Abstract

We present experimental results on fiber Bragg gratings inscription in nanostructured graded-index (nGRIN) and multi-step index (MSIN) optical fibers, both having non-uniform radial distribution of GeO2 dopant in the fiber cores. In particular, the positive role of radial shaping the GeO2 distribution in the fiber core on grating reflection efficiency is reported. We postulate that an appropriate spatial distribution of the germanium concentration that matches the fundamental mode profile improves grating spectral response due to more efficient grating-mode interaction, as compared with uniformly doped step-index optical fibers with the same overall doping level. Moreover, we show that radially shaped fibers exhibit moderately higher temperature responses than their step-index counterparts.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

2018 (1)

A. Anuszkiewicz, R. Kasztelanic, A. Filipkowski, G. Stepniewski, T. Stefaniuk, B. Siwicki, D. Pysz, M. Klimczak, and R. Buczynski, “Fused silica optical fibers with graded index nanostructured core,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12329 (2018).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

F. Hudelist, R. Buczynski, A. J. Waddie, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Design and fabrication of nano-structured gradient index microlenses,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3255–3263 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Li, P. Liu, S. H. Lu, J. Wang, X. Q. Mao, H. Wei, Y. J. Fu, K. Zheng, T. G. Ning, T. J. Li, and S. S. Jian, “Design and fabrication of erbium doped photosensitive fibers,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. 52(5), 1234–1241 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry, N. Groothoff, B. Poumellec, and J. Canning, “Photo-induced densification in Er3+/Al doped silica preform plates using 193-nm laser light,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94(4), 589–597 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008(6), 1–19 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Canning, “Fibre gratings and devices for sensors and lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 275–289 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, V. Beugin, P. Niay, M. Douay, C. Depecker, and P. Cordier, “Mechanisms of photosensitivity enhancement in OH-flooded standard germanosilicate preform plates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(1), 69–76 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J.-M. Blondy, and A. Lecomte, “Nanostructured optical fiber by the sol-gel process in the SiO2–ZrO2 system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121920 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. D. Love, T. G. Ryan, L. W. Cahill, and D. M. Elton, “Controlled modification and direct characterization of multimode-fiber refractive-index profiles,” Appl. Phys. 42(4), 627–633 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (5)

1999 (3)

K. W. Raine, R. Feced, S. E. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Measurement of axial stress at high spatial resolution in ultraviolet-exposed fibers,” Appl. Opt. 38(7), 1086–1095 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, and T. A. Strasser, “Grating resonances in air-silica microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 24(21), 1460–1462 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahim, “Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Temperature Using Bragg Gratings Written in Germanosilicate and Boron-Codoped Germanosilicate Fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1635–1637 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, “Bragg grating inscriptions within strained monomode high NA germania-doped fibres: part I. Experimentation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(1), 40–52 (1997).
[Crossref]

I. Riant and F. Haller, “„Study of the photosensitivity at 193 nm and comparison with photosensitivity at 240 nm influence of fiber tension: type IIa aging,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1464–1469 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, “The UV induced refractive index grating in Ge:SiO2 preforms: additional CW experiments and the macroscopic origin of the index change in index,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29(7), 1842–1856 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

D. L. Williams and R. P. Smith, “Accelerated lifetime tests on UV written intra-core gratings in boron germania codoped silica fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31(24), 2120–2121 (1995).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, “Enhanced photosensitivity in tin-codoped germanosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(9), 1048–1050 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (4)

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(1), 45–47 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(13), 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29(14), 1234–1235 (1993).
[Crossref]

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, and M. Kawachi, “Photosensitization in optical fiber and silica on silicon/silica waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18(12), 953–955 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, “Bragg grating formation and germanosilicate fiber photosensitivity,” Proc. SPIE 1516, 185–199 (1991).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumatan, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

P. B. O’Conner, J. B. MacChesney, H. M. Presby, and L. G. Cohen, “Preparation and structural characteristics of high silica, graded index optical fibers,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 55(5), 513–517 (1976).

