Abstract

In this work, we propose and demonstrate the concept of remote reflections, which help to multiply the photon propagations for increasing the light extraction efficiency (LEE) for both transverse magnetic (TM)- and transverse electric (TE)-polarized light. The remote reflection is enabled by using a remote-metal-reflector-based air cavity extractor. According to our study, the remote reflections can significantly avoid the optical absorption when compared with the conventional inclined-sidewall-shaped deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with the metal Al reflector on the inclined sidewalls. As a result, the optical power for our proposed devices has been significantly enhanced by 55% experimentally. Numerical simulations further reveal that the remote metal reflector not only favors more total internal refection on the inclined sidewalls but also supports additional light escaped channels for enhancing the LEE.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  7. B. Tang, H. P. Hu, H. Wan, J. Zhao, L. Y. Gong, Y. Lei, Q. Zhao, and S. J. Zhou, “Growth of high-quality AlN films on sapphire substrate by introducing voids through growth-mode modification,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 518, 146218 (2020).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  29. J. W. Lee, J. H. Park, D. Y. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y. I. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Arrays of Truncated Cone AIGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Facilitating Efficient Outcoupling of in-Plane Emission,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2030–2034 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  31. D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
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  41. K. K. Tian, Q. Chen, C. S. Chu, M. Q. Fang, L. P. Li, Y. H. Zhang, W. G. Bi, C. Q. Chen, Z. H. Zhang, and J. N. Dai, “Investigations on AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Si-Doped Quantum Barriers of Different Doping Concentrations,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 12(1), 1700346 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  42. C. S. Chu, K. K. Tian, M. Q. Fang, Y. H. Zhang, L. P. Li, W. G. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN/AlxGa1-xN (x > y) p-electron blocking layer to improve the hole injection for AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 113, 472–477 (2018).
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2020 (2)

H. P. Hu, B. Tang, H. Wan, H. D. Sun, S. J. Zhou, J. N. Dai, C. Q. Chen, S. Liu, and L. J. Guo, “Boosted ultraviolet electroluminescence of InGaN/AlGaN quantum structures grown on high-index contrast patterned sapphire with silica array,” Nano Energy 69, 104427 (2020).
[Crossref]

B. Tang, H. P. Hu, H. Wan, J. Zhao, L. Y. Gong, Y. Lei, Q. Zhao, and S. J. Zhou, “Growth of high-quality AlN films on sapphire substrate by introducing voids through growth-mode modification,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 518, 146218 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (6)

M. Kneissl, T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. J. Zhou, H. H. Xu, H. P. Hu, C. Q. Gui, and S. Liu, “High quality GaN buffer layer by isoelectronic doping and its application to 365 nm InGaN/AlGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 471, 231–238 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Zheng, Y. H. Zhang, J. Zhang, C. Sun, C. S. Chu, K. K. Tian, Z. H. Zhang, and W. G. Bi, “Effects of Meshed p-type Contact Structure on the Light Extraction Effect for Deep Ultraviolet Flip-Chip Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 14(1), 149 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. J. Zhou, X. T. Liu, H. Yan, Z. W. Chen, Y. C. Liu, and S. Liu, “Highly efficient GaN-based high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 27(12), A669 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. S. Chu, Q. Chen, K. K. Tian, J. M. Che, H. Shao, J. Q. Kou, Y. H. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, Z. H. Zhang, and J. N. Dai, “Modulating the Layer Resistivity by Band-Engineering to Improve the Current Spreading for DUV LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(15), 1201–1204 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Zhang, J. Zhang, Y. X. Zheng, C. Sun, K. K. Tian, C. S. Chu, Z. H. Zhang, J. G. X. Li, and W. G. Bi, “The Effect of Sapphire Substrates on Omni-Directional Reflector Design for Flip-Chip Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (9)

