Abstract

We have fabricated an air-cladded mode-group selective photonic lantern, which can (de)multiplex the first two mode groups of a standard two-mode step-index fiber. Instead of relying on a low-index capillary tube, our simple solution uses air to form the surrounding “cladding” and thereby enable guiding at the end of the taper. Characterization of a 25-mm long lantern taper results in multiplexing crosstalk values between −20 dB and −12 dB for both modal inputs. The de-multiplexing values were around −12 dB for the fundamental mode, and slightly higher for the first higher-order (LP11) mode. Microscopic imaging of a taper cross section having a width of 30 μm reveals the presence of an uncollapsed airhole in the structure between the three fibers. The impact of such an airhole is numerically investigated using an eigenmode expansion method based on a full-vectorial mode solver, and is found to play an important role in assuring a more adiabatic mode conversion through the taper.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Photonic lantern as mode multiplexer for multimode optical communications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 46–55 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Harrington, S. Yerolatsitis, D. V. Ras, D. M. Haynes, and T. A. Birks, “Endlessly adiabatic fiber with a logarithmic refractive index distribution,” Optica 4, 1526–1533 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, B. J. Mangan, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and D. F. Murphy, ““Photonic lantern” spectral filters in multi-core fibre,” Opt. Express 20, 13996–14008 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear shannon limit,” J. Light. Technol. 28, 423–433 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. Noordegraaf, P. M. Skovgaard, M. D. Nielsen, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Efficient multi-mode to single-mode coupling in a photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 17, 1988–1994 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, “Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

G. V. Eleftheriades, A. S. Omar, L. P. B. Katehi, and G. M. Rebeiz, “Some important properties of waveguide junction generalized scattering matrices in the context of the mode matching technique,” IEEE Transactions on Microw. Theory Tech. 42, 1896–1903 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibers and devices .1. adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proceedings-j Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Alvarado-Zacarias, J. C.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet., and et al., “Mode selective photonic lantern with graded index core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.5.
[Crossref]

Amezcua-Correa, R.

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Photonic lantern as mode multiplexer for multimode optical communications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 46–55 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of stable 3×10 gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. W4J.2.
[Crossref]

Antonio-Lopez, J. E.

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of stable 3×10 gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. W4J.2.
[Crossref]

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet., and et al., “Mode selective photonic lantern with graded index core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.5.
[Crossref]

Astruc, M.

Berini, P.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bigo, S.

Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

Black, R.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibers and devices .1. adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proceedings-j Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Bolle, C.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boutin, A.

Brindel, P.

Burrows, E. C.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Castaneda, M. A. U.

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “A novel fabrication method for photonic lanterns,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.4.
[Crossref]

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. Galili, M. Lillieholm, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “Polarization dependence of mode-group selective air-clad photonic lantern,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. Th3D.6.
[Crossref]

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. A. U. Castaneda, M. Galili, and K. Rottwitt, “Mode-group selective air-clad photonic lantern,” in Frontiers in Optics / Laser Science, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. FTu5B.4.
[Crossref]

Cerou, F.

Charlet, G.

Chen, H.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet., and et al., “Mode selective photonic lantern with graded index core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.5.
[Crossref]

Cotter, D.

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear shannon limit,” J. Light. Technol. 28, 423–433 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cruz, J. L.

Díez, A.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

D. J. DiGiovanni and D. M. Tipton, “Method for producing fused fiber bundles,” (1999). US Patent 5,935,288.

Eleftheriades, G. V.

G. V. Eleftheriades, A. S. Omar, L. P. B. Katehi, and G. M. Rebeiz, “Some important properties of waveguide junction generalized scattering matrices in the context of the mode matching technique,” IEEE Transactions on Microw. Theory Tech. 42, 1896–1903 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ellis, A. D.

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear shannon limit,” J. Light. Technol. 28, 423–433 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ercan, B.

Esmaeelpour, M.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Essiambre, R.-J.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eznaveh, Z. S.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet., and et al., “Mode selective photonic lantern with graded index core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.5.
[Crossref]

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, “Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, N. K.

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Photonic lantern as mode multiplexer for multimode optical communications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 46–55 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23, 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22, 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet., and et al., “Mode selective photonic lantern with graded index core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.5.
[Crossref]

Galili, M.