1974 (1)

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, and H. M. Presby, “A new technique for the preparation of low-loss and graded-index optical fibres,” Proc. IEEE 62(9), 1280–1281 (1974).
[Crossref]

Abe, M.

Abramczyk, J.

Ainslie, B. J.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(1), 45–47 (1993).
[Crossref]

Albert, J.

Anuszkiewicz, A.

T. Osuch, A. Anuszkiewicz, K. Markowski, A. Filipkowski, D. Pysz, R. Kasztelanic, R. Stepien, M. Klimczak, and R. Buczynski, “Inscription of Bragg gratings in nanostructured graded index single-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 27(10), 13721–13733 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Anuszkiewicz, R. Kasztelanic, A. Filipkowski, G. Stepniewski, T. Stefaniuk, B. Siwicki, D. Pysz, M. Klimczak, and R. Buczynski, “Fused silica optical fibers with graded index nanostructured core,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12329 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Franczyk, D. Pysz, A. Anuszkiewicz, A. Filipkowski, K. Stawicki, J. Lisowska, P. Pucko, D. Michalik, T. Stefaniuk, R. Kasztelanic, R. Stepień, K. Markowski, K. Jedrzejewski, T. Osuch, and R. Buczyński, “Nanostructured Core Optical Fibres for Laser Applications,” in 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON)2019, pp. 1.

Arai, K.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumatan, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

Araujo, F. M.

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahim, “Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Temperature Using Bragg Gratings Written in Germanosilicate and Boron-Codoped Germanosilicate Fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1635–1637 (1999).
[Crossref]

Armitage, J. R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(1), 45–47 (1993).
[Crossref]

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(13), 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29(14), 1234–1235 (1993).
[Crossref]

Auguste, J.-L.

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J.-M. Blondy, and A. Lecomte, “Nanostructured optical fiber by the sol-gel process in the SiO2–ZrO2 system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121920 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bandyopadhyay, S.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008(6), 1–19 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bartelt, H.

Bayon, J. F.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, “Bragg grating inscriptions within strained monomode high NA germania-doped fibres: part I. Experimentation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(1), 40–52 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, “The UV induced refractive index grating in Ge:SiO2 preforms: additional CW experiments and the macroscopic origin of the index change in index,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29(7), 1842–1856 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. Delevaque, S. Boj, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, J. Le Mellot, M. Monerie, P. Niay, and P. Bernage, “Optical fiber design for strong gratings photoimprinting with radiation mode suppression,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1995, paper PD5.

Bernage, P.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, “Bragg grating inscriptions within strained monomode high NA germania-doped fibres: part I. Experimentation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(1), 40–52 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. Delevaque, S. Boj, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, J. Le Mellot, M. Monerie, P. Niay, and P. Bernage, “Optical fiber design for strong gratings photoimprinting with radiation mode suppression,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1995, paper PD5.

Beugin, V.

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, V. Beugin, P. Niay, M. Douay, C. Depecker, and P. Cordier, “Mechanisms of photosensitivity enhancement in OH-flooded standard germanosilicate preform plates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(1), 69–76 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bierlich, J.

Bilodeau, F.

Blondy, J.-M.

G. Granger, C. Restoin, P. Roy, R. Jamier, S. Rougier, A. Lecomte, and J.-M. Blondy, “Nanostructured optical fibers in the SiO2/SnO2 system by the sol-gel method,” Mater. Lett. 120, 292–294 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J.-M. Blondy, and A. Lecomte, “Nanostructured optical fiber by the sol-gel process in the SiO2–ZrO2 system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121920 (2007).
[Crossref]

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J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008(6), 1–19 (2008).
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Milanese, D.

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R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29(14), 1234–1235 (1993).
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P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(13), 1191–1193 (1993).
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T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, “Bragg grating inscriptions within strained monomode high NA germania-doped fibres: part I. Experimentation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(1), 40–52 (1997).
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E. Delevaque, S. Boj, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, J. Le Mellot, M. Monerie, P. Niay, and P. Bernage, “Optical fiber design for strong gratings photoimprinting with radiation mode suppression,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1995, paper PD5.