K. K. Tian, Q. Chen, C. S. Chu, M. Q. Fang, L. P. Li, Y. H. Zhang, W. G. Bi, C. Q. Chen, Z. H. Zhang, and J. N. Dai, “Investigations on AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Si-Doped Quantum Barriers of Different Doping Concentrations,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 12(1), 1700346 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. S. Chu, K. K. Tian, M. Q. Fang, Y. H. Zhang, L. P. Li, W. G. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN/AlxGa1-xN (x > y) p-electron blocking layer to improve the hole injection for AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 113, 472–477 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, Y. Osada, H. Takagi, and H. Hirayama, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, H. X. Zhang, J. N. Dai, S. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, R. L. Liang, Z. H. Zhang, and C. Q. Chen, “Enhanced the Optical Power of AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode by Optimizing Mesa Sidewall Angle,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Zhang, Y. X. Zheng, R. L. Meng, C. Sun, K. K. Tian, C. Geng, Z. H. Zhang, G. X. Liu, and W. G. Bi, “Enhancing Both TM- and TE-Polarized Light Extraction Efficiency of AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode via Air Cavity Extractor with Vertical Sidewall,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. X. Liu, Y. Mou, H. Wang, R. L. Liang, X. Z. Wang, Y. Peng, and M. X. Chen, “Enhanced light extraction of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by using optimized aluminum reflector,” Appl. Opt. 57(25), 7325–7328 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Maeda, J. Yun, M. Jo, and H. Hirayama, “Enhancing the light-extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using highly reflective Ni/Mg and Rh as p-type electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(4S), 04FH08 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ooi and J. Zhang, “Light Extraction Efficiency Analysis of Flip-Chip Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

C. Zhang, N. Tang, L. L. Shang, L. Fu, W. Y. Wang, F. J. Xu, X. Q. Wang, W. K. Ge, and B. Shen, “Local surface plasmon enhanced polarization and internal quantum efficiency of deep ultraviolet emissions from AlGaN-based quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2358 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. J. Zhou, X. T. Liu, Y. L. Gao, Y. C. Liu, M. L. Liu, Z. Y. Liu, C. Q. Gui, and S. Liu, “Numerical and experimental investigation of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes with highly reflective Ag/TiW and ITO/DBR Ohmic contacts,” Opt. Express 25(22), 26615–26627 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Zhang, R. L. Meng, Z. H. Zhang, Q. Shi, L. P. Li, G. X. Liu, and W. G. Bi, “Effects of Inclined Sidewall Structure With Bottom Metal Air Cavity on the Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

J. W. Lee, D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y. I. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “An elegant route to overcome fundamentally-limited light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: Preferential outcoupling of strong in-plane emission,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22537 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. W. Lee, J. H. Park, D. Y. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Kim, J. Lee, Y. I. Kim, Y. Park, and J. K. Kim, “Arrays of Truncated Cone AIGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Facilitating Efficient Outcoupling of in-Plane Emission,” ACS Photonics 3(11), 2030–2034 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Yue, K. Li, F. M. Kong, J. Zhao, and M. Liu, “Analysis on the effect of amorphous photonic crystals on light extraction efficiency enhancement for GaN-based thin-film-flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Commun. 367, 72–79 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Z. Wang, X. Chen, J. C. Li, S. P. Li, X. Yang, and J. Y. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4380 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. G. Kim, C. H. Hsich, H. J. Choi, J. Gardener, B. Singh, A. Knapitsch, P. Lecoq, and G. Barbastathis, “Conical photonic crystals for enhancing light extraction efficiency from high refractive index materials,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22730–22739 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Q. Xie, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142107 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, J. W. Lee, S. Hwang, S. J. Oh, J. Kim, C. Sone, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Overcoming the fundamental light-extraction efficiency limitations of deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by utilizing transverse-magnetic-dominant emission,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(4), e263 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. B. Wei, X. L. Ji, K. Wu, H. Y. Zheng, C. X. Du, Y. Chen, Q. F. Yan, L. X. Zhao, Z. C. Zhou, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Efficiency improvement and droop behavior in nanospherical-lens lithographically patterned bottom and top photonic crystal InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 379–382 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Zhang, T. B. Wei, Z. Xiong, L. Shang, Y. D. Tian, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Zhou, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Enhanced optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diode with compound photonic crystals by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 013108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-Emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Zhao, L. Han, M. R. McGoogan, and H. P. Zhao, “Analysis of TM mode light extraction efficiency enhancement for deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with III-nitride micro-domes,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1397–1406 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. He and C. M. Lilley, “Surface effect on the elastic behavior of static bending nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 1798–1802 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H. Hirayama, “Quaternary InAlGaN-based high-efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 091101 (2005).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

