Abstract

The combined data from the ESA Mobile Raman Polarization and Water Vapor Lidar (EMORAL), the LATMOS Bistatic Doppler Cloud Radar System for Atmospheric Studies (BASTA), and the INOE Microwave Radiometer (HATPRO-G2) have been used to explore the synergy for the spatio-temporal discrimination of polarization and molecular, aerosol and cloud scattering. The threshold-based methodology is proposed to perform an aerosol-cloud typing using the three instruments. It is demonstrated for 24 hours of observations on 10 June 2019 in Rzecin, Poland. A new scheme for target classification, developed collaboratively by the FUW and the OUC, can help determine molecules, aerosol (spherical, non-spherical, fine, coarse), cloud phase (liquid, ice, supercooled droplets) and precipitation (drizzle, rain). For molecular, aerosol, and cloud discrimination, the thresholds are set on the backward scattering ratio, the linear particle depolarization ratio and the backscatter colour ratio, all calculated from lidar signals. For the cloud phase and precipitation categorization, the thresholds are set on the reflectivity and the Doppler velocity derived from cloud radar signals. For boundary layer particles, precipitation, and supercooled droplets separation, the thresholds are set on the profiles of temperature and relative humidity obtained by the microwave radiometer. The algorithm is able to perform separation even under complicated meteorological situation, as in the presented case study.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (2)

D. Wang, I. S. Stachlewska, X. Song, B. Heese, and A. Nemuc, “Variability of boundary layer over an urban continental site based on 10 years of active remote sensing observations in Warsaw,” Remote Sens. 12(2), 340 (2020).
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2019 (4)

D. Wang, D. Szczepanik, and I. S. Stachlewska, “Interrelations between surface, boundary layer, and columnar aerosol properties derived in summer and early autumn over a continental urban site in Warsaw, Poland,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(20), 13097–13128 (2019).
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K. Fragkos, B. Antonescu, D. M. Giles, D. Ene, M. Boldeanu, G. A. Efstathiou, L. Belegante, and D. Nicolae, “Assessment of the total precipitable water from a sun photometer, microwave radiometer and radiosondes at a continental site in southeastern Europe,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1979–1997 (2019).
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E. Marinou, M. Tesche, A. Nenes, A. Ansmann, J. Schrod, D. Mamali, A. Tsekeri, M. Pikridas, H. Baars, R. Engelmann, K. A. Voudouri, S. Solomos, J. Sciare, S. Groß, F. Ewald, and V. Amiridis, “Retrieval of ice-nucleating particle concentrations from lidar observations and comparison with UAV in situ measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(17), 11315–11342 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Listowski, J. Delanoë, A. Kirchgaessner, T. Lachlan-Cope, and J. King, “Antarctic clouds, supercooled liquid water and mixed phase, investigated with DARDAR: geographical and seasonal variations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(10), 6771–6808 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

E. Gryspeerdt, O. Sourdeval, J. Quaas, J. Delanoë, M. Krämer, and P. Kühne, “Ice crystal number concentration estimates from lidar–radar satellite remote sensing – Part 2: Controls on the ice crystal number concentration,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(19), 14351–14370 (2018).
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Z. Sokol, J. Minářová, and P. Novák, “Classification of Hydrometeors Using Measurements of the Ka-Band Cloud Radar Installed at the Milešovka Mountain (Central Europe),” Remote Sens. 10(11), 1674 (2018).
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D. Nicolae, J. Vasilescu, C. Talianu, I. Binietoglou, V. Nicolae, S. Andrei, and B. Antonescu, “A neural network aerosol-typing algorithm based on lidar data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(19), 14511–14537 (2018).
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L. D. Labzovskii, A. Papayannis, I. Binietoglou, R. F. Banks, J. M. Baldasano, F. Toanca, C. G. Tzanis, and J. Christodoulakis, “Relative humidity vertical profiling using lidar-based synergistic methods in the framework of the Hygra-CD campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 36(1), 213–229 (2018).
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I. S. Stachlewska, M. Samson, O. Zawadzka, K. M. Harenda, L. Janicka, P. Poczta, D. Szczepanik, B. Heese, D. Wang, K. Borek, E. Tetoni, E. Proestakis, N. Siomos, A. Nemuc, B. H. Chojnicki, K. M. Markowicz, A. Pietruczuk, A. Szkop, D. Althausen, K. Stebel, D. Schuettemeyer, and C. Zehner, “Modification of Local Urban Aerosol Properties by Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosol,” Remote Sens. 10(3), 412 (2018).
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C. Córdoba-Jabonero, M. Sicard, A. Ansmann, A. del Águila, and H. Baars, “Separation of the optical and mass features of particle components in different aerosol mixtures by using POLIPHON retrievals in synergy with continuous polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar (P-MPL) measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(8), 4775–4795 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

V. V. Zuev, V. D. Burlakov, A. V. Nevzorov, V. L. Pravdin, E. S. Savelieva, and V. V. Gerasimov, “30-year lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer state over Tomsk (Western Siberia, Russia),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(4), 3067–3081 (2017).
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L. Janicka, I. S. Stachlewska, I. Veselovskii, and H. Baars, “Temporal variations in optical and microphysical properties of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol derived from daytime Raman lidar observations over Warsaw, Poland,” Atmos. Environ. 169, 162–174 (2017).
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I. S. Stachlewska, O. Zawadzka, and R. Engelmann, “Effect of heat wave conditions on aerosol optical properties derived from satellite and ground-based remote sensing over Poland,” Remote Sens. 9(11), 1199 (2017).
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S. K. Das, M. Konwar, K. Chakravarty, and S. M. Deshpande, “Raindrop size distribution of different cloud types over the Western Ghats using simultaneous measurements from micro–rain radar and disdrometer,” Atmos. Res. 186, 72–82 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. S. Stachlewska, M. Costa-Surós, and D. Althausen, “Raman lidar water vapour profiling over Warsaw, Poland,” Atmos. Res. 194, 258–267 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Baars, P. Seifert, R. Engelmann, and U. Wandinger, “Target categorization of aerosol and clouds by continuous multiwavelength-polarization lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(9), 3175–3201 (2017).
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2016 (6)