Ning, T. G.

J. Li, P. Liu, S. H. Lu, J. Wang, X. Q. Mao, H. Wei, Y. J. Fu, K. Zheng, T. G. Ning, T. J. Li, and S. S. Jian, “Design and fabrication of erbium doped photosensitive fibers,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. 52(5), 1234–1241 (2009).
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O’Conner, P. B.

P. B. O’Conner, J. B. MacChesney, H. M. Presby, and L. G. Cohen, “Preparation and structural characteristics of high silica, graded index optical fibers,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 55(5), 513–517 (1976).

O’Connor, P. B.

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, and H. M. Presby, “A new technique for the preparation of low-loss and graded-index optical fibres,” Proc. IEEE 62(9), 1280–1281 (1974).
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Osuch, T.

T. Osuch, A. Anuszkiewicz, K. Markowski, A. Filipkowski, D. Pysz, R. Kasztelanic, R. Stepien, M. Klimczak, and R. Buczynski, “Inscription of Bragg gratings in nanostructured graded index single-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 27(10), 13721–13733 (2019).
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M. Franczyk, D. Pysz, A. Anuszkiewicz, A. Filipkowski, K. Stawicki, J. Lisowska, P. Pucko, D. Michalik, T. Stefaniuk, R. Kasztelanic, R. Stepień, K. Markowski, K. Jedrzejewski, T. Osuch, and R. Buczyński, “Nanostructured Core Optical Fibres for Laser Applications,” in 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON)2019, pp. 1.

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C.-S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185(4-6), 337–342 (2000).
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L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, “Enhanced photosensitivity in tin-codoped germanosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(9), 1048–1050 (1995).
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L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. St. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, “Study of UV absorption in germanosilicate fiber performs,” in Tech. Digest of Conf. on Lasers and Opto-Electronics, CLEO'941994, pp. 243–245.

Piechal, B.

Pinkstone, J.

L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. S. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, “Ultraviolet absorption in modified chemical vapor deposition preforms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(10), 2106–2111 (1994).
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L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. St. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, “Study of UV absorption in germanosilicate fiber performs,” in Tech. Digest of Conf. on Lasers and Opto-Electronics, CLEO'941994, pp. 243–245.

Pohl, A.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008(6), 1–19 (2008).
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T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, “Bragg grating inscriptions within strained monomode high NA germania-doped fibres: part I. Experimentation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(1), 40–52 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. Delevaque, S. Boj, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, J. Le Mellot, M. Monerie, P. Niay, and P. Bernage, “Optical fiber design for strong gratings photoimprinting with radiation mode suppression,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1995, paper PD5.

Poturaj, K.

Poumellec, B.

M. Lancry, N. Groothoff, B. Poumellec, and J. Canning, “Photo-induced densification in Er3+/Al doped silica preform plates using 193-nm laser light,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94(4), 589–597 (2009).
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M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, V. Beugin, P. Niay, M. Douay, C. Depecker, and P. Cordier, “Mechanisms of photosensitivity enhancement in OH-flooded standard germanosilicate preform plates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(1), 69–76 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, “Bragg grating inscriptions within strained monomode high NA germania-doped fibres: part I. Experimentation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(1), 40–52 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, “The UV induced refractive index grating in Ge:SiO2 preforms: additional CW experiments and the macroscopic origin of the index change in index,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29(7), 1842–1856 (1996).
[Crossref]

Presby, H. M.

P. B. O’Conner, J. B. MacChesney, H. M. Presby, and L. G. Cohen, “Preparation and structural characteristics of high silica, graded index optical fibers,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 55(5), 513–517 (1976).

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, and H. M. Presby, “A new technique for the preparation of low-loss and graded-index optical fibres,” Proc. IEEE 62(9), 1280–1281 (1974).
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Pucko, P.

