Abstract

We propose here a novel multi-layered waveguide liquid crystal (LC) smart window with full color rendering based on a polymer-network liquid crystal system. The inserted position of three-primary-color LED light bars is specially designed, which is parallel to the LC alignment to obtain a higher difference between transparent and scattering states. The optimal matching of polymer-network LC system is experimentally achieved by comparing several groups of LC and reactive mesogen materials. The prepared smart window is measured and analyzed in detail including optical/chromatic test, morphology characterization, and actual application effect. The proposed architecture opens up new prospects of flexible color switchable ability and synchronized full-color display for smart windows without limitations of slow LC response time and complicated field sequential driving scheme.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Generation of intensity-tunable structural color from helical photonic crystals for full color reflective-type display

Se-Um Kim, Sin-Hyung Lee, In-Ho Lee, Bo-Yeon Lee, Jun-Hee Na, and Sin-Doo Lee
Opt. Express 26(10) 13561-13572 (2018)

Light shutter using dichroic-dye-doped long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals

Byeong-Hun Yu, Jae-Won Huh, Ki-Han Kim, and Tae-Hoon Yoon
Opt. Express 21(24) 29332-29337 (2013)

Normally transparent smart window based on electrically induced instability in dielectrically negative cholesteric liquid crystal

Chun-Wei Chen, Alyssa N. Brigeman, Tsung-Jui Ho, and Iam Choon Khoo
Opt. Mater. Express 8(3) 691-697 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. R. Talukder, Y. H. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Photo-responsive dye-doped liquid crystals for smart windows,” Opt. Express 27(4), 4480–4487 (2019).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. R. Baetens, B. P. Jelle, and A. Gustavsen, “Properties, requirements and possibilities of smart windows for dynamic daylight and solar energy control in buildings: A state-of-the-art review,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(2), 87–105 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices (John Wiley & Sons, 2006), pp. 319–342.
  5. C. T. Wang, W. Y. Wang, and T. H. Lin, “A stable and switchable uniform lying helix structure in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041108 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. C. Li, H. Y. Tseng, C. W. Chen, C. T. Wang, H. C. Jau, Y. C. Wu, W. H. Hsu, and T. H. Lin, “Tri-stable cholesteric liquid crystal smart window,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 49(1), 543–545 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. B. Kim, S. Park, and J. W. Hong, “Fabrication of flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal films using conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 517(10), 3066–3069 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. L. Meng, M. C. Tseng, S. T. Tang, C. X. Zhao, and H. S. Kwok, “Normally transparent smart window with haze enhancement via inhomogeneous alignment surface,” Liq. Cryst. 1, 1–8 (2018).
  9. D. Cupelli, F. Pasquale Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, and D. K. Yang, “Polarizing light waveguide plate from polymer stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 1217–1223 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Moheghi, G. Qin, and D. K. Yang, “Stable polarizing light waveguide plate for edgelit liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 429–435 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Ronald, “Optical waveguide display panel,” U.S. patent 3,871,747 (1975).
  13. E. Chen, H. Xie, J. Huang, H. Miu, G. Shao, Y. Li, T. Guo, S. Xu, and Y. Ye, “Flexible/curved backlight module with quantum-dots microstructure array for liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3466–3482 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. X. Zhou, G. Qin, L. Wang, Z. Chen, X. Xu, Y. Dong, A. Moheghi, and D. K. Yang, “Full color waveguide liquid crystal display,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3706–3709 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Numata, K. Okuyama, T. Nakahara, T. Nakamura, M. Mizuno, H. Sugiyama, S. Nomura, S. Takeuchi, Y. Oue, H. Kato, S. Ito, A. Hasegawa, T. Ozaki, M. Douyou, T. Imai, K. Takizawa, and S. Matsushima, “Highly transparent LCD using new scattering-type liquid crystal with field sequential color edge light,” IEEE 24th International Workshop of Active-Matrix Flat Panel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD), 1–4 (2017).
  16. K. Okuyama, T. Nakahara, Y. Numata, T. Nakamura, M. Mizuno, H. Sugiyama, S. Nomura, S. Takeuchi, Y. Oue, H. Kato, and S. Ito, “Highly transparent LCD using new scattering-type liquid crystal with field sequential color edge light,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 48(1), 1166–1169 (2017).
  17. C. Meng, M.-C. Tseng, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, and H.-S. Kwok, “One step stabilized azo dye photoalignment for mass production,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 48(1), 1869–1872 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. Meng, M. Tseng, S. Tang, and H. Kwok, “Optical rewritable liquid crystal displays without a front polarizer,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 899–902 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. I. Dierking, “Polymer network-stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 167–181 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  20. B. G. Jeon, T. H. Choi, S. M. Do, and T. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal cell through low-temperature UV curing process for control of haze value,” International Display Workshops, Japan, 43–46 (2018).
  21. C. C. Li, H. Y. Tseng, H. C. Liao, H. M. Chen, T. Hsieh, S. A. Lin, H. C. Jau, Y. C. Wu, Y. L. Hsu, W. H. Hsu, and T. H. Lin, “Enhanced image quality of OLED transparent display by cholesteric liquid crystal back-panel,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29199–29206 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S. T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. D. Hu, W. Li, X. Chen, X. Ma, Y. Lee, and J. Lu, “Template effect on reconstruction of blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(10), 593–599 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Kikuchi, J. Nishiwaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Mechanism of electro-optical switching hysteresis for (polymer/liquid crystal) composite films,” Polym. J. 27(12), 1246–1256 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  25. Y. Shi, C. Zhao, J. Y. Ho, V. V. Vashchenko, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, F. Song, and D. Luo, “Exotic property of azobenzenesulfonic photoalignment material based on relative humidity,” Langmuir 33(16), 3968–3974 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. W. Zhang, “Rubbing roller,” U.S. patent, US 2017/0023811 (2017).
  27. W. Zhang, S. H. Song, J. Li, A. Xiao, X. Chen, and T. Y. Min, “Analysis of rubbing mura in fringe field switching liquid crystal display,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 44(1), 1122–1125 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. J.I. Baek and K. H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T. H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(5), 056507 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  29. H. Ren, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Optical switch based on variable aperture,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1421–1423 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. C. J. Barile, D. J. Slotcavage, J. Hou, M. T. Strand, T. S. Hernandez, and M. D. McGehee, “Dynamic windows with neutral color, high contrast, and excellent durability using reversible metal electrodeposition,” Opt. Lett. 26(22), 1803–1805 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  31. R. Zhu, H. Chen, T. Kosa, P. Coutino, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “High-ambient-contrast augmented reality with a tunable transmittance liquid crystal film and a functional reflective polarizer,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 229–233 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