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. A. U. Castaneda, M. Galili, and K. Rottwitt, “Mode-group selective air-clad photonic lantern,” in Frontiers in Optics / Laser Science, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. FTu5B.4.
[Crossref]

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. Galili, M. Lillieholm, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “Polarization dependence of mode-group selective air-clad photonic lantern,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. Th3D.6.
[Crossref]

Gnauck, A. H.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gonnet., C.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet., and et al., “Mode selective photonic lantern with graded index core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.5.
[Crossref]

Gonthier, F.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibers and devices .1. adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proceedings-j Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gris-Sánchez, I.

Grover, C. P.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

L. Gruner-Nielsen, N. M. Mathew, and K. Rottwitt, “Characterization of few mode fibers and devices,” Opt. Fiber. Technol. (2019) to be published.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

L. Grüner-Nielsen, N. M. Mathew, and K. Rottwitt, “Direct measurement of polarization dependency of mode conversion in a long period grating,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. Th2A.15.
[Crossref]

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. A. U. Castaneda, M. Galili, and K. Rottwitt, “Mode-group selective air-clad photonic lantern,” in Frontiers in Optics / Laser Science, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. FTu5B.4.
[Crossref]

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. Galili, M. Lillieholm, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “Polarization dependence of mode-group selective air-clad photonic lantern,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. Th3D.6.
[Crossref]

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “A novel fabrication method for photonic lanterns,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.4.
[Crossref]

Guan, B.

Habib, M. S.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet., and et al., “Mode selective photonic lantern with graded index core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.5.
[Crossref]

Harrington, K.

Haynes, D. M.

Henry, W.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibers and devices .1. adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proceedings-j Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.

Kar, A. K.

Katehi, L. P. B.

G. V. Eleftheriades, A. S. Omar, L. P. B. Katehi, and G. M. Rebeiz, “Some important properties of waveguide junction generalized scattering matrices in the context of the mode matching technique,” IEEE Transactions on Microw. Theory Tech. 42, 1896–1903 (1994).
[Crossref]

Koebele, C.

Lacroix, S.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibers and devices .1. adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proceedings-j Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Leon-Saval, S.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Li, G.

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23, 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of stable 3×10 gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. W4J.2.
[Crossref]

Lillieholm, M.

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. Galili, M. Lillieholm, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “Polarization dependence of mode-group selective air-clad photonic lantern,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. Th3D.6.
[Crossref]

Lingle, R.

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23, 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of stable 3×10 gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. W4J.2.
[Crossref]

Love, J.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibers and devices .1. adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proceedings-j Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Mangan, B. J.

Mardoyan, H.

Mathew, N. M.

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “A novel fabrication method for photonic lanterns,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.4.
[Crossref]

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. Galili, M. Lillieholm, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “Polarization dependence of mode-group selective air-clad photonic lantern,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. Th3D.6.
[Crossref]

L. Gruner-Nielsen, N. M. Mathew, and K. Rottwitt, “Characterization of few mode fibers and devices,” Opt. Fiber. Technol. (2019) to be published.

L. Grüner-Nielsen, N. M. Mathew, and K. Rottwitt, “Direct measurement of polarization dependency of mode conversion in a long period grating,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. Th2A.15.
[Crossref]

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. A. U. Castaneda, M. Galili, and K. Rottwitt, “Mode-group selective air-clad photonic lantern,” in Frontiers in Optics / Laser Science, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. FTu5B.4.
[Crossref]

McCurdy, A. H.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mermelstein, M. D.

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, “Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mumtaz, S.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Murphy, D. F.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nicholson, J. W.

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, “Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, M. D.

Noordegraaf, D.

Omar, A. S.

G. V. Eleftheriades, A. S. Omar, L. P. B. Katehi, and G. M. Rebeiz, “Some important properties of waveguide junction generalized scattering matrices in the context of the mode matching technique,” IEEE Transactions on Microw. Theory Tech. 42, 1896–1903 (1994).
[Crossref]

Peckham, D. W.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Provost, L.

Randel, S.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ras, D. V.

Rebeiz, G. M.

G. V. Eleftheriades, A. S. Omar, L. P. B. Katehi, and G. M. Rebeiz, “Some important properties of waveguide junction generalized scattering matrices in the context of the mode matching technique,” IEEE Transactions on Microw. Theory Tech. 42, 1896–1903 (1994).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rottwitt, K.