M. Franczyk, D. Pysz, A. Anuszkiewicz, A. Filipkowski, K. Stawicki, J. Lisowska, P. Pucko, D. Michalik, T. Stefaniuk, R. Kasztelanic, R. Stepień, K. Markowski, K. Jedrzejewski, T. Osuch, and R. Buczyński, “Nanostructured Core Optical Fibres for Laser Applications,” in 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON)2019, pp. 1.

Pureur, D.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, “Bragg grating inscriptions within strained monomode high NA germania-doped fibres: part I. Experimentation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(1), 40–52 (1997).
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Pysz, D.

T. Osuch, A. Anuszkiewicz, K. Markowski, A. Filipkowski, D. Pysz, R. Kasztelanic, R. Stepien, M. Klimczak, and R. Buczynski, “Inscription of Bragg gratings in nanostructured graded index single-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 27(10), 13721–13733 (2019).
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A. Anuszkiewicz, R. Kasztelanic, A. Filipkowski, G. Stepniewski, T. Stefaniuk, B. Siwicki, D. Pysz, M. Klimczak, and R. Buczynski, “Fused silica optical fibers with graded index nanostructured core,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12329 (2018).
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A. Filipkowski, B. Piechal, D. Pysz, R. Stepien, A. Waddie, M. R. Taghizadeh, and R. Buczynski, “Nanostructured gradient index microaxicons made by a modified stack and draw method,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5200–5203 (2015).
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R. Buczyński, M. Klimczak, T. Stefaniuk, R. Kasztelanic, B. Siwicki, G. Stępniewski, J. Cimek, D. Pysz, and R. Stępień, “Optical fibers with gradient index nanostructured core,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25588–25596 (2015).
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M. Franczyk, D. Pysz, A. Anuszkiewicz, A. Filipkowski, K. Stawicki, J. Lisowska, P. Pucko, D. Michalik, T. Stefaniuk, R. Kasztelanic, R. Stepień, K. Markowski, K. Jedrzejewski, T. Osuch, and R. Buczyński, “Nanostructured Core Optical Fibres for Laser Applications,” in 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON)2019, pp. 1.

Raine, K. W.

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(13), 1191–1193 (1993).
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Reekie, L.

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, L. Reekie, C. Contardi, D. Milanese, and M. Ferraris, “Bragg gratings in ternary SiO2:SnO2:Na2O optical glass fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1153–1155 (2000).
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L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, “Enhanced photosensitivity in tin-codoped germanosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(9), 1048–1050 (1995).
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Reitzenstein, S.

Restoin, C.

G. Granger, C. Restoin, P. Roy, R. Jamier, S. Rougier, A. Lecomte, and J.-M. Blondy, “Nanostructured optical fibers in the SiO2/SnO2 system by the sol-gel method,” Mater. Lett. 120, 292–294 (2014).
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G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J.-M. Blondy, and A. Lecomte, “Nanostructured optical fiber by the sol-gel process in the SiO2–ZrO2 system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121920 (2007).
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I. Riant and F. Haller, “„Study of the photosensitivity at 193 nm and comparison with photosensitivity at 240 nm influence of fiber tension: type IIa aging,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1464–1469 (1997).
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Rothhardt, M.

Rougier, S.

G. Granger, C. Restoin, P. Roy, R. Jamier, S. Rougier, A. Lecomte, and J.-M. Blondy, “Nanostructured optical fibers in the SiO2/SnO2 system by the sol-gel method,” Mater. Lett. 120, 292–294 (2014).
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G. Granger, C. Restoin, P. Roy, R. Jamier, S. Rougier, A. Lecomte, and J.-M. Blondy, “Nanostructured optical fibers in the SiO2/SnO2 system by the sol-gel method,” Mater. Lett. 120, 292–294 (2014).
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Russell, P. S. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. St. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, “Study of UV absorption in germanosilicate fiber performs,” in Tech. Digest of Conf. on Lasers and Opto-Electronics, CLEO'941994, pp. 243–245.

Ryan, T. G.

