski, “Monitoring respiration and cardiac activity using fiber Bragg grating-based sensor,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(7), 1934–1942 (2012).
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L. J. Epstein, D. Kristo, P. J. Strollo, N. Friedman, A. Malhotra, S. P. Patil, K. Ramar, R. Rogers, R. J. Schwab, and E. M. Weaver, “Clinical guideline for the evaluation, management and long-term care of obstructive sleep apnea in adults,” J. Clin. Sleep Med. 05(03), 263–276 (2009).
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R. Mukkamala, J. O. Hahn, O. T. Inan, L. K. Mestha, C. S. Kim, H. Töreyin, and S. Kyal, “Toward ubiquitous blood pressure monitoring via pulse transit time: theory and practice,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(8), 1879–1901 (2015).
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Lau, D.

Z. Chen, D. Lau, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, X. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Simultaneous measurement of breathing rate and heart rate using a microbend multimode fiber optic sensor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 057001 (2014).
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L. Dziuda, F. W. Skibniewski, M. Krej, and J. Lewandowski, “Monitoring respiration and cardiac activity using fiber Bragg grating-based sensor,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(7), 1934–1942 (2012).
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Li, B. Y.

X. N. Liu, H. Q. Gao, B. Y. Li, M. Cheng, Y. B. Ma, Z. M. Zhang, X. M. Gao, Y. P. Liu, and M. Wang, “Pulse wave velocity as a marker of arteriosclerosis and its comorbidities in Chinese patients,” Hypertens. Res. 30(3), 237–242 (2007).
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C. J. Deepu, Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, X. Yang, and Y. Lian, “A smart cushion for real-time heart rate monitoring,” in 2012 IEEE biomedical circuits and systems conference (BioCAS), pp. 53–56 (2012).

Lim, H. E.

E. J. Kim, C. G. Park, J. Park, S. Suh, C. U. Choi, J. W. Kim, S. Kim, H. E. Lim, S. W. Rha, and H. S. Seo, “Relationship between blood pressure parameters and pulse wave velocity in normotensive and hypertensive subjects: invasive study,” J. Hum. Hypertens. 21(2), 141–148 (2007).
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Linnes, J. C.

O. S. Hoilett, A. M. Twibell, R. Srivastava, and J. C. Linnes, “Kick LL: A Smartwatch for Monitoring Respiration and Heart Rate using Photoplethysmography,” in 2018 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), pp. 3821–3824 (2018).

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J. Wo, H. Wang, Q. Sun, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Noninvasive respiration movement sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser with beat frequency interrogation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 017003 (2014).
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X. N. Liu, H. Q. Gao, B. Y. Li, M. Cheng, Y. B. Ma, Z. M. Zhang, X. M. Gao, Y. P. Liu, and M. Wang, “Pulse wave velocity as a marker of arteriosclerosis and its comorbidities in Chinese patients,” Hypertens. Res. 30(3), 237–242 (2007).
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X. N. Liu, H. Q. Gao, B. Y. Li, M. Cheng, Y. B. Ma, Z. M. Zhang, X. M. Gao, Y. P. Liu, and M. Wang, “Pulse wave velocity as a marker of arteriosclerosis and its comorbidities in Chinese patients,” Hypertens. Res. 30(3), 237–242 (2007).
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J. Blacher, R. Asmar, S. Djane, G. M. London, and M. E. Safar, “Aortic pulse wave velocity as a marker of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients,” Hypertension 33(5), 1111–1117 (1999).
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X. N. Liu, H. Q. Gao, B. Y. Li, M. Cheng, Y. B. Ma, Z. M. Zhang, X. M. Gao, Y. P. Liu, and M. Wang, “Pulse wave velocity as a marker of arteriosclerosis and its comorbidities in Chinese patients,” Hypertens. Res. 30(3), 237–242 (2007).
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R. Wang, W. Jia, Z. H. Mao, R. J. Sclabassi, and M. Sun, “Cuff-free blood pressure estimation using pulse transit time and heart rate,” in 2014 12th international conference on signal processing (ICSP), pp. 115–118 (2014).

Margalit, I.

Massaroni, C.

C. Massaroni, P. Saccomandi, D. Formica, D. L. Presti, M. A. Caponero, G. Di Tomaso, F. Giurazza, M. Muto, and E. Schena, “Design and feasibility assessment of a magnetic resonance-compatible smart textile based on fiber Bragg grating sensors for respiratory monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(22), 8103–8110 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Ciocchetti, C. Massaroni, P. Saccomandi, M. Caponero, A. Polimadei, D. Formica, and E. Schena, “Smart textile based on fiber bragg grating sensors for respiratory monitoring: Design and preliminary trials,” Biosensors 5(3), 602–615 (2015).
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Meissner, K.