O. Hunderi and D. Beaglehole, “On the reflectivity of rough metal surfaces,” Phys. Lett. A 29(6), 335–336 (1969).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

M. Kneissl, T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, and H. Amano, “The emergence and prospects of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode technologies,” Nat. Photonics 13(4), 233–244 (2019).
[Crossref]

Barbastathis, G.

Beaglehole, D.

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C. S. Chu, Q. Chen, K. K. Tian, J. M. Che, H. Shao, J. Q. Kou, Y. H. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, Z. H. Zhang, and J. N. Dai, “Modulating the Layer Resistivity by Band-Engineering to Improve the Current Spreading for DUV LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(15), 1201–1204 (2019).
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K. K. Tian, Q. Chen, C. S. Chu, M. Q. Fang, L. P. Li, Y. H. Zhang, W. G. Bi, C. Q. Chen, Z. H. Zhang, and J. N. Dai, “Investigations on AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Si-Doped Quantum Barriers of Different Doping Concentrations,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 12(1), 1700346 (2018).
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K. K. Tian, Q. Chen, C. S. Chu, M. Q. Fang, L. P. Li, Y. H. Zhang, W. G. Bi, C. Q. Chen, Z. H. Zhang, and J. N. Dai, “Investigations on AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Si-Doped Quantum Barriers of Different Doping Concentrations,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 12(1), 1700346 (2018).
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Q. Chen, H. X. Zhang, J. N. Dai, S. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, R. L. Liang, Z. H. Zhang, and C. Q. Chen, “Enhanced the Optical Power of AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode by Optimizing Mesa Sidewall Angle,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
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Q. Chen, H. X. Zhang, J. N. Dai, S. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, R. L. Liang, Z. H. Zhang, and C. Q. Chen, “Enhanced the Optical Power of AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode by Optimizing Mesa Sidewall Angle,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–7 (2018).
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B. Tang, H. P. Hu, H. Wan, J. Zhao, L. Y. Gong, Y. Lei, Q. Zhao, and S. J. Zhou, “Growth of high-quality AlN films on sapphire substrate by introducing voids through growth-mode modification,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 518, 146218 (2020).
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S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
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M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-Emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
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Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, Y. Osada, H. Takagi, and H. Hirayama, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
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M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-Emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
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Y. H. Zhang, T. B. Wei, Z. Xiong, L. Shang, Y. D. Tian, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Zhou, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Enhanced optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diode with compound photonic crystals by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 013108 (2014).
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B. Tang, H. P. Hu, H. Wan, J. Zhao, L. Y. Gong, Y. Lei, Q. Zhao, and S. J. Zhou, “Growth of high-quality AlN films on sapphire substrate by introducing voids through growth-mode modification,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 518, 146218 (2020).
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S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
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K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Z. Wang, X. Chen, J. C. Li, S. P. Li, X. Yang, and J. Y. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4380 (2015).
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Y. H. Zhang, T. B. Wei, Z. Xiong, L. Shang, Y. D. Tian, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Zhou, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Enhanced optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diode with compound photonic crystals by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 013108 (2014).
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T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
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Q. Chen, H. X. Zhang, J. N. Dai, S. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, R. L. Liang, Z. H. Zhang, and C. Q. Chen, “Enhanced the Optical Power of AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode by Optimizing Mesa Sidewall Angle,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–7 (2018).
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S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
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Wang, W. Y.