B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. D. Love, T. G. Ryan, L. W. Cahill, and D. M. Elton, “Controlled modification and direct characterization of multimode-fiber refractive-index profiles,” Appl. Phys. 42(4), 627–633 (2003).
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Salik, E.

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P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahim, “Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Temperature Using Bragg Gratings Written in Germanosilicate and Boron-Codoped Germanosilicate Fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1635–1637 (1999).
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Siwicki, B.

A. Anuszkiewicz, R. Kasztelanic, A. Filipkowski, G. Stepniewski, T. Stefaniuk, B. Siwicki, D. Pysz, M. Klimczak, and R. Buczynski, “Fused silica optical fibers with graded index nanostructured core,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12329 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Buczyński, M. Klimczak, T. Stefaniuk, R. Kasztelanic, B. Siwicki, G. Stępniewski, J. Cimek, D. Pysz, and R. Stępień, “Optical fibers with gradient index nanostructured core,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25588–25596 (2015).
[Crossref]

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D. L. Williams and R. P. Smith, “Accelerated lifetime tests on UV written intra-core gratings in boron germania codoped silica fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31(24), 2120–2121 (1995).
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Starodubov, D. S.

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M. Franczyk, D. Pysz, A. Anuszkiewicz, A. Filipkowski, K. Stawicki, J. Lisowska, P. Pucko, D. Michalik, T. Stefaniuk, R. Kasztelanic, R. Stepień, K. Markowski, K. Jedrzejewski, T. Osuch, and R. Buczyński, “Nanostructured Core Optical Fibres for Laser Applications,” in 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON)2019, pp. 1.

Stefaniuk, T.

A. Anuszkiewicz, R. Kasztelanic, A. Filipkowski, G. Stepniewski, T. Stefaniuk, B. Siwicki, D. Pysz, M. Klimczak, and R. Buczynski, “Fused silica optical fibers with graded index nanostructured core,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12329 (2018).
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R. Buczyński, M. Klimczak, T. Stefaniuk, R. Kasztelanic, B. Siwicki, G. Stępniewski, J. Cimek, D. Pysz, and R. Stępień, “Optical fibers with gradient index nanostructured core,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25588–25596 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Franczyk, D. Pysz, A. Anuszkiewicz, A. Filipkowski, K. Stawicki, J. Lisowska, P. Pucko, D. Michalik, T. Stefaniuk, R. Kasztelanic, R. Stepień, K. Markowski, K. Jedrzejewski, T. Osuch, and R. Buczyński, “Nanostructured Core Optical Fibres for Laser Applications,” in 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON)2019, pp. 1.

Stepien, R.

Stepniewski, G.

A. Anuszkiewicz, R. Kasztelanic, A. Filipkowski, G. Stepniewski, T. Stefaniuk, B. Siwicki, D. Pysz, M. Klimczak, and R. Buczynski, “Fused silica optical fibers with graded index nanostructured core,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12329 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Buczyński, M. Klimczak, T. Stefaniuk, R. Kasztelanic, B. Siwicki, G. Stępniewski, J. Cimek, D. Pysz, and R. Stępień, “Optical fibers with gradient index nanostructured core,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25588–25596 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stevenson, M.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008(6), 1–19 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Taghizadeh, M. R.

Taunay, T.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, “Bragg grating inscriptions within strained monomode high NA germania-doped fibres: part I. Experimentation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(1), 40–52 (1997).
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Urbanczyk, W.

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J. Li, P. Liu, S. H. Lu, J. Wang, X. Q. Mao, H. Wei, Y. J. Fu, K. Zheng, T. G. Ning, T. J. Li, and S. S. Jian, “Design and fabrication of erbium doped photosensitive fibers,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. 52(5), 1234–1241 (2009).
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Wei, H.