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “A novel fabrication method for photonic lanterns,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.4.
[Crossref]

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. Galili, M. Lillieholm, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “Polarization dependence of mode-group selective air-clad photonic lantern,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. Th3D.6.
[Crossref]

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. A. U. Castaneda, M. Galili, and K. Rottwitt, “Mode-group selective air-clad photonic lantern,” in Frontiers in Optics / Laser Science, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. FTu5B.4.
[Crossref]

L. Grüner-Nielsen, N. M. Mathew, and K. Rottwitt, “Direct measurement of polarization dependency of mode conversion in a long period grating,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. Th2A.15.
[Crossref]

L. Gruner-Nielsen, N. M. Mathew, and K. Rottwitt, “Characterization of few mode fibers and devices,” Opt. Fiber. Technol. (2019) to be published.

Ryf, R.

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23, 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22, 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet., and et al., “Mode selective photonic lantern with graded index core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.5.
[Crossref]

Salazar-Gil, J. R.

Salsi, M.

Shubochkin, R.

Sierra, A.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sillard, P.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2×100gb/s, over 40km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express 19, 16593–16600 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of stable 3×10 gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. W4J.2.
[Crossref]

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet., and et al., “Mode selective photonic lantern with graded index core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.5.
[Crossref]

Simova, E.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[Crossref]

Skovgaard, P. M.

Sperti, D.

Stewart, W.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibers and devices .1. adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proceedings-j Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

Thomson, R. R.

Tipton, D. M.

D. J. DiGiovanni and D. M. Tipton, “Method for producing fused fiber bundles,” (1999). US Patent 5,935,288.

Tran, P.

Van Ras, D.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet., and et al., “Mode selective photonic lantern with graded index core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.5.
[Crossref]

Verluise, F.

Wang, N.

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of stable 3×10 gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. W4J.2.
[Crossref]

Wen, H.

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of stable 3×10 gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. W4J.2.
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yablon, A. D.

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, “Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yerolatsitis, S.

Zacarias, J. C. A.

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of stable 3×10 gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. W4J.2.
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear shannon limit,” J. Light. Technol. 28, 423–433 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEE Proceedings-j Optoelectronics (1)

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibers and devices .1. adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proceedings-j Optoelectronics 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. W. Nicholson, A. D. Yablon, J. M. Fini, and M. D. Mermelstein, “Measuring the modal content of large-mode-area fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 61–70 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation Meas. (1)

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, and C. P. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength dependent polarization dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transactions on Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

G. V. Eleftheriades, A. S. Omar, L. P. B. Katehi, and G. M. Rebeiz, “Some important properties of waveguide junction generalized scattering matrices in the context of the mode matching technique,” IEEE Transactions on Microw. Theory Tech. 42, 1896–1903 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Light. Technol. (2)

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear shannon limit,” J. Light. Technol. 28, 423–433 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 mimo processing,” J. Light. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7, 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

D. Noordegraaf, P. M. Skovgaard, M. D. Nielsen, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Efficient multi-mode to single-mode coupling in a photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 17, 1988–1994 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, T. A. Birks, S. Leon-Saval, A. K. Kar, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Ultrafast laser inscription of an integrated photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 19, 5698–5705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Two mode transmission at 2×100gb/s, over 40km-long prototype few-mode fiber, using lcos-based programmable mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express 19, 16593–16600 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, B. J. Mangan, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and D. F. Murphy, ““Photonic lantern” spectral filters in multi-core fibre,” Opt. Express 20, 13996–14008 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yerolatsitis, I. Gris-Sánchez, and T. Birks, “Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers,” Opt. Express 22, 608–617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22, 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Huang, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, B. Guan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, and G. Li, “All-fiber mode-group-selective photonic lantern using graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23, 224–234 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Photonic lantern as mode multiplexer for multimode optical communications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 35, 46–55 (2017).
[Crossref]

Optica (1)

Other (9)

D. J. DiGiovanni and D. M. Tipton, “Method for producing fused fiber bundles,” (1999). US Patent 5,935,288.

H. Liu, H. Wen, J. C. A. Zacarias, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, N. Wang, P. Sillard, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Demonstration of stable 3×10 gb/s mode group-multiplexed transmission over a 20 km few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. W4J.2.
[Crossref]