J. H. Seinfeld, C. Bretherton, K. S. Carslaw, H. Coe, P. J. DeMott, E. J. Dunlea, G. Feingold, S. Ghan, A. B. Guenther, R. Kahn, and I. Kraucunas, “Improving our fundamental understanding of the role of aerosol−cloud interactions in the climate system,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(21), 5781–5790 (2016).
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K. Markowicz, M. T. Chilinski, J. Lisok, O. Zawadzka, I. S. Stachlewska, L. Janicka, A. Rozwadowska, P. Makuch, P. Pakszys, T. Zielinski, T. Petelski, M. Posyniak, A. Pietruczuk, A. Szkop, and D. L. Westphal, “Study of aerosol optical properties during long-range transport of biomass burning from Canada to Central Europe in July 2013,” J. Aeros. Sci. 101, 156–173 (2016).
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K. Sarna and H. W. J. Russchenberg, “Ground-based remote sensing scheme for monitoring aerosol–cloud interactions,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(3), 1039–1050 (2016).
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H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
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J. Delanoë, A. Protat, J. P. Vinson, W. Brett, C. Caudoux, F. Bertrand, J. Parent du Chatelet, R. Hallali, L. Barthes, M. Haeffelin, and J. C. Dupont, “BASTA: A 95-GHz FMCW Doppler radar for cloud and fog studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 33(5), 1023–1038 (2016).
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V. Freudenthaler, “About the effects of polarising optics on lidar signals and the Δ90 calibration,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 9(9), 4181–4255 (2016).
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2015 (3)

J. P. Vernier, T. D. Fairlie, M. Natarajan, F. G. Wienhold, J. Bian, B. G. Martinsson, S. Crumeyrolle, L. W. Thomason, and K. M. Bedka, “Increase in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol levels and its potential connection with Asian pollution,” J. Geophys. Res. 120(4), 1608–1619 (2015).
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S. P. Burton, J. W. Hair, M. Kahnert, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, T. A. Berkoff, S. T. Seaman, J. E. Collins, M. A. Fenn, and R. R. Rogers, “Observations of the spectral dependence of linear particle depolarization ratio of aerosol using NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13453–13473 (2015).
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M. D. Fielding, J. C. Chiu, R. J. Hogan, G. Feingold, E. Eloranta, E. J. O’Connor, and M. P. Cadeddu, “Joint retrievals of cloud and drizzle in marine boundary layer clouds using ground-based radar, lidar and zenith radiances,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8(7), 2663–2683 (2015).
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2014 (3)

S. P. Burton, M. A. Vaughan, R. A. Ferrare, and C. A. Hostetler, “Separating mixtures of aerosol types in airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar data,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(2), 419–436 (2014).
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A. Borovoi, Y. Balin, G. Kokhanenko, I. Penner, A. Konoshonkin, and N. Kustova, “Layers of quasi-horizontally oriented ice crystals in cirrus clouds observed by a two-wavelength polarization lidar,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24566–24573 (2014).
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G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, A. Apituley, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, H. Linné, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. D’Amico, I. Mattis, L. Mona, U. Wandinger, V. Amiridis, L. AladosArboledas, D. Nicolae, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(8), 2389–2409 (2014).
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2013 (4)

A. Nemuc, J. Vasilescu, C. Talianu, L. Belegante, and D. Nicolae, “Assessment of aerosol’s mass concentrations from measured linear particle depolarization ratio (vertically resolved) and simulations,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(11), 3243–3255 (2013).
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S. Groß, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and A. Petzold, “Aerosol classification by airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(5), 2487–2505 (2013).
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M. Ceccaldi, J. Delanoë, R. J. Hogan, N. L. Pounder, A. Protat, and J. Pelon, “From CloudSat-CALIPSO to EarthCare: Evolution of the DARDAR cloud classification and its comparison to airborne radar-lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(14), 7962–7981 (2013).
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J. Delanoë, A. Protat, O. Jourdan, J. Pelon, M. Papazzoni, R. Dupuy, J. F. Gayet, and C. Jouan, “Comparison of airborne in situ, airborne radar-lidar, and spaceborne radar-lidar retrievals of polar ice cloud properties sampled during the POLARCAT campaign,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 30(1), 57–73 (2013).
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2012 (3)

Z. B. Zhang, A. S. Ackerman, G. Feingold, S. Platnick, R. Pincus, and H. W. Xue, “Effects of cloud horizontal inhomogeneity and drizzle on remote sensing of cloud droplet effective radius: case studies based on large-eddy simulations,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D19), D19208 (2012).
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S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements – methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, M. Tesche, and U. Wandinger, “Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajökull/Grimsvötn volcanic plumes,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(20), 9399–9415 (2012).
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2011 (2)

K. Srivastava, P. Pant, P. Hegde, S. Singh, U. C. Dumka, M. Naja, N. Singh, and Y. Bhavanikumar, “The Influence of a South Asian Dust Storm on Aerosol Radiative Forcing at a High-Altitude Station in Central Himalayas,” Int. J. Remote. Sens. 32(22), 7827–7845 (2011).
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Z. Li, F. Niu, J. Fan, Y. Liu, D. Rosenfeld, and Y. Ding, “Long-term impacts of aerosol on the vertical development of clouds and precipitation,” Nat. Geosci. 4(12), 888–894 (2011).
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2010 (7)