J. Li, P. Liu, S. H. Lu, J. Wang, X. Q. Mao, H. Wei, Y. J. Fu, K. Zheng, T. G. Ning, T. J. Li, and S. S. Jian, “Design and fabrication of erbium doped photosensitive fibers,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. 52(5), 1234–1241 (2009).
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D. L. Williams and R. P. Smith, “Accelerated lifetime tests on UV written intra-core gratings in boron germania codoped silica fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31(24), 2120–2121 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(1), 45–47 (1993).
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Wójcik, G.

Xie, W. X.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, “Bragg grating inscriptions within strained monomode high NA germania-doped fibres: part I. Experimentation,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30(1), 40–52 (1997).
[Crossref]

Xu, M. G.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, “Enhanced photosensitivity in tin-codoped germanosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(9), 1048–1050 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zheng, K.

J. Li, P. Liu, S. H. Lu, J. Wang, X. Q. Mao, H. Wei, Y. J. Fu, K. Zheng, T. G. Ning, T. J. Li, and S. S. Jian, “Design and fabrication of erbium doped photosensitive fibers,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. 52(5), 1234–1241 (2009).
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Zschiedrich, L.

Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. (1)

P. B. O’Conner, J. B. MacChesney, H. M. Presby, and L. G. Cohen, “Preparation and structural characteristics of high silica, graded index optical fibers,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 55(5), 513–517 (1976).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. D. Love, T. G. Ryan, L. W. Cahill, and D. M. Elton, “Controlled modification and direct characterization of multimode-fiber refractive-index profiles,” Appl. Phys. 42(4), 627–633 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

M. Lancry, N. Groothoff, B. Poumellec, and J. Canning, “Photo-induced densification in Er3+/Al doped silica preform plates using 193-nm laser light,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94(4), 589–597 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Brasse, C. Restoin, J.-L. Auguste, S. Hautreux, J.-M. Blondy, and A. Lecomte, “Nanostructured optical fiber by the sol-gel process in the SiO2–ZrO2 system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121920 (2007).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (4)

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(1), 45–47 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. L. Williams and R. P. Smith, “Accelerated lifetime tests on UV written intra-core gratings in boron germania codoped silica fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31(24), 2120–2121 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(13), 1191–1193 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29(14), 1234–1235 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, “Enhanced photosensitivity in tin-codoped germanosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7(9), 1048–1050 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahim, “Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Temperature Using Bragg Gratings Written in Germanosilicate and Boron-Codoped Germanosilicate Fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1635–1637 (1999).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumatan, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

I. Riant and F. Haller, “„Study of the photosensitivity at 193 nm and comparison with photosensitivity at 240 nm influence of fiber tension: type IIa aging,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1464–1469 (1997).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Nanostructured graded-index optical fiber: a) distribution of nanorods in the core (binary structure), b) scheme of effective refractive index profile at 1550 nm, c) SEM image of core area (dark areas – fused silica glass, bright areas – Ge doped silica rods).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Multi-step-index optical fiber: a) refractive index profile (a – central area, b – middle area, c – peripheral area), b) SEM image of the fiber core.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Illustration of grating growth in a) nGRIN and b) MSIN optical fiber during the inscription examination.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Evolution of: a) transmission minimum (Trmin) and b) reflection coefficient (rmax) versus the number of pulses (N) for FBGs inscription.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Illustration of a) amplitude of refractive index changes and b) Bragg wavelength shift of FBGs versus the number of pulses.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Temperature response of FBGs inscribed in a) low Ge doped nGRIN and SMF-28 and b) high Ge doped MSIN and SM1500 optical fibers.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Normalized temperature sensitivities of FBGs written in investigated optical fibers.

Tables (4)

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Table 1. Fundamental parameters of multi-step-index optical fiber.

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Table 2. Summary of the most important parameters of investigated optical fibers.

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Table 3. Grating growth coefficient, defined as a slope of ΔnAC=f(N).

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Table 4. Temperature coefficient KT and normalized temperature coefficient kT of FBGs written in all examined optical fibers together with the uncertainties u(KT) and u(kT) of their determination.

Equations (1)

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Δ n A C = λ B a t a n h ( r max ) π L ν