Abstract

Holographic near-eye displays present true three-dimensional images with full monocular depth cues. In this paper, we propose a technique to expand the eyebox of the holographic near-eye displays. The base eyebox of the holographic near-eye displays is determined by the space bandwidth product of a spatial light modulator. The proposed technique replicates and stitches the base eyebox by the combined use of a holographic optical element and high order diffractions of the spatial light modulator, achieving horizontally and vertically expanded eyebox. An angular spectrum wrapping technique is also applied to alleviate image distortions observed at the boundaries between the replicated base eyeboxes.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. H.-J. Yeom, H.-J. Kim, S.-B. Kim, H. Zhang, B. Li, Y.-M. Ji, S.-H. Kim, and J.-H. Park, “3D holographic head mounted display using holographic optical elements with astigmatism aberration compensation,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32025–32034 (2015).
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    [Crossref]
  3. E. Moon, M. Kim, J. Roh, H. Kim, and J. Hahn, “Holographic head-mounted display with RGB light emitting diode light source,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6526–6534 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Jang, K. Bang, G. Li, and B. Lee, “Holographic near-eye display with expanded eye-box,” ACM Trans. Graph. 37(6), 1–14 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Hong, Y. Kim, H.-J. Choi, J. Hahn, J.-H. Park, H. Kim, S.-W. Min, N. Chen, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display technologies of recent interest: principles, status, and issues [Invited],” Appl. Opt. 50(34), H87–H115 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence–accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. Koulieris, B. Bui, M. Banks, and G. Drettakis, “Accommodation and comfort in head-mounted displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 36(4), 1–11 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Kim, S. Lim, G. Choi, Y. Kim, H. Kim, and J. Hahn, “Expanded exit-pupil holographic head-mounted display with high-speed digital micromirror device,” ETRI J. 40(3), 366–375 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  9. J.-H. Park and S.-B. Kim, “Optical see-through holographic near-eye-display with eyebox steering and depth of field control,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27076–27088 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Takekawa, Y. Nagahama, Y. Takashima, and Y. Takaki, “Proposal of holographic display using MEMS-SLM and pulse modulated laser,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2019, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W4A.3.
  11. J.-H. Park, “Recent progresses in computer generated holography for three-dimensional scene,” J. Inf. Disp. 18(1), 1–12 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  12. S.-B. Kim and J.-H. Park, “Optical see-through Maxwellian near-to-eye display with an enlarged eyebox,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 767–770 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Cho, S. Kim, S.-W. Park, B. Lee, and H. Kim, “DC-free on-axis holographic display using a phase-only spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 43(14), 3397–3400 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  15. J. Jeong, J. Cho, C. Jang, C. Yoo, and B. Lee, “Design and fabrication of extended eye-box holographic lens using holographic printer,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2019, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.3.

2018 (5)

2017 (3)

J.-H. Park, “Recent progresses in computer generated holography for three-dimensional scene,” J. Inf. Disp. 18(1), 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Maimone, A. Georgiou, and J. S. Kollin, “Holographic near-eye displays for virtual and augmented reality,” ACM Trans. Graph. 36(4), 1–16 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Koulieris, B. Bui, M. Banks, and G. Drettakis, “Accommodation and comfort in head-mounted displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 36(4), 1–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence–accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref]

Akeley, K.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence–accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bang, K.

C. Jang, K. Bang, G. Li, and B. Lee, “Holographic near-eye display with expanded eye-box,” ACM Trans. Graph. 37(6), 1–14 (2018).
[Crossref]

Banks, M.

G. Koulieris, B. Bui, M. Banks, and G. Drettakis, “Accommodation and comfort in head-mounted displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 36(4), 1–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Banks, M. S.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence–accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bui, B.

G. Koulieris, B. Bui, M. Banks, and G. Drettakis, “Accommodation and comfort in head-mounted displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 36(4), 1–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, N.

Cho, J.

J. Cho, S. Kim, S.-W. Park, B. Lee, and H. Kim, “DC-free on-axis holographic display using a phase-only spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 43(14), 3397–3400 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Jeong, J. Cho, C. Jang, C. Yoo, and B. Lee, “Design and fabrication of extended eye-box holographic lens using holographic printer,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2019, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.3.

Choi, G.

M. Kim, S. Lim, G. Choi, Y. Kim, H. Kim, and J. Hahn, “Expanded exit-pupil holographic head-mounted display with high-speed digital micromirror device,” ETRI J. 40(3), 366–375 (2018).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.-J.

Drettakis, G.

G. Koulieris, B. Bui, M. Banks, and G. Drettakis, “Accommodation and comfort in head-mounted displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 36(4), 1–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Georgiou, A.

A. Maimone, A. Georgiou, and J. S. Kollin, “Holographic near-eye displays for virtual and augmented reality,” ACM Trans. Graph. 36(4), 1–16 (2017).
[Crossref]

Girshick, A. R.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence–accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Hahn, J.

Hoffman, D. M.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence–accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hong, J.

Jang, C.

