Abstract

Optical frequency combs generated from microresonators (especially microresonator soliton combs) have been attracting significant attentions because of the potential to be fully chip-scale. Among various promising applications of soliton combs, coherent optical communications and mm/THz wireless communications require low phase noise of the comb modes and low relative phase noise between the comb modes, respectively. Here, we measure the phase noise of a soliton comb, investigating how the thermorefractive noise of a microresonator influences on the phase noise. We observe the quadratic increase of the phase noise of the comb modes, as the comb mode number, counted from the wavelength of a pump cw laser, increases. In addition, we measure the relative phase noise between the comb modes, showing less influence of the phase noise of pump cw lasers by comparing soliton combs generated from pump cw lasers with low and large phase noise.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2020 (4)

J. Riemensberger, A. Lukashchuk, M. Karpov, W. Weng, E. Lucas, J. Liu, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Massively parallel coherent laser ranging using a soliton microcomb,” Nature 581(7807), 164–170 (2020).
[Crossref]

E. Lucas, P. Brochard, R. Bouchand, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-noise photonic microwave synthesis using a soliton microcomb-based transfer oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 374 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, E. Lucas, A. S. Raja, J. He, J. Riemensberger, R. N. Wang, M. Karpov, H. Guo, R. Bouchand, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic microwave generation in the x-and k-band using integrated soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 4428, 1–6 (2020).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q.-F. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. D. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S.-P. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra–efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs–on–insulator microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 1331 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (10)

S. Zhang, J. M. Silver, L. Del Bino, F. Copie, M. T. Woodley, G. N. Ghalanos, A. Ø. Svela, N. Moroney, and P. Del’Haye, “Sub–milliwatt–level microresonator solitons with extended access range using an auxiliary laser,” Optica 6(2), 206–212 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Lu, W. Wang, W. Zhang, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, M. Liu, L. Wang, C.-L. Zou, C.-H. Dong, B. Zhao, and W. Zhao, “Deterministic generation and switching of dissipative Kerr soliton in a thermally controlled micro–resonator,” AIP Adv. 9(2), 025314 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Fortier and E. Baumann, “20 years of developments in optical frequency comb technology and applications,” Commun. Phys. 2(1), 153 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Kuse, T. C. Briles, S. B. Papp, and M. E. Fermann, “Control of Kerr-microresonator optical frequency comb by a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 27(4), 3873–3883 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Huang, E. Lucas, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, N. J. Engelsen, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Thermorefractive noise in silicon–nitride microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 99(6), 061801 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Kuse and M. Fermann, “Frequency–modulated comb LIDAR,” APL Photonics 4(10), 106105 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic-chip-based frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13(3), 158–169 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. M. Silver, X. Shang, L. Del Bino, N. M. Ridler, and P. Del’Haye, “Terahertz wave generation using a soliton microcomb,” Opt. Express 27(24), 35257–35266 (2019).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 25–30 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wilde, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh and K. J. Vahala, “Soliton microcomb range measurement,” Science 359(6378), 884–887 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361(6402), eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr–microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43(12), 2933–2936 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Kuse and M. Fermann, “A photonic frequency discriminator based on a two wavelength delayed self–heterodyne interferometer for low phase noise tunable micro/mm wave synthesis,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 13719 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, T. Morais, B. Ghadiani, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultra–smooth silicon nitride waveguides based on the Damascene reflow process: fabrication and loss origins,” Optica 5(7), 884–892 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

N. Kuse and M. Fermann, “Electro–optic comb based real time ultra–high sensitivity phase noise measurement system for high frequency microwaves,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2847 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, F. A. S. Barbosa, S. P. Roberts, A. Dutt, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Bryant, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra–low–loss on–chip resonators with sub–milliwatt parametric oscillation threshold,” Optica 4(6), 619–624 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

A. B. Matsko and L. Maleki, “Noise conversion in kerr comb rf photonic oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(2), 232–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Jung and J. Kim, “All–fibre photonic signal generator for attosecond timing and ultralow–noise microwave,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16250 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Anderson, M. H.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wilde, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barbosa, F. A. S.

Baumann, E.

T. Fortier and E. Baumann, “20 years of developments in optical frequency comb technology and applications,” Commun. Phys. 2(1), 153 (2019).
[Crossref]

Beichman, C.

M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 25–30 (2019).
[Crossref]

Boes, A.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q.-F. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. D. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S.-P. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra–efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs–on–insulator microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 1331 (2020).
[Crossref]

Bouchand, R.

