Abstract

Manipulating circularly polarized (CP) light waves at will are highly important for photonic researches and applications. Recently, while Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) metasurfaces have shown unprecedented capabilities to control CP light, meta-devices constructed so far always suffer from the limitations of low-efficiency and narrow bandwidth. Here, we propose a scheme to construct PB metasurfaces with these two issues well addressed. To verify our idea, two PB meta-devices are designed and fabricated for achieving high-efficiency and broadband photonic spin Hall effect and focusing effect, respectively. Experimental results, in good agreement with full wave simulations, demonstrate the desired functionalities with efficiencies reaching 80% within an ultra-wide frequency band (8.2-17.3GHz). The proposed design scheme is generic and can be extended to high-frequency regimes. Our work can stimulate the realizations of high-performance and broadband PB meta-devices with diversified functionalities.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  47. R. Li, F. Shen, Y. Sun, W. Wang, L. Zhu, and Z. Guo, “Broadband, high-efficiency, arbitrary focusing lens by a holographic dielectric meta-reflectarray,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 49(14), 145101 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2019 (4)

S. Sun, Q. He, J. Hao, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(2), 380–479 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Yoo and Q. Park, “Metamaterials and chiral sensing: a review of fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 8(2), 249–261 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Jia, Z. Wang, H. Li, X. Wang, W. Luo, S. Sun, Y. Zhang, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Efficient manipulations of circularly polarized terahertz waves with transmissive metasurfaces,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 16 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, J. Yang, C. Gao, and S. Fu, “High-efficiency, broadband all-dielectric transmission metasurface for optical vortex generation,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(6), 2699 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

Z. Wang, S. Dong, W. Luo, M. Jia, Z. Liang, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency generation of Bessel beams with transmissive metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(19), 191901 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Chu, Q. Li, B. Liu, J. Luo, S. Sun, Z. Hang, L. Zhou, and Y. Lai, “A hybrid invisibility cloak based on integration of transparent metasurfaces and zero-index materials,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(1), 50 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, S. Ma, X. Ling, X. Zhang, S. Tang, T. Cai, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Deterministic Approach to Achieve Broadband Polarization-Independent Diffusive Scatterings Based on Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1691–1702 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, A. Pors, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Gradient metasurfaces: a review of fundamentals and applications,” Reports Prog. Phys. 81(2), 026401 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

W. Luo, S. Sun, H. X. Xu, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Transmissive Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces with nearly 100% Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(4), 044033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, A. N. Askarpour, L. Sun, J. Shi, X. Li, and A. Alu, “Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 14180 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Duan, H. Guo, S. Dong, T. Cai, W. Luo, Z. Liang, Q. He, L. Zhou, and S. Sun, “High-efficiency chirality-modulated spoof surface plasmon meta-coupler,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1354 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

R. Li, F. Shen, Y. Sun, W. Wang, L. Zhu, and Z. Guo, “Broadband, high-efficiency, arbitrary focusing lens by a holographic dielectric meta-reflectarray,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 49(14), 145101 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. C. Devlin, M. Khorasaninejad, W. Chen, J. Oh, and F. Capasso, “Broadband high-efficiency dielectric metasurfaces for the visible spectrum,” PNAS 113(38), 10473–10478 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Reports Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency surface plasmon meta-couplers: concept and microwave-regime realizations,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16003 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, A. Noor, L. Du, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, K. Luan, T. Wang, Z. Tian, W. Tang, J. Han, W. Zhang, X. Zhou, Q. Cheng, and T. Cui, “Anomalous Refraction and Nondi ff ractive Bessel-Beam Generation of Terahertz Waves through Transmission-Type Coding Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1968–1977 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, S. Xiao, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Photonic Spin Hall Effect with Nearly 100% Efficiency,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(8), 1102–1108 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Bliokh, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuno, F. Nori, and A. V. Zayats, “Spin–orbit interactions of light,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 796–808 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Controlling Vector Bessel Beams with Metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(4), 044012 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, T. Bernardin, J.-C. Weeber, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient unidirectional polarization-controlled excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(8), e197 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Meta-Hologram with Polarization-Controlled Dual Images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2(4), e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband Focusing Flat Mirrors Based on Plasmonic Gradient Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, R. C. Costa, M. J. Fuchter, and A. J. Campbell, “Circularly polarized light detection by a chiral organic semiconductor transistor,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang A, E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband Light Bending with Plasmonic Nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K. Yang, C. Wang, T. Juan, W. Chen, C. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. Kung, G. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. Tsai, “High Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Li, S. Xiao, B. Cai, Q. He, T. J. Cui, and L. Zhou, “Flat metasurfaces to focus electromagnetic waves in reflection geometry,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4940–4942 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