P. Hasekamp, “Capability of multi-viewing-angle photo-polarimetric measurements for the simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3(4), 839–851 (2010).
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J. Delanoë and R. J. Hogan, “Combined CloudSat–CALIPSO–MODIS retrievals of the properties of ice clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00H29 (2010).
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D. Zhang, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, “A global view of midlevel liquid-layer topped stratiform cloud distribution and phase partition from CALIPSO and CloudSat measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00K30 (2010).
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I. S. Stachlewska and C. Ritter, “On retrieval of lidar extinction profiles using Two-Stream and Raman techniques,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(6), 2813–2824 (2010).
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D. Bouniol, A. Protat, J. Delanoé, J. Pelon, J. M. Piriou, F. Bouyssel, A. Tompkins, D. R. Wilson, Y. Morille, M. Haeffelin, E. J. O’Connor, R. Hogan, A. J. Illingworth, D. P. Donovan, and H. K. Baltink, “Using continuous ground-based radar and lidar measurements for evaluating the representation of clouds in four operational models,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 49(9), 1971–1991 (2010).
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C. Mätzler, P.W. Rosenkranz, and J. Cermak, “Microwave absorption of supercooled clouds and implications for the dielectric properties of water,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(D23), D23208 (2010).
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A. Dörnbrack, I. S. Stachlewska, C. Ritter, and R. Neuber, “Aerosol distribution around Svalbard during intense easterly winds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(4), 1473–1490 (2010).
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2009 (5)

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Knippertz, E. Bierwirth, D. Althausen, D. Mueller, and O. Schulz, “Vertical profiling of convective dust plumes in Southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus B 61(1), 340–353 (2009).
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D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
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Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, B. Getzewich, R. Kuehn, A. Omar, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO lidar cloud and aerosol discrimination: Version 2 algorithm and initial assessment of performance,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(7), 1198–1213 (2009).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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H. Omar, D. M. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. A. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. R. Rogers, R. A. Ferrare, K. P. Lee, R. E. Kuehn, and C. A. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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2008 (6)

F. Immler, R. Treffeisen, D. Engelbart, K. Kruger, and O. Schrems, “Cirrus, contrails, and ice supersaturated regions in high pressure systems at northern mid latitudes,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(6), 1689–1699 (2008).
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J. Heymsfield, A. Protat, D. Bouniol, R.T. Austin, R.J. Hogan, J. Delanoë, H. Okamoto, K. Sato, G. J. van Zadelhoff, D. P. Donovan, and Z. Wang, “Testing IWC retrieval methods using radar and ancillary measurements with in situ data,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 47(1), 135–163 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Delanoë and R. J. Hogan, “A variational scheme for retrieving ice cloud properties from combined radar, lidar and infrared radiometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(D7), D07204 (2008).
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H. M. Cho, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, S. L. Nasiri, Y. Hu, P. Minnis, C. Trepte, and D. Winker, “Depolarization ratio and attenuated backscatter for nine cloud types: analyses based on collocated CALIPSO lidar and MODIS measurements,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3931–3948 (2008).
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A. Reehorst, D. Brinker, M. Politovich, D. Serke, C. Ryerson, A. Pazmany, and F. Solheim, “Progress towards the remote sensing of aircraft icing hazards, in Remote Sensing Applications for Aviation Weather Hazard Detection and Decision Support,” Proc. SPIE 7088, 70880J (2008).
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B. Heese and M. Wiegner, “Vertical aerosol profiles from Raman polarization lidar observations during the dry season AMMA field campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D00C11 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D16), D16202 (2007).
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J. Illingworth, R. J. Hogan, E. J. O’Connor, D. Bouniol, M. E. Brooks, J. Delanoe, D. P. Donovan, J. D. Eastment, N. Gaussiat, J. W. F. Goddard, M. Haeffelin, H. K. Baltink, O. A. Krasnov, J. Pelon, J. M. Piriou, A. Protat, H. W. J. Russchenberg, A. Seifert, A. M. Tompkins, G. J. van Zadelhoff, F. Vinit, U. Willen, and D. R. Wilson,, and C. L. Wrench, “Cloudnet – continuous evaluation of cloud profiles in seven operational models using ground-based observations,” B. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(6), 883–898 (2007).
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J. Illingworth, R. J. Hogan, E. J. O’Connor, D. Bouniol, M. E. Brooks, J. Delanoe, D. P. Donovan, J. D. Eastment, N. Gaussiat, J. W. F. Goddard, M. Haeffelin, H. K. Baltink, O. A. Krasnov, J. Pelon, J. M. Piriou, A. Protat, H. W. J. Russchenberg, A. Seifert, A. M. Tompkins, G. J. van Zadelhoff, F. Vinit, U. Willen, and D. R. Wilson,, and C. L. Wrench, “Cloudnet – continuous evaluation of cloud profiles in seven operational models using ground-based observations,” B. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(6), 883–898 (2007).
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2005 (2)

E. J. O’Connor, R. J. Hogan, and A. J. Illingworth, “Retrieving Stratocumulus Drizzle Parameters Using Doppler Radar and Lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 44(1), 14–27 (2005).
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T. Rose, S. Crewell, U. Löhnert, and C. Simmer, “A network suitable microwave radiometer for operational monitoring of the cloudy atmosphere,” Atmos. Res. 75(3), 183–200 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, and I. V. Grigorov, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2.Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43(4), 977–989 (2004).
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R. J. Hogan, M. D. Behera, E. J. O’Connor, and A. J. Illingworth, “Estimate of the global distribution of stratiform supercooled liquid water clouds using the lite lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(5), L05106 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

R. J. Hogan, D. Bouniol, D. N. Ladd, E. J. O’Connor, and A. J. Illingworth, “Absolute calibration of 94/95-GHz radars using rain,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20(4), 572–580 (2003).
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J. L. Brenguier, H. Pawlowska, and L. Schüller, “Cloud microphysical and radiative properties for parameterization and satellite monitoring of the indirect effect of aerosol on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D15), 8632 (2003).
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2002 (3)

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, C. Mitrescu, and T. C. S. Team, “The Cloudsat mission and the A–train: A new dimension of space-based observations of clouds and precipitation,” B. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83(12), 1771–1790 (2002).
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M. J. McGill, D. Hlavka, W. Hart, V. S. Scott, J. Spinhirne, and B. Schmid, “Cloud physics lidar: Instrument description and initial measurement results,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3725–3734 (2002).
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Z. Wang and K. Sassen, “Cirrus cloud microphysical property retrieval using lidar and radar measurements. Part I: Algorithm description and comparison with in situ data,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 41(3), 218–229 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Z. Wang and K. Sassen, “Cloud type and macrophysical property retrieval using multiple remote sensors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 40(10), 1665–1682 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. Pawlowska and J.L. Brenguier, “Microphysical properties of stratocumulus clouds during ACE–2,” Tellus B 52(2), 868–887 (2000).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

Achtert, P.