C. Zhang, N. Tang, L. L. Shang, L. Fu, W. Y. Wang, F. J. Xu, X. Q. Wang, W. K. Ge, and B. Shen, “Local surface plasmon enhanced polarization and internal quantum efficiency of deep ultraviolet emissions from AlGaN-based quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2358 (2017).
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C. Zhang, N. Tang, L. L. Shang, L. Fu, W. Y. Wang, F. J. Xu, X. Q. Wang, W. K. Ge, and B. Shen, “Local surface plasmon enhanced polarization and internal quantum efficiency of deep ultraviolet emissions from AlGaN-based quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2358 (2017).
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Wang, X. Z.

Wei, T. B.

T. B. Wei, X. L. Ji, K. Wu, H. Y. Zheng, C. X. Du, Y. Chen, Q. F. Yan, L. X. Zhao, Z. C. Zhou, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Efficiency improvement and droop behavior in nanospherical-lens lithographically patterned bottom and top photonic crystal InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 379–382 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Zhang, T. B. Wei, Z. Xiong, L. Shang, Y. D. Tian, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Zhou, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Enhanced optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diode with compound photonic crystals by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 013108 (2014).
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T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
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Weyers, M.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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Wraback, M.

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-Emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
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T. B. Wei, X. L. Ji, K. Wu, H. Y. Zheng, C. X. Du, Y. Chen, Q. F. Yan, L. X. Zhao, Z. C. Zhou, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Efficiency improvement and droop behavior in nanospherical-lens lithographically patterned bottom and top photonic crystal InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 379–382 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
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Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Q. Xie, S. Mita, Z. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142107 (2015).
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Xiong, Z.

Y. H. Zhang, T. B. Wei, Z. Xiong, L. Shang, Y. D. Tian, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Zhou, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Enhanced optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diode with compound photonic crystals by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 013108 (2014).
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Xu, F. J.

C. Zhang, N. Tang, L. L. Shang, L. Fu, W. Y. Wang, F. J. Xu, X. Q. Wang, W. K. Ge, and B. Shen, “Local surface plasmon enhanced polarization and internal quantum efficiency of deep ultraviolet emissions from AlGaN-based quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2358 (2017).
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Xu, H. H.

S. J. Zhou, H. H. Xu, H. P. Hu, C. Q. Gui, and S. Liu, “High quality GaN buffer layer by isoelectronic doping and its application to 365 nm InGaN/AlGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 471, 231–238 (2019).
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S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
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Yan, H.

Yan, Q. F.

T. B. Wei, X. L. Ji, K. Wu, H. Y. Zheng, C. X. Du, Y. Chen, Q. F. Yan, L. X. Zhao, Z. C. Zhou, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Efficiency improvement and droop behavior in nanospherical-lens lithographically patterned bottom and top photonic crystal InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 379–382 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
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Yang, J. W.

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-Emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
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Yang, X.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Z. Wang, X. Chen, J. C. Li, S. P. Li, X. Yang, and J. Y. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4380 (2015).
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Yang, Z.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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Q. Y. Yue, K. Li, F. M. Kong, J. Zhao, and M. Liu, “Analysis on the effect of amorphous photonic crystals on light extraction efficiency enhancement for GaN-based thin-film-flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Commun. 367, 72–79 (2016).
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N. Maeda, J. Yun, M. Jo, and H. Hirayama, “Enhancing the light-extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using highly reflective Ni/Mg and Rh as p-type electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(4S), 04FH08 (2018).
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Zeng, Y. P.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
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Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, N. Tang, L. L. Shang, L. Fu, W. Y. Wang, F. J. Xu, X. Q. Wang, W. K. Ge, and B. Shen, “Local surface plasmon enhanced polarization and internal quantum efficiency of deep ultraviolet emissions from AlGaN-based quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2358 (2017).
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Zhang, H. X.

Q. Chen, H. X. Zhang, J. N. Dai, S. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, R. L. Liang, Z. H. Zhang, and C. Q. Chen, “Enhanced the Optical Power of AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode by Optimizing Mesa Sidewall Angle,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–7 (2018).
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Zhang, J.