N. Shitrit, I. Bretner, Y. Gorodetski, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Optical Spin Hall Effects in Plasmonic Chains,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2038–2042 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Marrucci, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, E. Nagali, and F. Sciarrino, “Spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light and its classical and quantum applications,” J. Opt. 13(6), 064001 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Liu, T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Light-driven nanoscale plasmonic motors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 570–573 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(11), 783–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

O. Hosten and P. Kwiat, “Observation of the Spin Hall Effect of Light via Weak Measurements,” Science 319(5864), 787–790 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. Y. Bliokh and Y. P. Bliokh, “Conservation of Angular Momentum, Transverse Shift, and Spin Hall Effect in Reflection and Refraction of an Electromagnetic Wave Packet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 073903 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Onoda, S. Murakami, and N. Nagaosa, “Hall Effect of Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083901 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

B. L. Feringa, “In Control of Motion: From Molecular Switches to Molecular Motors,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(6), 504–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

C. S. Wang, H. S. Fei, Y. Qiu, Y. Q. Yang, and Z. Q. Wei, “Photoinduced birefringence and reversible optical storage in liquid-crystalline azobenzene side-chain polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 19–21 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alu, A.

Y. Zhao, A. N. Askarpour, L. Sun, J. Shi, X. Li, and A. Alu, “Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 14180 (2017).
[Crossref]

Askarpour, A. N.

Y. Zhao, A. N. Askarpour, L. Sun, J. Shi, X. Li, and A. Alu, “Chirality detection of enantiomers using twisted optical metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 14180 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barron, L. D.

E. Hendry, T. Carpy, J. Johnston, M. Popland, R. V. Mikhaylovskiy, A. J. Lapthorn, S. M. Kelly, L. D. Barron, N. Gadegaard, and M. Kadodwala, “Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biomolecules using superchiral fields,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(11), 783–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bartal, G.

M. Liu, T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Light-driven nanoscale plasmonic motors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 570–573 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bernardin, T.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, T. Bernardin, J.-C. Weeber, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient unidirectional polarization-controlled excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(8), e197 (2014).
[Crossref]

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S. Sun, K. Yang, C. Wang, T. Juan, W. Chen, C. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. Kung, G. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. Tsai, “High Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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W. Luo, S. Sun, H. X. Xu, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Transmissive Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces with nearly 100% Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(4), 044033 (2017).
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W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Meta-Hologram with Polarization-Controlled Dual Images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
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H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Reports Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang A, E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Muhlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
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M. Jia, Z. Wang, H. Li, X. Wang, W. Luo, S. Sun, Y. Zhang, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Efficient manipulations of circularly polarized terahertz waves with transmissive metasurfaces,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 16 (2019).
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Zhou, L.