H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ackerman, A. S.

Z. B. Zhang, A. S. Ackerman, G. Feingold, S. Platnick, R. Pincus, and H. W. Xue, “Effects of cloud horizontal inhomogeneity and drizzle on remote sensing of cloud droplet effective radius: case studies based on large-eddy simulations,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D19), D19208 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. Y.

H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
[Crossref]

AladosArboledas, L.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, A. Apituley, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, H. Linné, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. D’Amico, I. Mattis, L. Mona, U. Wandinger, V. Amiridis, L. AladosArboledas, D. Nicolae, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(8), 2389–2409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Althausen, D.

I. S. Stachlewska, M. Samson, O. Zawadzka, K. M. Harenda, L. Janicka, P. Poczta, D. Szczepanik, B. Heese, D. Wang, K. Borek, E. Tetoni, E. Proestakis, N. Siomos, A. Nemuc, B. H. Chojnicki, K. M. Markowicz, A. Pietruczuk, A. Szkop, D. Althausen, K. Stebel, D. Schuettemeyer, and C. Zehner, “Modification of Local Urban Aerosol Properties by Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosol,” Remote Sens. 10(3), 412 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. S. Stachlewska, M. Costa-Surós, and D. Althausen, “Raman lidar water vapour profiling over Warsaw, Poland,” Atmos. Res. 194, 258–267 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Knippertz, E. Bierwirth, D. Althausen, D. Mueller, and O. Schulz, “Vertical profiling of convective dust plumes in Southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus B 61(1), 340–353 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D16), D16202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Amiridis, V.

E. Marinou, M. Tesche, A. Nenes, A. Ansmann, J. Schrod, D. Mamali, A. Tsekeri, M. Pikridas, H. Baars, R. Engelmann, K. A. Voudouri, S. Solomos, J. Sciare, S. Groß, F. Ewald, and V. Amiridis, “Retrieval of ice-nucleating particle concentrations from lidar observations and comparison with UAV in situ measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(17), 11315–11342 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, A. Apituley, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, H. Linné, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. D’Amico, I. Mattis, L. Mona, U. Wandinger, V. Amiridis, L. AladosArboledas, D. Nicolae, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(8), 2389–2409 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, and I. V. Grigorov, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2.Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43(4), 977–989 (2004).
[Crossref]

Amodeo, A.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, A. Apituley, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, H. Linné, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. D’Amico, I. Mattis, L. Mona, U. Wandinger, V. Amiridis, L. AladosArboledas, D. Nicolae, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(8), 2389–2409 (2014).
[Crossref]

and Groß, S.

V. Freudenthaler, H. Linné, A. Chaikovski, D. Rabus, and S. and Groß, “EARLINET lidar quality assurance tools,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss, in review, 2018.

Andrei, S.

D. Nicolae, J. Vasilescu, C. Talianu, I. Binietoglou, V. Nicolae, S. Andrei, and B. Antonescu, “A neural network aerosol-typing algorithm based on lidar data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(19), 14511–14537 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ansmann, A.

E. Marinou, M. Tesche, A. Nenes, A. Ansmann, J. Schrod, D. Mamali, A. Tsekeri, M. Pikridas, H. Baars, R. Engelmann, K. A. Voudouri, S. Solomos, J. Sciare, S. Groß, F. Ewald, and V. Amiridis, “Retrieval of ice-nucleating particle concentrations from lidar observations and comparison with UAV in situ measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(17), 11315–11342 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Córdoba-Jabonero, M. Sicard, A. Ansmann, A. del Águila, and H. Baars, “Separation of the optical and mass features of particle components in different aerosol mixtures by using POLIPHON retrievals in synergy with continuous polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar (P-MPL) measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(8), 4775–4795 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, A. Apituley, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, H. Linné, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. D’Amico, I. Mattis, L. Mona, U. Wandinger, V. Amiridis, L. AladosArboledas, D. Nicolae, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(8), 2389–2409 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, M. Tesche, and U. Wandinger, “Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajökull/Grimsvötn volcanic plumes,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(20), 9399–9415 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Knippertz, E. Bierwirth, D. Althausen, D. Mueller, and O. Schulz, “Vertical profiling of convective dust plumes in Southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus B 61(1), 340–353 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D16), D16202 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, and I. V. Grigorov, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 2.Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43(4), 977–989 (2004).
[Crossref]

Antonescu, B.

K. Fragkos, B. Antonescu, D. M. Giles, D. Ene, M. Boldeanu, G. A. Efstathiou, L. Belegante, and D. Nicolae, “Assessment of the total precipitable water from a sun photometer, microwave radiometer and radiosondes at a continental site in southeastern Europe,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1979–1997 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Nicolae, J. Vasilescu, C. Talianu, I. Binietoglou, V. Nicolae, S. Andrei, and B. Antonescu, “A neural network aerosol-typing algorithm based on lidar data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(19), 14511–14537 (2018).
[Crossref]

Apituley, A.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, A. Apituley, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler, H. Linné, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. D’Amico, I. Mattis, L. Mona, U. Wandinger, V. Amiridis, L. AladosArboledas, D. Nicolae, and M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(8), 2389–2409 (2014).
[Crossref]

Artaxo, P.

H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
[Crossref]

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G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, C. Mitrescu, and T. C. S. Team, “The Cloudsat mission and the A–train: A new dimension of space-based observations of clouds and precipitation,” B. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83(12), 1771–1790 (2002).
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Austin, R.T.