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “A novel fabrication method for photonic lanterns,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.4.
[Crossref]

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. A. U. Castaneda, M. Galili, and K. Rottwitt, “Mode-group selective air-clad photonic lantern,” in Frontiers in Optics / Laser Science, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. FTu5B.4.
[Crossref]

L. Grüner-Nielsen, N. M. Mathew, and K. Rottwitt, “Direct measurement of polarization dependency of mode conversion in a long period grating,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. Th2A.15.
[Crossref]

L. Gruner-Nielsen, N. M. Mathew, and K. Rottwitt, “Characterization of few mode fibers and devices,” Opt. Fiber. Technol. (2019) to be published.

N. M. Mathew, L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. Galili, M. Lillieholm, M. A. U. Castaneda, and K. Rottwitt, “Polarization dependence of mode-group selective air-clad photonic lantern,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. Th3D.6.
[Crossref]

Lumerical Solutions, Inc., http://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/mode/ .

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias, N. K. Fontaine, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, Z. S. Eznaveh, M. S. Habib, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. Van Ras, P. Sillard, C. Gonnet., and et al., “Mode selective photonic lantern with graded index core,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2018), p. M4D.5.
[Crossref]

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic of the new fabrication technique.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Modelling of effective index variation of the lantern modes along the taper at 1550 nm. The mode distribution at a taper width of 23 μm is inserted.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A typical taper profile of a 25 mm long taper. The bi-linear approximation used for 3D simulations is superimposed.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Three fiber bundle taper. (b) Dissimilar splice between the fiber bundle and few mode fiber.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Cross section image of the tapered end of three fiber bundle taken using (a) the Vytran camera with background light, (b) white light coupled into the SSMF, (c) one of the HI1060 fibers (d) the other HI1060 fiber, and (e) a microscope image of a taper cross section of width 33 μm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Modelled overlap loss as a function of taper diameter. (b) Modelled effect of crosstalk on splice offset.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The final fabricated photonic lantern on a plastic base.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Polarization dependent multiplexing loss when light is coupled to (a) the SSMF (b) one HI1060 (c) the other HI1060. Loss is calculated from the power measured at the two mode fiber.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Polarization dependent de-multiplexing loss when (a) LP01 mode (b) LP11 mode is launched into the two mode fiber. Loss is calculated from the power measured at the SSMF and the sum of powers at the two HI1060 fibers.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 S2 imaging set up used for the characterization of the lantern.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The measured crosstalk of the fabricated lantern at different wavelengths.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Experimental setup used for the data transmission.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Relative power distribution versus taper distance in a 25-mm air-cladded 3-core lantern bi-linear taper. The initial light distribution is given by (a) eigenmode 1, (b) eigenmode 2, and (c) eigenmode 3, shown at the taper endpoint above each subfigure.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Fundamental eigenmode (a–d) and EME-propagated field (e–h) at four different locations along the 25-mm long lantern bi-linear taper. The deviation between the EME propagated field and the local eigenmodes indicates non-adiabatic mode conversion. The y-axis (not shown) is for each subfigure identically scaled as the corresponding x-axis.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 (a) Effective index curves versus taper width for the three lowest eigenmodes. (b) Local coupling coefficient κ, and (c) the parameter η for both a linear 25 mm taper and the considered bi-linear 25 mm taper.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 (a) Effective index curves, (b) local coupling coefficient κ, and (c) the parameter η for an air-hole lantern taper with a cross-sectional structure shown in inset of (a). In comparison to the conventional lantern taper, the bi-linearity of the taper profile helps in decreasing the value of η.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 Relative power distribution versus taper length in a 25-mm air-cladded lantern taper with an air hole between the three fibers. The initial light distribution is given by (a) eigenmode 1, (b) eigenmode 2, and (c) eigenmode 3.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 S2 imaging in the Multiplexing direction at different Polarizations.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured Polarization dependent Multiplexing Loss and Crosstalk on a butt-coupled lantern.

Equations (1)

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η ( z ) = 2 π Δ β d ρ d z | A ψ 1 ( x , y , z ) ψ 2 ( x , y , z ) ρ d A | 2 π Δ β d ρ d z κ ( z ) 1 ,

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