W. SpillmanJr, M. Mayer, J. Bennett, J. Gong, K. Meissner, B. Davis, R. Claus, A. MuelenaerJr, and X. Xu, “A ‘smart’bed for non-intrusive monitoring of patient physiological factors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(8), 1614–1620 (2004).
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R. Mukkamala, J. O. Hahn, O. T. Inan, L. K. Mestha, C. S. Kim, H. Töreyin, and S. Kyal, “Toward ubiquitous blood pressure monitoring via pulse transit time: theory and practice,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(8), 1879–1901 (2015).
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Miller, M.

T. D. Allsop, T. Earthrowl, R. Revees, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, B. W. Jones, and I. Bennion, “Application of long-period grating sensors to respiratory function monitoring,” in Smart Medical and Biomedical Sensor Technology II (International Society for Optics and Photonics), pp. 148–156 (2004).

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Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, and X. Yang, “Plastic optical fiber microbend sensor used as breathing sensor,” in SENSORS, 2012 IEEE, pp. 1–4 (2012).

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M. Nishyama, M. Miyamoto, and K. Watanabe, “Respiration and body movement analysis during sleep in bed using hetero-core fiber optic pressure sensors without constraint to human activity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 017002 (2011).
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R. Wang, W. Jia, Z. H. Mao, R. J. Sclabassi, and M. Sun, “Cuff-free blood pressure estimation using pulse transit time and heart rate,” in 2014 12th international conference on signal processing (ICSP), pp. 115–118 (2014).

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J. Wo, H. Wang, Q. Sun, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Noninvasive respiration movement sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser with beat frequency interrogation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 017003 (2014).
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Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, and X. Yang, “Plastic optical fiber microbend sensor used as breathing sensor,” in SENSORS, 2012 IEEE, pp. 1–4 (2012).

Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, and X. Yang, “In-bed fibre optic breathing and movement sensor for non-intrusive monitoring,” in Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications IX (International Society for Optics and Photonics), p. 71730P (2009).

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M. J. Murphy, K. M. Tichauer, L. Sun, X. Chen, and T. Y. Lee, “Mean transit time as an index of cerebral perfusion pressure in experimental systemic hypotension,” Physiol. Meas. 32(4), 395–405 (2011).
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M. Nishyama, M. Miyamoto, and K. Watanabe, “Respiration and body movement analysis during sleep in bed using hetero-core fiber optic pressure sensors without constraint to human activity,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 017002 (2011).
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L. J. Epstein, D. Kristo, P. J. Strollo, N. Friedman, A. Malhotra, S. P. Patil, K. Ramar, R. Rogers, R. J. Schwab, and E. M. Weaver, “Clinical guideline for the evaluation, management and long-term care of obstructive sleep apnea in adults,” J. Clin. Sleep Med. 05(03), 263–276 (2009).
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T. D. Allsop, T. Earthrowl, R. Revees, D. J. Webb, M. Miller, B. W. Jones, and I. Bennion, “Application of long-period grating sensors to respiratory function monitoring,” in Smart Medical and Biomedical Sensor Technology II (International Society for Optics and Photonics), pp. 148–156 (2004).

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Witt, J.

A. Grillet, D. Kinet, J. Witt, M. Schukar, K. Krebber, F. Pirotte, and A. Depré, “Optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for healthcare monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(7), 1215–1222 (2008).
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J. Wo, H. Wang, Q. Sun, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Noninvasive respiration movement sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser with beat frequency interrogation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 017003 (2014).
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X. Yang, Z. Chen, C. S. M. Elvin, L. H. Y. Janice, S. H. Ng, J. T. Teo, and R. Wu, “Textile fiber optic microbend sensor used for heartbeat and respiration monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(2), 757–761 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