J. Heymsfield, A. Protat, D. Bouniol, R.T. Austin, R.J. Hogan, J. Delanoë, H. Okamoto, K. Sato, G. J. van Zadelhoff, D. P. Donovan, and Z. Wang, “Testing IWC retrieval methods using radar and ancillary measurements with in situ data,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 47(1), 135–163 (2008).
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Baars, H.

E. Marinou, M. Tesche, A. Nenes, A. Ansmann, J. Schrod, D. Mamali, A. Tsekeri, M. Pikridas, H. Baars, R. Engelmann, K. A. Voudouri, S. Solomos, J. Sciare, S. Groß, F. Ewald, and V. Amiridis, “Retrieval of ice-nucleating particle concentrations from lidar observations and comparison with UAV in situ measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(17), 11315–11342 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Córdoba-Jabonero, M. Sicard, A. Ansmann, A. del Águila, and H. Baars, “Separation of the optical and mass features of particle components in different aerosol mixtures by using POLIPHON retrievals in synergy with continuous polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar (P-MPL) measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 11(8), 4775–4795 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Janicka, I. S. Stachlewska, I. Veselovskii, and H. Baars, “Temporal variations in optical and microphysical properties of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol derived from daytime Raman lidar observations over Warsaw, Poland,” Atmos. Environ. 169, 162–174 (2017).
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H. Baars, P. Seifert, R. Engelmann, and U. Wandinger, “Target categorization of aerosol and clouds by continuous multiwavelength-polarization lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 10(9), 3175–3201 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
[Crossref]

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L. D. Labzovskii, A. Papayannis, I. Binietoglou, R. F. Banks, J. M. Baldasano, F. Toanca, C. G. Tzanis, and J. Christodoulakis, “Relative humidity vertical profiling using lidar-based synergistic methods in the framework of the Hygra-CD campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 36(1), 213–229 (2018).
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Balin, Y.

Baltink, H. K.

D. Bouniol, A. Protat, J. Delanoé, J. Pelon, J. M. Piriou, F. Bouyssel, A. Tompkins, D. R. Wilson, Y. Morille, M. Haeffelin, E. J. O’Connor, R. Hogan, A. J. Illingworth, D. P. Donovan, and H. K. Baltink, “Using continuous ground-based radar and lidar measurements for evaluating the representation of clouds in four operational models,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 49(9), 1971–1991 (2010).
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Banks, R. F.

L. D. Labzovskii, A. Papayannis, I. Binietoglou, R. F. Banks, J. M. Baldasano, F. Toanca, C. G. Tzanis, and J. Christodoulakis, “Relative humidity vertical profiling using lidar-based synergistic methods in the framework of the Hygra-CD campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 36(1), 213–229 (2018).
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J. Delanoë, A. Protat, J. P. Vinson, W. Brett, C. Caudoux, F. Bertrand, J. Parent du Chatelet, R. Hallali, L. Barthes, M. Haeffelin, and J. C. Dupont, “BASTA: A 95-GHz FMCW Doppler radar for cloud and fog studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 33(5), 1023–1038 (2016).
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Bedka, K. M.

J. P. Vernier, T. D. Fairlie, M. Natarajan, F. G. Wienhold, J. Bian, B. G. Martinsson, S. Crumeyrolle, L. W. Thomason, and K. M. Bedka, “Increase in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol levels and its potential connection with Asian pollution,” J. Geophys. Res. 120(4), 1608–1619 (2015).
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Belegante, L.

K. Fragkos, B. Antonescu, D. M. Giles, D. Ene, M. Boldeanu, G. A. Efstathiou, L. Belegante, and D. Nicolae, “Assessment of the total precipitable water from a sun photometer, microwave radiometer and radiosondes at a continental site in southeastern Europe,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1979–1997 (2019).
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A. Nemuc, J. Vasilescu, C. Talianu, L. Belegante, and D. Nicolae, “Assessment of aerosol’s mass concentrations from measured linear particle depolarization ratio (vertically resolved) and simulations,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(11), 3243–3255 (2013).
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Benedetti, A.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, C. Mitrescu, and T. C. S. Team, “The Cloudsat mission and the A–train: A new dimension of space-based observations of clouds and precipitation,” B. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83(12), 1771–1790 (2002).
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Berkoff, T. A.

S. P. Burton, J. W. Hair, M. Kahnert, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, T. A. Berkoff, S. T. Seaman, J. E. Collins, M. A. Fenn, and R. R. Rogers, “Observations of the spectral dependence of linear particle depolarization ratio of aerosol using NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13453–13473 (2015).
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Bertrand, F.

J. Delanoë, A. Protat, J. P. Vinson, W. Brett, C. Caudoux, F. Bertrand, J. Parent du Chatelet, R. Hallali, L. Barthes, M. Haeffelin, and J. C. Dupont, “BASTA: A 95-GHz FMCW Doppler radar for cloud and fog studies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 33(5), 1023–1038 (2016).
[Crossref]

Beukes, J. P.

H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
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K. Srivastava, P. Pant, P. Hegde, S. Singh, U. C. Dumka, M. Naja, N. Singh, and Y. Bhavanikumar, “The Influence of a South Asian Dust Storm on Aerosol Radiative Forcing at a High-Altitude Station in Central Himalayas,” Int. J. Remote. Sens. 32(22), 7827–7845 (2011).
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J. P. Vernier, T. D. Fairlie, M. Natarajan, F. G. Wienhold, J. Bian, B. G. Martinsson, S. Crumeyrolle, L. W. Thomason, and K. M. Bedka, “Increase in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol levels and its potential connection with Asian pollution,” J. Geophys. Res. 120(4), 1608–1619 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bierwirth, E.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Knippertz, E. Bierwirth, D. Althausen, D. Mueller, and O. Schulz, “Vertical profiling of convective dust plumes in Southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus B 61(1), 340–353 (2009).
[Crossref]

Binietoglou, I.