E. Lucas, P. Brochard, R. Bouchand, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-noise photonic microwave synthesis using a soliton microcomb-based transfer oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 374 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, E. Lucas, A. S. Raja, J. He, J. Riemensberger, R. N. Wang, M. Karpov, H. Guo, R. Bouchand, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic microwave generation in the x-and k-band using integrated soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 4428, 1–6 (2020).
[Crossref]

Bouchy, F.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wilde, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q.-F. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. D. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S.-P. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra–efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs–on–insulator microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 1331 (2020).
[Crossref]

Brasch, V.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Briles, T. C.

Brochard, P.

E. Lucas, P. Brochard, R. Bouchand, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-noise photonic microwave synthesis using a soliton microcomb-based transfer oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 374 (2020).
[Crossref]

Bryant, A.

Cardenas, J.

Cecconi, M.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wilde, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chang, L.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q.-F. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. D. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S.-P. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra–efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs–on–insulator microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 1331 (2020).
[Crossref]

Chazelas, B.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wilde, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. T.

Z. Lu, W. Wang, W. Zhang, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, M. Liu, L. Wang, C.-L. Zou, C.-H. Dong, B. Zhao, and W. Zhao, “Deterministic generation and switching of dissipative Kerr soliton in a thermally controlled micro–resonator,” AIP Adv. 9(2), 025314 (2019).
[Crossref]

Copie, F.

Del Bino, L.

Del’Haye, P.

Diddams, S. A.

M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 25–30 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr–microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43(12), 2933–2936 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dong, C.-H.

Z. Lu, W. Wang, W. Zhang, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, M. Liu, L. Wang, C.-L. Zou, C.-H. Dong, B. Zhao, and W. Zhao, “Deterministic generation and switching of dissipative Kerr soliton in a thermally controlled micro–resonator,” AIP Adv. 9(2), 025314 (2019).
[Crossref]

Doppmann, G.

M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 25–30 (2019).
[Crossref]

Drake, T. E.

Ducournau, G.

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dutt, A.

Eliyahu, D.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Engelsen, N. J.

G. Huang, E. Lucas, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, N. J. Engelsen, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Thermorefractive noise in silicon–nitride microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 99(6), 061801 (2019).
[Crossref]

Fermann, M.

N. Kuse and M. Fermann, “Frequency–modulated comb LIDAR,” APL Photonics 4(10), 106105 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Kuse and M. Fermann, “A photonic frequency discriminator based on a two wavelength delayed self–heterodyne interferometer for low phase noise tunable micro/mm wave synthesis,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 13719 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Kuse and M. Fermann, “Electro–optic comb based real time ultra–high sensitivity phase noise measurement system for high frequency microwaves,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2847 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fermann, M. E.

Fitzgerald, M. P.

M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 25–30 (2019).
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Fortier, T.

T. Fortier and E. Baumann, “20 years of developments in optical frequency comb technology and applications,” Commun. Phys. 2(1), 153 (2019).
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Fredrick, C.

Freude, W.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic-chip-based frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13(3), 158–169 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361(6402), eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, F. A. S. Barbosa, S. P. Roberts, A. Dutt, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Bryant, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra–low–loss on–chip resonators with sub–milliwatt parametric oscillation threshold,” Optica 4(6), 619–624 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ganin, D.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

Geiselmann, M.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wilde, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ghadiani, B.

Ghalanos, G. N.

Ghedina, A.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wilde, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

G. Huang, E. Lucas, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, N. J. Engelsen, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Thermorefractive noise in silicon–nitride microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 99(6), 061801 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361(6402), eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grudinin, I. S.

M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 25–30 (2019).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

J. Liu, E. Lucas, A. S. Raja, J. He, J. Riemensberger, R. N. Wang, M. Karpov, H. Guo, R. Bouchand, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic microwave generation in the x-and k-band using integrated soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 4428, 1–6 (2020).
[Crossref]

Harutyunyan, A.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wilde, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

He, J.

J. Liu, E. Lucas, A. S. Raja, J. He, J. Riemensberger, R. N. Wang, M. Karpov, H. Guo, R. Bouchand, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic microwave generation in the x-and k-band using integrated soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 4428, 1–6 (2020).
[Crossref]

Herr, T.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wilde, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, G.

G. Huang, E. Lucas, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, N. J. Engelsen, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Thermorefractive noise in silicon–nitride microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 99(6), 061801 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V. S.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ilic, B. R.

Ji, X.

Jin, W.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q.-F. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. D. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S.-P. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra–efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs–on–insulator microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 1331 (2020).
[Crossref]

Jost, J. D.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jung, K.

K. Jung and J. Kim, “All–fibre photonic signal generator for attosecond timing and ultralow–noise microwave,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16250 (2015).
[Crossref]

Karpov, M.

J. Liu, E. Lucas, A. S. Raja, J. He, J. Riemensberger, R. N. Wang, M. Karpov, H. Guo, R. Bouchand, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic microwave generation in the x-and k-band using integrated soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 4428, 1–6 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Riemensberger, A. Lukashchuk, M. Karpov, W. Weng, E. Lucas, J. Liu, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Massively parallel coherent laser ranging using a soliton microcomb,” Nature 581(7807), 164–170 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kemal, J. N.