C. Jang, K. Bang, G. Li, and B. Lee, “Holographic near-eye display with expanded eye-box,” ACM Trans. Graph. 37(6), 1–14 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Jeong, J. Cho, C. Jang, C. Yoo, and B. Lee, “Design and fabrication of extended eye-box holographic lens using holographic printer,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2019, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.3.

Jeong, J.

J. Jeong, J. Cho, C. Jang, C. Yoo, and B. Lee, “Design and fabrication of extended eye-box holographic lens using holographic printer,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2019, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.3.

Ji, Y.-M.

Kim, H.

Kim, H.-J.

Kim, M.

M. Kim, S. Lim, G. Choi, Y. Kim, H. Kim, and J. Hahn, “Expanded exit-pupil holographic head-mounted display with high-speed digital micromirror device,” ETRI J. 40(3), 366–375 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Moon, M. Kim, J. Roh, H. Kim, and J. Hahn, “Holographic head-mounted display with RGB light emitting diode light source,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6526–6534 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

Kim, S.-B.

Kim, S.-H.

Kim, Y.

M. Kim, S. Lim, G. Choi, Y. Kim, H. Kim, and J. Hahn, “Expanded exit-pupil holographic head-mounted display with high-speed digital micromirror device,” ETRI J. 40(3), 366–375 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Hong, Y. Kim, H.-J. Choi, J. Hahn, J.-H. Park, H. Kim, S.-W. Min, N. Chen, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display technologies of recent interest: principles, status, and issues [Invited],” Appl. Opt. 50(34), H87–H115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kollin, J. S.

A. Maimone, A. Georgiou, and J. S. Kollin, “Holographic near-eye displays for virtual and augmented reality,” ACM Trans. Graph. 36(4), 1–16 (2017).
[Crossref]

Koulieris, G.

G. Koulieris, B. Bui, M. Banks, and G. Drettakis, “Accommodation and comfort in head-mounted displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 36(4), 1–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

C. Jang, K. Bang, G. Li, and B. Lee, “Holographic near-eye display with expanded eye-box,” ACM Trans. Graph. 37(6), 1–14 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Cho, S. Kim, S.-W. Park, B. Lee, and H. Kim, “DC-free on-axis holographic display using a phase-only spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 43(14), 3397–3400 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Hong, Y. Kim, H.-J. Choi, J. Hahn, J.-H. Park, H. Kim, S.-W. Min, N. Chen, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display technologies of recent interest: principles, status, and issues [Invited],” Appl. Opt. 50(34), H87–H115 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Jeong, J. Cho, C. Jang, C. Yoo, and B. Lee, “Design and fabrication of extended eye-box holographic lens using holographic printer,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2019, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.3.

Li, B.

Li, G.

C. Jang, K. Bang, G. Li, and B. Lee, “Holographic near-eye display with expanded eye-box,” ACM Trans. Graph. 37(6), 1–14 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lim, S.

M. Kim, S. Lim, G. Choi, Y. Kim, H. Kim, and J. Hahn, “Expanded exit-pupil holographic head-mounted display with high-speed digital micromirror device,” ETRI J. 40(3), 366–375 (2018).
[Crossref]

Maimone, A.

A. Maimone, A. Georgiou, and J. S. Kollin, “Holographic near-eye displays for virtual and augmented reality,” ACM Trans. Graph. 36(4), 1–16 (2017).
[Crossref]

Min, S.-W.

Moon, E.

Nagahama, Y.

Y. Takekawa, Y. Nagahama, Y. Takashima, and Y. Takaki, “Proposal of holographic display using MEMS-SLM and pulse modulated laser,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2019, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W4A.3.

Park, J.-H.

Park, S.-W.

Roh, J.

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takekawa, Y. Nagahama, Y. Takashima, and Y. Takaki, “Proposal of holographic display using MEMS-SLM and pulse modulated laser,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2019, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W4A.3.

Takashima, Y.

Y. Takekawa, Y. Nagahama, Y. Takashima, and Y. Takaki, “Proposal of holographic display using MEMS-SLM and pulse modulated laser,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2019, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W4A.3.

Takekawa, Y.

Y. Takekawa, Y. Nagahama, Y. Takashima, and Y. Takaki, “Proposal of holographic display using MEMS-SLM and pulse modulated laser,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2019, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W4A.3.

Yeom, H.-J.

Yoo, C.

J. Jeong, J. Cho, C. Jang, C. Yoo, and B. Lee, “Design and fabrication of extended eye-box holographic lens using holographic printer,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2019, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.3.

Zhang, H.

ACM Trans. Graph. (3)

A. Maimone, A. Georgiou, and J. S. Kollin, “Holographic near-eye displays for virtual and augmented reality,” ACM Trans. Graph. 36(4), 1–16 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Jang, K. Bang, G. Li, and B. Lee, “Holographic near-eye display with expanded eye-box,” ACM Trans. Graph. 37(6), 1–14 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Koulieris, B. Bui, M. Banks, and G. Drettakis, “Accommodation and comfort in head-mounted displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 36(4), 1–11 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

ETRI J. (1)

M. Kim, S. Lim, G. Choi, Y. Kim, H. Kim, and J. Hahn, “Expanded exit-pupil holographic head-mounted display with high-speed digital micromirror device,” ETRI J. 40(3), 366–375 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Inf. Disp. (1)

J.-H. Park, “Recent progresses in computer generated holography for three-dimensional scene,” J. Inf. Disp. 18(1), 1–12 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Vis. (1)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence–accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

J. Jeong, J. Cho, C. Jang, C. Yoo, and B. Lee, “Design and fabrication of extended eye-box holographic lens using holographic printer,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2019, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W2A.3.