L. D. Labzovskii, A. Papayannis, I. Binietoglou, R. F. Banks, J. M. Baldasano, F. Toanca, C. G. Tzanis, and J. Christodoulakis, “Relative humidity vertical profiling using lidar-based synergistic methods in the framework of the Hygra-CD campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 36(1), 213–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Nicolae, J. Vasilescu, C. Talianu, I. Binietoglou, V. Nicolae, S. Andrei, and B. Antonescu, “A neural network aerosol-typing algorithm based on lidar data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(19), 14511–14537 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bley, S.

H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
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Boain, R. J.

G. L. Stephens, D. G. Vane, R. J. Boain, G. G. Mace, K. Sassen, Z. Wang, A. J. Illingworth, E. J. O’Connor, W. B. Rossow, S. L. Durden, S. D. Miller, R. T. Austin, A. Benedetti, C. Mitrescu, and T. C. S. Team, “The Cloudsat mission and the A–train: A new dimension of space-based observations of clouds and precipitation,” B. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83(12), 1771–1790 (2002).
[Crossref]

Böckmann, C.

Bohlmann, S.

H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boldeanu, M.

K. Fragkos, B. Antonescu, D. M. Giles, D. Ene, M. Boldeanu, G. A. Efstathiou, L. Belegante, and D. Nicolae, “Assessment of the total precipitable water from a sun photometer, microwave radiometer and radiosondes at a continental site in southeastern Europe,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12(3), 1979–1997 (2019).
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S. Groß, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and A. Petzold, “Aerosol classification by airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(5), 2487–2505 (2013).
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S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar measurements – methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(1), 73–98 (2012).
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Groß, S.

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S. Groß, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, M. Wirth, A. Fix, and A. Petzold, “Aerosol classification by airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(5), 2487–2505 (2013).
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M. Ceccaldi, J. Delanoë, R. J. Hogan, N. L. Pounder, A. Protat, and J. Pelon, “From CloudSat-CALIPSO to EarthCare: Evolution of the DARDAR cloud classification and its comparison to airborne radar-lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 118(14), 7962–7981 (2013).
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E. J. O’Connor, R. J. Hogan, and A. J. Illingworth, “Retrieving Stratocumulus Drizzle Parameters Using Doppler Radar and Lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 44(1), 14–27 (2005).
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R. J. Hogan, M. D. Behera, E. J. O’Connor, and A. J. Illingworth, “Estimate of the global distribution of stratiform supercooled liquid water clouds using the lite lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(5), L05106 (2004).
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R. J. Hogan, D. Bouniol, D. N. Ladd, E. J. O’Connor, and A. J. Illingworth, “Absolute calibration of 94/95-GHz radars using rain,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20(4), 572–580 (2003).
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Hogan, R.J.

J. Heymsfield, A. Protat, D. Bouniol, R.T. Austin, R.J. Hogan, J. Delanoë, H. Okamoto, K. Sato, G. J. van Zadelhoff, D. P. Donovan, and Z. Wang, “Testing IWC retrieval methods using radar and ancillary measurements with in situ data,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 47(1), 135–163 (2008).
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H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
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Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, B. Getzewich, R. Kuehn, A. Omar, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO lidar cloud and aerosol discrimination: Version 2 algorithm and initial assessment of performance,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(7), 1198–1213 (2009).
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S. P. Burton, J. W. Hair, M. Kahnert, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, T. A. Berkoff, S. T. Seaman, J. E. Collins, M. A. Fenn, and R. R. Rogers, “Observations of the spectral dependence of linear particle depolarization ratio of aerosol using NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13453–13473 (2015).
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S. P. Burton, M. A. Vaughan, R. A. Ferrare, and C. A. Hostetler, “Separating mixtures of aerosol types in airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar data,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(2), 419–436 (2014).
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H. Omar, D. M. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. A. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. R. Rogers, R. A. Ferrare, K. P. Lee, R. E. Kuehn, and C. A. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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H. Omar, D. M. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. A. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. R. Rogers, R. A. Ferrare, K. P. Lee, R. E. Kuehn, and C. A. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
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D. Bouniol, A. Protat, J. Delanoé, J. Pelon, J. M. Piriou, F. Bouyssel, A. Tompkins, D. R. Wilson, Y. Morille, M. Haeffelin, E. J. O’Connor, R. Hogan, A. J. Illingworth, D. P. Donovan, and H. K. Baltink, “Using continuous ground-based radar and lidar measurements for evaluating the representation of clouds in four operational models,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 49(9), 1971–1991 (2010).
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E. J. O’Connor, R. J. Hogan, and A. J. Illingworth, “Retrieving Stratocumulus Drizzle Parameters Using Doppler Radar and Lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 44(1), 14–27 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. J. Hogan, M. D. Behera, E. J. O’Connor, and A. J. Illingworth, “Estimate of the global distribution of stratiform supercooled liquid water clouds using the lite lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(5), L05106 (2004).
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J. Illingworth, R. J. Hogan, E. J. O’Connor, D. Bouniol, M. E. Brooks, J. Delanoe, D. P. Donovan, J. D. Eastment, N. Gaussiat, J. W. F. Goddard, M. Haeffelin, H. K. Baltink, O. A. Krasnov, J. Pelon, J. M. Piriou, A. Protat, H. W. J. Russchenberg, A. Seifert, A. M. Tompkins, G. J. van Zadelhoff, F. Vinit, U. Willen, and D. R. Wilson,, and C. L. Wrench, “Cloudnet – continuous evaluation of cloud profiles in seven operational models using ground-based observations,” B. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88(6), 883–898 (2007).
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I. S. Stachlewska, M. Samson, O. Zawadzka, K. M. Harenda, L. Janicka, P. Poczta, D. Szczepanik, B. Heese, D. Wang, K. Borek, E. Tetoni, E. Proestakis, N. Siomos, A. Nemuc, B. H. Chojnicki, K. M. Markowicz, A. Pietruczuk, A. Szkop, D. Althausen, K. Stebel, D. Schuettemeyer, and C. Zehner, “Modification of Local Urban Aerosol Properties by Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosol,” Remote Sens. 10(3), 412 (2018).
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H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
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J. Delanoë, A. Protat, O. Jourdan, J. Pelon, M. Papazzoni, R. Dupuy, J. F. Gayet, and C. Jouan, “Comparison of airborne in situ, airborne radar-lidar, and spaceborne radar-lidar retrievals of polar ice cloud properties sampled during the POLARCAT campaign,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 30(1), 57–73 (2013).
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S. P. Burton, J. W. Hair, M. Kahnert, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, T. A. Berkoff, S. T. Seaman, J. E. Collins, M. A. Fenn, and R. R. Rogers, “Observations of the spectral dependence of linear particle depolarization ratio of aerosol using NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(23), 13453–13473 (2015).
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H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
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King, J.