Y. H. Zhang, J. Zhang, Y. X. Zheng, C. Sun, K. K. Tian, C. S. Chu, Z. H. Zhang, J. G. X. Li, and W. G. Bi, “The Effect of Sapphire Substrates on Omni-Directional Reflector Design for Flip-Chip Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Zheng, Y. H. Zhang, J. Zhang, C. Sun, C. S. Chu, K. K. Tian, Z. H. Zhang, and W. G. Bi, “Effects of Meshed p-type Contact Structure on the Light Extraction Effect for Deep Ultraviolet Flip-Chip Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 14(1), 149 (2019).
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Y. K. Ooi and J. Zhang, “Light Extraction Efficiency Analysis of Flip-Chip Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

S. Wang, J. N. Dai, J. H. Hu, S. Zhang, L. L. Xu, H. L. Long, J. W. Chen, Q. X. Wan, H. C. Kuo, and C. Q. Chen, “Ultrahigh Degree of Optical Polarization above 80% in AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet LED with Moth-Eye Microstructure,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3534–3540 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, H. X. Zhang, J. N. Dai, S. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, R. L. Liang, Z. H. Zhang, and C. Q. Chen, “Enhanced the Optical Power of AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode by Optimizing Mesa Sidewall Angle,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. H.

Y. H. Zhang, J. Zhang, Y. X. Zheng, C. Sun, K. K. Tian, C. S. Chu, Z. H. Zhang, J. G. X. Li, and W. G. Bi, “The Effect of Sapphire Substrates on Omni-Directional Reflector Design for Flip-Chip Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. S. Chu, Q. Chen, K. K. Tian, J. M. Che, H. Shao, J. Q. Kou, Y. H. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, Z. H. Zhang, and J. N. Dai, “Modulating the Layer Resistivity by Band-Engineering to Improve the Current Spreading for DUV LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(15), 1201–1204 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Zheng, Y. H. Zhang, J. Zhang, C. Sun, C. S. Chu, K. K. Tian, Z. H. Zhang, and W. G. Bi, “Effects of Meshed p-type Contact Structure on the Light Extraction Effect for Deep Ultraviolet Flip-Chip Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 14(1), 149 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. K. Tian, Q. Chen, C. S. Chu, M. Q. Fang, L. P. Li, Y. H. Zhang, W. G. Bi, C. Q. Chen, Z. H. Zhang, and J. N. Dai, “Investigations on AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Si-Doped Quantum Barriers of Different Doping Concentrations,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 12(1), 1700346 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Zhang, Y. X. Zheng, R. L. Meng, C. Sun, K. K. Tian, C. Geng, Z. H. Zhang, G. X. Liu, and W. G. Bi, “Enhancing Both TM- and TE-Polarized Light Extraction Efficiency of AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode via Air Cavity Extractor with Vertical Sidewall,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. S. Chu, K. K. Tian, M. Q. Fang, Y. H. Zhang, L. P. Li, W. G. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN/AlxGa1-xN (x > y) p-electron blocking layer to improve the hole injection for AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 113, 472–477 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Zhang, R. L. Meng, Z. H. Zhang, Q. Shi, L. P. Li, G. X. Liu, and W. G. Bi, “Effects of Inclined Sidewall Structure With Bottom Metal Air Cavity on the Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Zhang, T. B. Wei, Z. Xiong, L. Shang, Y. D. Tian, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Zhou, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Enhanced optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diode with compound photonic crystals by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 013108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. H.