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

K. Jung and J. Kim, “All–fibre photonic signal generator for attosecond timing and ultralow–noise microwave,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16250 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

J. Riemensberger, A. Lukashchuk, M. Karpov, W. Weng, E. Lucas, J. Liu, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Massively parallel coherent laser ranging using a soliton microcomb,” Nature 581(7807), 164–170 (2020).
[Crossref]

E. Lucas, P. Brochard, R. Bouchand, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-noise photonic microwave synthesis using a soliton microcomb-based transfer oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 374 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, E. Lucas, A. S. Raja, J. He, J. Riemensberger, R. N. Wang, M. Karpov, H. Guo, R. Bouchand, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic microwave generation in the x-and k-band using integrated soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 4428, 1–6 (2020).
[Crossref]

G. Huang, E. Lucas, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, N. J. Engelsen, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Thermorefractive noise in silicon–nitride microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 99(6), 061801 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wilde, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic-chip-based frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13(3), 158–169 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361(6402), eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, T. Morais, B. Ghadiani, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultra–smooth silicon nitride waveguides based on the Damascene reflow process: fabrication and loss origins,” Optica 5(7), 884–892 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kondratiev, N. M.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kordts, A.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Krockenberger, J.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kundermann, S.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wilde, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kuse, N.

N. Kuse and M. Fermann, “Frequency–modulated comb LIDAR,” APL Photonics 4(10), 106105 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Kuse, T. C. Briles, S. B. Papp, and M. E. Fermann, “Control of Kerr-microresonator optical frequency comb by a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 27(4), 3873–3883 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Kuse and M. Fermann, “A photonic frequency discriminator based on a two wavelength delayed self–heterodyne interferometer for low phase noise tunable micro/mm wave synthesis,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 13719 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Kuse and M. Fermann, “Electro–optic comb based real time ultra–high sensitivity phase noise measurement system for high frequency microwaves,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2847 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lai, Y.-H.

M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 25–30 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lecomte, S.

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wilde, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

Leifer, S.

M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 25–30 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Liang, W.

W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lihachev, G.

G. Huang, E. Lucas, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, N. J. Engelsen, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Thermorefractive noise in silicon–nitride microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 99(6), 061801 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic-chip-based frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13(3), 158–169 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361(6402), eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, F. A. S. Barbosa, S. P. Roberts, A. Dutt, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Bryant, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra–low–loss on–chip resonators with sub–milliwatt parametric oscillation threshold,” Optica 4(6), 619–624 (2017).
[Crossref]

Little, B. E.

Z. Lu, W. Wang, W. Zhang, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, M. Liu, L. Wang, C.-L. Zou, C.-H. Dong, B. Zhao, and W. Zhao, “Deterministic generation and switching of dissipative Kerr soliton in a thermally controlled micro–resonator,” AIP Adv. 9(2), 025314 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Riemensberger, A. Lukashchuk, M. Karpov, W. Weng, E. Lucas, J. Liu, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Massively parallel coherent laser ranging using a soliton microcomb,” Nature 581(7807), 164–170 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, E. Lucas, A. S. Raja, J. He, J. Riemensberger, R. N. Wang, M. Karpov, H. Guo, R. Bouchand, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic microwave generation in the x-and k-band using integrated soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 4428, 1–6 (2020).
[Crossref]

G. Huang, E. Lucas, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, N. J. Engelsen, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Thermorefractive noise in silicon–nitride microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 99(6), 061801 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wilde, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, T. Morais, B. Ghadiani, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultra–smooth silicon nitride waveguides based on the Damascene reflow process: fabrication and loss origins,” Optica 5(7), 884–892 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

Z. Lu, W. Wang, W. Zhang, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, M. Liu, L. Wang, C.-L. Zou, C.-H. Dong, B. Zhao, and W. Zhao, “Deterministic generation and switching of dissipative Kerr soliton in a thermally controlled micro–resonator,” AIP Adv. 9(2), 025314 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q.-F. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. D. Peters, W. Jin, C. Xiang, S. Liu, G. Moille, S.-P. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra–efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs–on–insulator microresonators,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 1331 (2020).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, W. Wang, W. Zhang, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, M. Liu, L. Wang, C.-L. Zou, C.-H. Dong, B. Zhao, and W. Zhao, “Deterministic generation and switching of dissipative Kerr soliton in a thermally controlled micro–resonator,” AIP Adv. 9(2), 025314 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lucas, E.