C. Listowski, J. Delanoë, A. Kirchgaessner, T. Lachlan-Cope, and J. King, “Antarctic clouds, supercooled liquid water and mixed phase, investigated with DARDAR: geographical and seasonal variations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(10), 6771–6808 (2019).
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Kittaka, C.

H. Omar, D. M. Winker, C. Kittaka, M. A. Vaughan, Z. Liu, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, R. R. Rogers, R. A. Ferrare, K. P. Lee, R. E. Kuehn, and C. A. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO automated aerosol classification and lidar ratio selection algorithm,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(10), 1994–2014 (2009).
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Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, B. Getzewich, R. Kuehn, A. Omar, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO lidar cloud and aerosol discrimination: Version 2 algorithm and initial assessment of performance,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(7), 1198–1213 (2009).
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Knippertz, P.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, B. Getzewich, R. Kuehn, A. Omar, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO lidar cloud and aerosol discrimination: Version 2 algorithm and initial assessment of performance,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(7), 1198–1213 (2009).
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E. Marinou, M. Tesche, A. Nenes, A. Ansmann, J. Schrod, D. Mamali, A. Tsekeri, M. Pikridas, H. Baars, R. Engelmann, K. A. Voudouri, S. Solomos, J. Sciare, S. Groß, F. Ewald, and V. Amiridis, “Retrieval of ice-nucleating particle concentrations from lidar observations and comparison with UAV in situ measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(17), 11315–11342 (2019).
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I. S. Stachlewska, M. Costa-Surós, and D. Althausen, “Raman lidar water vapour profiling over Warsaw, Poland,” Atmos. Res. 194, 258–267 (2017).
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H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
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H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
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D. Wang, D. Szczepanik, and I. S. Stachlewska, “Interrelations between surface, boundary layer, and columnar aerosol properties derived in summer and early autumn over a continental urban site in Warsaw, Poland,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(20), 13097–13128 (2019).
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K. Markowicz, M. T. Chilinski, J. Lisok, O. Zawadzka, I. S. Stachlewska, L. Janicka, A. Rozwadowska, P. Makuch, P. Pakszys, T. Zielinski, T. Petelski, M. Posyniak, A. Pietruczuk, A. Szkop, and D. L. Westphal, “Study of aerosol optical properties during long-range transport of biomass burning from Canada to Central Europe in July 2013,” J. Aeros. Sci. 101, 156–173 (2016).
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E. Marinou, M. Tesche, A. Nenes, A. Ansmann, J. Schrod, D. Mamali, A. Tsekeri, M. Pikridas, H. Baars, R. Engelmann, K. A. Voudouri, S. Solomos, J. Sciare, S. Groß, F. Ewald, and V. Amiridis, “Retrieval of ice-nucleating particle concentrations from lidar observations and comparison with UAV in situ measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(17), 11315–11342 (2019).
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A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, M. Tesche, and U. Wandinger, “Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajökull/Grimsvötn volcanic plumes,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(20), 9399–9415 (2012).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Knippertz, E. Bierwirth, D. Althausen, D. Mueller, and O. Schulz, “Vertical profiling of convective dust plumes in Southern Morocco during SAMUM,” Tellus B 61(1), 340–353 (2009).
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J. P. Vernier, T. D. Fairlie, M. Natarajan, F. G. Wienhold, J. Bian, B. G. Martinsson, S. Crumeyrolle, L. W. Thomason, and K. M. Bedka, “Increase in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol levels and its potential connection with Asian pollution,” J. Geophys. Res. 120(4), 1608–1619 (2015).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus B 61(1), 165–179 (2009).
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F. Toledo, J. Delanoë, M. Haeffelin, and J.-C. Dupont, “Absolute Calibration method for FMCW Cloud Radars,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., in review, 2020