W. SpillmanJr, M. Mayer, J. Bennett, J. Gong, K. Meissner, B. Davis, R. Claus, A. MuelenaerJr, and X. Xu, “A ‘smart’bed for non-intrusive monitoring of patient physiological factors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(8), 1614–1620 (2004).
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Y. Koji, H. Tomiyama, H. Ichihashi, T. Nagae, N. Tanaka, K. Takazawa, S. Ishimaru, and A. Yamashina, “Comparison of ankle-brachial pressure index and pulse wave velocity as markers of the presence of coronary artery disease in subjects with a high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease,” Am. J. Cardiol. 94(7), 868–872 (2004).
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M. Yambe, H. Tomiyama, Y. Hirayama, Z. Gulniza, Y. Takata, Y. Koji, K. Motobe, and A. Yamashina, “Arterial stiffening as a possible risk factor for both atherosclerosis and diastolic heart failure,” Hypertens. Res. 27(9), 625–631 (2004).
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X. Ding, B. P. Yan, Y. T. Zhang, J. Liu, N. Zhao, and H. K. Tsang, “Pulse transit time based continuous cuffless blood pressure estimation: A new extension and a comprehensive evaluation,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11554 (2017).
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X. Yang, Z. Chen, C. S. M. Elvin, L. H. Y. Janice, S. H. Ng, J. T. Teo, and R. Wu, “Textile fiber optic microbend sensor used for heartbeat and respiration monitoring,” IEEE Sens. J. 15(2), 757–761 (2015).
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Z. Chen, D. Lau, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, X. Yang, and P. L. Kei, “Simultaneous measurement of breathing rate and heart rate using a microbend multimode fiber optic sensor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(5), 057001 (2014).
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Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, and X. Yang, “In-bed fibre optic breathing and movement sensor for non-intrusive monitoring,” in Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications IX (International Society for Optics and Photonics), p. 71730P (2009).

Z. Chen, J. T. Teo, S. H. Ng, and X. Yang, “Plastic optical fiber microbend sensor used as breathing sensor,” in SENSORS, 2012 IEEE, pp. 1–4 (2012).

Yin, S.

Yusof, Z.

A. Y. Alarhabi, M. S. Mohamed, S. Ibrahim, T. M. Hun, K. I. Musa, and Z. Yusof, “Pulse wave velocity as a marker of severity of coronary artery disease,” J. Clin. Hypertens. (Hoboken, NJ, U. S.) 11(1), 17–21 (2009).
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T. Sirkis, Y. Beiderman, S. Agdarov, Y. Beiderman, and Z. Zalevsky, “Fiber sensor for non-contact estimation of vital bio-signs,” Opt. Commun. 391, 63–67 (2017).
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S. Šprager and D. Zazula, “Detection of heartbeat and respiration from optical interferometric signal by using wavelet transform,” Comput. Meth. Prog. Bio. 111(1), 41–51 (2013).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Pulse wave detection configuration. a) Wrist sensing. b) Laser and the illuminated fiber. c) The heart and wrist simultaneously detected speckle patterns. d) Heart sensing. e) The fibers pointed towards the camera in order to capture the speckle patterns.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Implemented optical configuration for remote measurement of heart rate, respiration rate and pulse wave velocity. a) Ref. [42] b) Ref. [43] c) Ref. [44].
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparison between speckle processing algorithms applied to the same recording.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Pulse wave recording and heart rate detection by MMF sensor.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Speckle pattern intensity variation during the heartbeat detection experiment. Frame (a) was in the lower intensity range compared with frame (b) showing one of the peak intensities (The same measurement as per Fig. 4).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Measurement of waveform propagation from the wrist area.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Fast breathing detection with sampling frequency of 100 Hz with the sensing part connected to the heart area.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Simultaneous detection of heart and respiratory rate with the subject breathing normally.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Simultaneous heart beats and breathing frequency detection.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Pressure wave simultaneous recording from the wrist and the heart; Heart-red, Wrist-blue.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Pulse wave velocity vs. pulse pressure of five individuals.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Pulse wave velocity vs. systolic blood pressure of five individuals.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of the tested multimode fibers.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A 0 ( x , y ) = m = 0 M a 0 m ( x , y ) e j φ 0 m ( x , y ) ,
I ( x , y ) = | A 0 ( x , y ) | 2 = m = 0 M n = 0 M a 0 m ( x , y ) a 0 n ( x , y ) e j ( φ 0 m ( x , y ) φ 0 n ( x , y ) ) ,
I T o t a l ( f + 1 , f ) = A l l P i x e l s | I f + 1 ( x , y ) I f ( x , y ) | 2 ,
P W V = L P T T [ m / s e c ] ,
P W V = E h ρ d [ m / s e c ] ,
Δ p = ρ V m a x P W V .
Δ p = 2 ρ Δ D D P W V 2 ,