Y. Takekawa, Y. Nagahama, Y. Takashima, and Y. Takaki, “Proposal of holographic display using MEMS-SLM and pulse modulated laser,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging 2019, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), paper W4A.3.

Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Holographic 3D images captured while moving the camera location within the expanded eyebox. The angular spectrum wrapping technique is not applied.
» Visualization 2       Holographic 3D images captured while moving the camera location within the expanded eyebox. The angular spectrum wrapping technique is applied.
» Visualization 3       Holographic 3D images captured while changing the camera focus. The camera is located at the replication boundary of base eyeboxes. The angular spectrum wrapping technique is not applied.
» Visualization 4       Holographic 3D images captured while changing the camera focus. The camera is located at the replication boundary of base eyeboxes. The angular spectrum wrapping technique is applied.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. System configuration without proposed method. Only single diffraction term is passed by the filter of the 4-f system to form the eyebox.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. System configuration with proposed eyebox expansion. Vertical high order diffraction terms are passed by the filter to expand the eyebox vertically. Also, the HOE functioning as three concave mirrors duplicates horizontal eyebox.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparison with previous eyebox expansion techniques. 3 × 3 diffraction orders in the SLM Fourier plane are shown. (a) Multiple apertures technique [8], (b) horizontal scanning technique [10], and (c) proposed technique.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Angular spectrum wrapping concept. [Left column] When the desired frequency band coincides with the integer multiple of the base frequency band supported by the CGH. [Center column] When the desired band is at the boundary between the neighboring replicated base frequency band and the angular spectrum is simply shifted. [Right column] The same as the center column but when the angular spectrum is properly wrapped. In all columns, each row represents (a) the ideal angular spectrum over the CGH bandwidth, (b) the angular spectrum calculated at the desired reconstruction frequency band, (c) the angular spectrum wrapped into the CGH bandwidth, (d) the repeated angular spectrum by the SLM high order diffractions or the HOE, (e) the same as (d) but highlighted at the desired reconstruction frequency band, and (f) the same as (a) but highlighted.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. On-axis configuration of the proposed system. The HOE is represented by two functional blocks, i.e. vertical linear grating for horizontal replication and a focusing lens.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Angular spectrums in each plane of the on-axis configuration shown in Fig. 5. (a) Horizontal direction, (b) vertical direction.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Schematic diagram of HOE recording process and recorded HOE. (b) Schematic diagram and picture of the hologram observing setup.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Simple schematic diagram of our system and the position of the camera (b) Amplitude of the angular spectrum |GCGH(fx, fy)| of the CGH loaded in the SLM when range is narrow (left) and fully used (right) (c) Captured photos by positioning a diffuser at the eyebox plane. Expanded eyebox and replicated angular spectrum of the hologram can be seen.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Schematic diagram of the camera position and movement in hologram observing setup. (b) Position of the camera and observed hologram when the CGH for the base eyebox is maintained regardless of the camera position (Visualization 1). The camera is focusing the rear teapot hologram (3.45D)
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Observed hologram with the angular spectrum wrapping method (Visualization 2). The camera is focused at the rear teapot hologram (3.45D)
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Captured holograms from Visualization 3 and Visualization 4 when camera is focusing (a) 4.34D and (b) 3.45D at the horizontal eyebox boundary. Left and right ones were captured without and with the developed angular spectrum wrapping method, respectively.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. (a) Calculated diffraction efficiency distribution in the Fourier plane of the SLM. Dots represent the centers of diffraction orders. Red rectangle represents the aperture in the 4-f optics used in the experiment. (b) Relative power density measured at 3 × 3 positions in the expanded eyebox

Equations (6)

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P ( f x , f y ) = exp ( j 2 π d 1 λ 2 f x 2 f y 2 ) .
W x ( f x ) = f x floor ( f x B x ) B x , W y ( f y ) = f y round ( f y B y ) B y ,
G C G H ( W x ( f x ) , W y ( f y ) ) = G H O E ( f x , f y ) P ( W x ( f x ) , f y ) .
G C G H ( f x , C G H , f y , C G H ) = G C G H ( f x , S L M , W y ( f y , S L M ) ) = G H O E ( f x , f y ) P ( f x , S L M , f y , S L M ) ,
[ f x , S L M f y , S L M f z , S L M ] = [ cos α 0 sin α 0 1 0 sin α 0 cos α ] [ W x ( f x ) + sin α λ f y 1 λ 2 { W x ( f x ) + sin α λ } 2 f y 2 ] ,
P ( f x , f y ) = 1 λ 2 f x 2 f y 2 1 λ 2 f x 2 f y 2 cos α f x sin α exp ( j 2 π d 1 λ 2 f x 2 f y 2 ) .