J. Liu, E. Lucas, A. S. Raja, J. He, J. Riemensberger, R. N. Wang, M. Karpov, H. Guo, R. Bouchand, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic microwave generation in the x-and k-band using integrated soliton microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 4428, 1–6 (2020).
[Crossref]

E. Lucas, P. Brochard, R. Bouchand, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Ultralow-noise photonic microwave synthesis using a soliton microcomb-based transfer oscillator,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 374 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Riemensberger, A. Lukashchuk, M. Karpov, W. Weng, E. Lucas, J. Liu, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Massively parallel coherent laser ranging using a soliton microcomb,” Nature 581(7807), 164–170 (2020).
[Crossref]

G. Huang, E. Lucas, J. Liu, A. S. Raja, G. Lihachev, M. L. Gorodetsky, N. J. Engelsen, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Thermorefractive noise in silicon–nitride microresonators,” Phys. Rev. A 99(6), 061801 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lukashchuk, A.

J. Riemensberger, A. Lukashchuk, M. Karpov, W. Weng, E. Lucas, J. Liu, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Massively parallel coherent laser ranging using a soliton microcomb,” Nature 581(7807), 164–170 (2020).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

Marin-Palomo, P.

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359(6378), 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546(7657), 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Martin, E. C.

M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 25–30 (2019).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

Mawet, D.

M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 25–30 (2019).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the experimental setup to generate a soliton comb. VCO: voltage-controlled oscillator, DM-MZM: dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator, EDFA: Er-doped fiber amplifier, OSA: optical spectral analyzer. (b) Schematic of the experimental setup to measure the phase noise of the soliton comb modes and relative phase noise between the comb modes. AOM: acousto-optic modulator, OBPF: optical bandpass filter, ESA: electronic spectrum analyzer, FFT: FFT analyzer. (c) Optical spectrum of a soliton comb.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Single sideband (SSB) phase noise power spectrum density (PSD) of the comb modes of the soliton comb generated from the ECDL with the wavelength of 1548 nm at the −1st, (red), −3rd (green), −6th (blue), and −9th (purple) harmonics. SSB phase noise PSD of the ECDL is also shown (black). (b) (Red) SSB phase noise PSD of the $|H|^2L_\textrm {mode,ECDL}(f_m)$ at the modulation frequency ($f_m$) when the pump current of the LD for the EDFA is modulated with a single tone at $f_m$. Pump wavelength is about 1548 nm. Numerical curves of $C +20 \times \textrm {log}|k|$ is also shown (blue). (c) Single sideband (SSB) phase noise power spectrum density (PSD) of the comb modes of the soliton comb generated from the ECDL with the wavelength of 1562 nm at the +1st, (red), +3rd (green), +6th (blue), and +9th (purple) harmonics. SSB phase noise PSD of the ECDL is also shown (black). (d) (Red) SSB phase noise PSD of the $|H|^2L_\textrm {mode,ECDL}(f_m)$ at the modulation frequency when the pump current of the LD for the EDFA is modulated with a single tone at $f_m$. Pump wavelength is about 1562 nm. Numerical curves of $C +20 \times \textrm {log}|k|$ is also shown (blue).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. SSB phase noise PSD of the comb modes of the soliton comb generated from the DFB laser with the wavelength of 1548 nm at the −1st, (red), −3rd (green), −6th (blue), and −9th (purple) harmonics. SSB phase noise PSD of the DFB laser is also shown (black).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) SSB phase noise PSD of $L_\textrm {mode,ECDL}(f)$ at the +1st harmonic (blue) and $L_\textrm {relative,ECDL}(f)$ (red). The wavelength of the ECDL is 1548 nm. (b) SSB phase noise PSD of $L_\textrm {mode,DFB}(f)$ at the +1st harmonic (blue) and $L_\textrm {relative,DFB}(f)$ (red). The wavelength of the DFB laser is 1548 nm. (c) Difference of the relative phase noise of the comb modes between the ECDL and DFB laser ($L_\textrm {relative,DFB}(f)$ - $L_\textrm {relative,ECDL}(f)$).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Relative intensity noise (RIN) (left axis) and intensity noise (right axis) of the ECDL with (red) and without (blue) amplitude modulation. (b) $L_\textrm {mode,ECDL}(f)$ at the +1st harmonic with (red) and without (blue) amplitude modulation. (Black) Upper limit of the estimated thermorefractive noise for the comb mode set by the intensity noise. (c) $L_\textrm {relative,ECDL}(f)$ with (red) and without (blue) amplitude modulation. (Black) Upper limit of the estimated thermorefractive noise for the relative phase noise between the comb modes set by the intensity noise.

Equations (3)

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φ n + k ( t ) = ( n + k ) φ rep ( t ) + φ ceo ( t ) .
φ n + k ( t ) = φ cw ( t ) + k φ rep ( t ) .
L n + k ( f ) = L cw ( f ) + k 2 L rep ( f ) .