C. S. Chu, Q. Chen, K. K. Tian, J. M. Che, H. Shao, J. Q. Kou, Y. H. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, Z. H. Zhang, and J. N. Dai, “Modulating the Layer Resistivity by Band-Engineering to Improve the Current Spreading for DUV LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(15), 1201–1204 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Zhang, J. Zhang, Y. X. Zheng, C. Sun, K. K. Tian, C. S. Chu, Z. H. Zhang, J. G. X. Li, and W. G. Bi, “The Effect of Sapphire Substrates on Omni-Directional Reflector Design for Flip-Chip Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Zheng, Y. H. Zhang, J. Zhang, C. Sun, C. S. Chu, K. K. Tian, Z. H. Zhang, and W. G. Bi, “Effects of Meshed p-type Contact Structure on the Light Extraction Effect for Deep Ultraviolet Flip-Chip Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 14(1), 149 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, H. X. Zhang, J. N. Dai, S. Zhang, S. Wang, J. He, R. L. Liang, Z. H. Zhang, and C. Q. Chen, “Enhanced the Optical Power of AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode by Optimizing Mesa Sidewall Angle,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. K. Tian, Q. Chen, C. S. Chu, M. Q. Fang, L. P. Li, Y. H. Zhang, W. G. Bi, C. Q. Chen, Z. H. Zhang, and J. N. Dai, “Investigations on AlGaN-Based Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Si-Doped Quantum Barriers of Different Doping Concentrations,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 12(1), 1700346 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Zhang, Y. X. Zheng, R. L. Meng, C. Sun, K. K. Tian, C. Geng, Z. H. Zhang, G. X. Liu, and W. G. Bi, “Enhancing Both TM- and TE-Polarized Light Extraction Efficiency of AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode via Air Cavity Extractor with Vertical Sidewall,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. S. Chu, K. K. Tian, M. Q. Fang, Y. H. Zhang, L. P. Li, W. G. Bi, and Z. H. Zhang, “On the AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN/AlxGa1-xN (x > y) p-electron blocking layer to improve the hole injection for AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 113, 472–477 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Zhang, R. L. Meng, Z. H. Zhang, Q. Shi, L. P. Li, G. X. Liu, and W. G. Bi, “Effects of Inclined Sidewall Structure With Bottom Metal Air Cavity on the Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(5), 1–9 (2017).
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Zhao, H. P.

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Zhao, J.

B. Tang, H. P. Hu, H. Wan, J. Zhao, L. Y. Gong, Y. Lei, Q. Zhao, and S. J. Zhou, “Growth of high-quality AlN films on sapphire substrate by introducing voids through growth-mode modification,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 518, 146218 (2020).
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Zhao, L. X.

Zhao, P.

Zhao, Q.

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Zhao, Y.

Y. H. Zhang, T. B. Wei, Z. Xiong, L. Shang, Y. D. Tian, Y. Zhao, P. Y. Zhou, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Enhanced optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diode with compound photonic crystals by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(1), 013108 (2014).
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Zheng, Y. X.

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. 3D schematic illustration of the AlGaN-based inclined-sidewall-shaped flip-chip DUV LEDs for (a) Device 1, (b) Device 2 and (c) Device 3. (d) Top view for Device 1 under the confocal microscope.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) AFM 3D image of the Device 2, (b) top view of the cone, and (c) line profile along the white line in (b).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. EL spectra for Reference, Devices 1, 2 and 3 at the injection current of 35 mA. Inset: the light emission photograph for the four investigated devices under the microscope.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Current-voltage characteristics and (b) optical power as a function of the injection current for Reference, Devices 1, 2 and 3.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The schematic diagram of 2D-FDTD simulation models for Reference, Devices 1, 2 and 3.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. LEEs for (a) TM- and (b) TE-polarized light as a function of the positions of the dipole source for Reference, Devices 1, 2 and 3. Inset of (a): schematic diagram of different positions of the dipole source. (c) LEEs for TM- and TE-polarized light from the top of Device 2. (d) Radiative recombination rate profile in the first quantum well for cone-shaped DUV LED at the current density of 40 A/cm2. Inset: the position along which the profile is captured.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Electric field distributions in the XY cross section and schematic diagrams for the propagation paths of the TM-polarized light for (a) Device 1, (b) Device 2 and (c) Device 3. Optical beam paths of ① and ②, ③ denote different propagations paths in all Devices. Beam ④ is the additional propagation channel for Device 3. (d) Optical intensity of extracted light versus the position. Insert: the larger version of peak (4); (e) Angle scope of various escape cones in the θ coordinate system. (f) Reflectivity of AlGaN/SiO2/Al and AlGaN/SiO2/Air as a function of incident angle.