S. Sun, Q. He, J. Hao, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(2), 380–479 (2019).
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W. Luo, S. Sun, H. X. Xu, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “Transmissive Ultrathin Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces with nearly 100% Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(4), 044033 (2017).
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W. Sun, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency surface plasmon meta-couplers: concept and microwave-regime realizations,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16003 (2016).
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W. Luo, S. Xiao, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Photonic Spin Hall Effect with Nearly 100% Efficiency,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(8), 1102–1108 (2015).
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W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, Y. W. Huang, G. Sun, I. D. Chiang, C. Y. Liao, W. L. Hsu, H. T. Lin, S. Sun, L. Zhou, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Meta-Hologram with Polarization-Controlled Dual Images,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 225–230 (2014).
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S. Sun, K. Yang, C. Wang, T. Juan, W. Chen, C. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. Kung, G. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. Tsai, “High Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Zhou, X.

S. Liu, A. Noor, L. Du, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, K. Luan, T. Wang, Z. Tian, W. Tang, J. Han, W. Zhang, X. Zhou, Q. Cheng, and T. Cui, “Anomalous Refraction and Nondi ff ractive Bessel-Beam Generation of Terahertz Waves through Transmission-Type Coding Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1968–1977 (2016).
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R. Li, F. Shen, Y. Sun, W. Wang, L. Zhu, and Z. Guo, “Broadband, high-efficiency, arbitrary focusing lens by a holographic dielectric meta-reflectarray,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 49(14), 145101 (2016).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematics of two reflective PB metasurfaces to realize high-efficiency PSHE (a) and focusing effect (b) within a broad working band, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Design and characterization of the high-efficiency and broadband PB meta-atoms. (a) Sample image of the proposed meta-atoms in metal-insulator-metal configuration (see inset for its building block). Here, $p = 6mm,\; r = 2.5mm,\; w = 0.2mm$ , and $\theta = 85^\circ $ . The thicknesses of two metallic layers and dielectric spacer are 0.036 mm and 3 mm, respectively. Simulated and measured (b) reflection phases ${\phi _{uu}},\; {\phi _{vv}}$ and (c) efficiency of the anomalous mode ${|{({{r_{uu}} - {r_{vv}}} )/2} |^2}$ for the sample shown in (a) as a function of frequency. The gray regions in (b) and (c) indicate the working band of our sample defined by the condition of ${|{({{r_{uu}} - {r_{vv}}} )/2} |^2} > 0.8.$
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The proposed PB metasurface to achieve high-efficiency and broadband PSHE. (a) Schematic of the experimental setup for detecting the scattered electric far-field distributions of the sample (see inset for its picture). (b) Normalized scattered electric field angular distributions for the PB metasurface under the illumination of LCP and RCP light at three different frequencies (9, 13 and 16 GHz) obtained by simulations (lines) and experiments (symbols).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental demonstration of high-efficiency and broadband PSHE. (a, b, d, e) Normalized spin-conserved (a, d) and spin-flipped (b, e) scattered electric field intensities as functions of frequency and reflection angle for the metasurface shined by normally incident LCP (a, b) and RCP (d, e) beams, respectively. (c, f) The measured efficiencies of anomalous reflection versus frequency for LCP and RCP illuminations, retrieved by the experimental data in (a, d).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. High-efficiency and broadband reflective PB meta-lens for microwave regime. (a) Schematics of the near-field scanning measurements to characterize the performance of fabricated meta-lens (see inset). (b) FDTD simulated 3D electric field intensity distribution reflected by our meta-lens with its focal length demonstrated as F=98 mm at 12 GHz. The measured (c-h) and simulated (i-n) Ex field pattern in x-z plane (y=0) reflected by our meta-lens at six representative frequencies.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. High-efficiency and broadband BB generator for THz regime. (a, b) Schematics of the zero-order BB beam (a) generated by the proposed meta-device (b). The simulated electric field |Ex|2 distributions at five representative frequencies at x-z plane with y=0 (c-g) and at x-y plane at different longitudinal positions (see insets).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

| r u u | = | r v v | = 1 , r u u + r v v = 0
θ r = sin 1 ( sin θ i + ξ x / k 0 )
Φ ( x , y ) = k 0 ( F 2 + x 2 + y 2 F )
Φ ( x , y ) = k x 2 + y 2

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