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Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, B. Getzewich, R. Kuehn, A. Omar, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO lidar cloud and aerosol discrimination: Version 2 algorithm and initial assessment of performance,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(7), 1198–1213 (2009).
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E. Marinou, M. Tesche, A. Nenes, A. Ansmann, J. Schrod, D. Mamali, A. Tsekeri, M. Pikridas, H. Baars, R. Engelmann, K. A. Voudouri, S. Solomos, J. Sciare, S. Groß, F. Ewald, and V. Amiridis, “Retrieval of ice-nucleating particle concentrations from lidar observations and comparison with UAV in situ measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(17), 11315–11342 (2019).
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L. D. Labzovskii, A. Papayannis, I. Binietoglou, R. F. Banks, J. M. Baldasano, F. Toanca, C. G. Tzanis, and J. Christodoulakis, “Relative humidity vertical profiling using lidar-based synergistic methods in the framework of the Hygra-CD campaign,” Ann. Geophys. 36(1), 213–229 (2018).
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H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
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D. Nicolae, J. Vasilescu, C. Talianu, I. Binietoglou, V. Nicolae, S. Andrei, and B. Antonescu, “A neural network aerosol-typing algorithm based on lidar data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 18(19), 14511–14537 (2018).
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A. Nemuc, J. Vasilescu, C. Talianu, L. Belegante, and D. Nicolae, “Assessment of aerosol’s mass concentrations from measured linear particle depolarization ratio (vertically resolved) and simulations,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(11), 3243–3255 (2013).
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Z. Liu, M. Vaughan, D. Winker, C. Kittaka, B. Getzewich, R. Kuehn, A. Omar, K. Powell, C. Trepte, and C. Hostetler, “The CALIPSO lidar cloud and aerosol discrimination: Version 2 algorithm and initial assessment of performance,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 26(7), 1198–1213 (2009).
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S. P. Burton, M. A. Vaughan, R. A. Ferrare, and C. A. Hostetler, “Separating mixtures of aerosol types in airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar data,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(2), 419–436 (2014).
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D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO mission and CALIOP data processing algorithms,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
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J. P. Vernier, T. D. Fairlie, M. Natarajan, F. G. Wienhold, J. Bian, B. G. Martinsson, S. Crumeyrolle, L. W. Thomason, and K. M. Bedka, “Increase in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol levels and its potential connection with Asian pollution,” J. Geophys. Res. 120(4), 1608–1619 (2015).
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L. Janicka, I. S. Stachlewska, I. Veselovskii, and H. Baars, “Temporal variations in optical and microphysical properties of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol derived from daytime Raman lidar observations over Warsaw, Poland,” Atmos. Environ. 169, 162–174 (2017).
[Crossref]

Viisanen, Y.

H. Baars, T. Kanitz, R. Engelmann, D. Althausen, B. Heese, M. Komppula, J. Preißler, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, J. H. Lim, J. Y. Ahn, I. S. Stachlewska, V. Amiridis, E. Marinou, P. Seifert, J. Hofer, A. Skupin, F. Schneider, S. Bohlmann, A. Foth, S. Bley, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, R. K. Hooda, S. N. Pereira, D. Bortoli, F. Wagner, I. Mattis, L. Janicka, K. M. Markowicz, P. Achtert, P. Artaxo, T. Pauliquevis, R. A. F. Souza, V. P. Sharma, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, J. Sun, E. G. Rohwer, R. Deng, R. E. Mamouri, and F. Zamorano, “An overview of the first decade of PollyNET: an emerging network of automated Raman-polarization lidars for continuous aerosol profiling,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(8), 5111–5137 (2016).
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D. Zhang, Z. Wang, and D. Liu, “A global view of midlevel liquid-layer topped stratiform cloud distribution and phase partition from CALIPSO and CloudSat measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00K30 (2010).
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K. Markowicz, M. T. Chilinski, J. Lisok, O. Zawadzka, I. S. Stachlewska, L. Janicka, A. Rozwadowska, P. Makuch, P. Pakszys, T. Zielinski, T. Petelski, M. Posyniak, A. Pietruczuk, A. Szkop, and D. L. Westphal, “Study of aerosol optical properties during long-range transport of biomass burning from Canada to Central Europe in July 2013,” J. Aeros. Sci. 101, 156–173 (2016).
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V. V. Zuev, V. D. Burlakov, A. V. Nevzorov, V. L. Pravdin, E. S. Savelieva, and V. V. Gerasimov, “30-year lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer state over Tomsk (Western Siberia, Russia),” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17(4), 3067–3081 (2017).
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E. Marinou, M. Tesche, A. Nenes, A. Ansmann, J. Schrod, D. Mamali, A. Tsekeri, M. Pikridas, H. Baars, R. Engelmann, K. A. Voudouri, S. Solomos, J. Sciare, S. Groß, F. Ewald, and V. Amiridis, “Retrieval of ice-nucleating particle concentrations from lidar observations and comparison with UAV in situ measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 19(17), 11315–11342 (2019).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The flowchart of the target classification procedure using the combination of data from the Raman-polarization lidar, Doppler cloud radar, and microwave radiometer (MWR).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The EMORAL lidar observations at the PolWET site in Rzecin, Poland, on 10 June 2019. The scattering ratio (top), quasi-particle depolarization ratio (middle), and backscatter colour ratio (bottom) derived at 532 nm with 30 m spatial and 30 s temporal resolutions.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. BASTA cloud radar observations at the PolWET site in Rzecin on 10 June 2019. The reflectivity (top) and Doppler velocity (bottom) at merged vertical resolution (12.5, 25 and 100 m) and 9 s time integration.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The profiles of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) obtained from HATPRO-G2 microwave radiometer at the PolWET site in Rzecin on 10 June 2019.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Synergy for molecule, aerosol and cloud identification derived from a combination of EMORAL Raman-polarization lidar, BASTA Doppler cloud radar, and HATPRO-G2 microwave radiometer over the PolWET site in Rzecin on 10 June 2019.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The new classification thresholds applied on the backscatter scattering ratio (SR), quasi-particle depolarization ratio (quasiδp), and backscatter colour ratio (CR) used for molecules, aerosol and cloud typing based on lidar observations.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Target classification applied on reflectivity (Z) and Doppler velocity (V) using cloud radar.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Target classification applied on temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) using microwave radiometer (MWR).

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P = C O R 2 ( β p + β m ) exp { 2 0 R ( α p + α m ) d r }
β a = P R 2 C
C = P R 2 ( β p + β m ) O exp { 2 0 R ( α p + α m ) d r }
q u a s i β p = β a e x p { 2 0 R α m d r } β m
q u a s i α p = q u a s i β p L R p
β p q u a s i β p = β a e x p { 2 0 R ( q u a s i α p + α m ) d r } β m
δ v = P v P p
δ p q u a s i δ p = ( 1 + δ m ) δ v ( 1 + q u a s i β p β m ) ( 1 + δ v ) δ m ( 1 + δ m ) ( 1 + q u a s i β p β m ) ( 1 + δ v )
Z = 0 N ( D ) D 6 d D
S R = q u a s i β β m = ( q u a s i β p + β m ) β m
C R ( 532 / 1064 ) = q u a s i β p 532 q u a s i β p 1064