2018 (3)

2017 (4)

Y. H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S. T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shi, C. Zhao, J. Y. Ho, V. V. Vashchenko, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, F. Song, and D. Luo, “Exotic property of azobenzenesulfonic photoalignment material based on relative humidity,” Langmuir 33(16), 3968–3974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, G. Qin, L. Wang, Z. Chen, X. Xu, Y. Dong, A. Moheghi, and D. K. Yang, “Full color waveguide liquid crystal display,” Opt. Lett. 42(18), 3706–3709 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Li, H. Y. Tseng, H. C. Liao, H. M. Chen, T. Hsieh, S. A. Lin, H. C. Jau, Y. C. Wu, Y. L. Hsu, W. H. Hsu, and T. H. Lin, “Enhanced image quality of OLED transparent display by cholesteric liquid crystal back-panel,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29199–29206 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

R. Zhu, H. Chen, T. Kosa, P. Coutino, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “High-ambient-contrast augmented reality with a tunable transmittance liquid crystal film and a functional reflective polarizer,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 229–233 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Hu, W. Li, X. Chen, X. Ma, Y. Lee, and J. Lu, “Template effect on reconstruction of blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(10), 593–599 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Moheghi, G. Qin, and D. K. Yang, “Stable polarizing light waveguide plate for edgelit liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 429–435 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

C. T. Wang, W. Y. Wang, and T. H. Lin, “A stable and switchable uniform lying helix structure in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041108 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

R. Baetens, B. P. Jelle, and A. Gustavsen, “Properties, requirements and possibilities of smart windows for dynamic daylight and solar energy control in buildings: A state-of-the-art review,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(2), 87–105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

Y. B. Kim, S. Park, and J. W. Hong, “Fabrication of flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal films using conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 517(10), 3066–3069 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Cupelli, F. Pasquale Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.I. Baek and K. H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T. H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(5), 056507 (2009).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

I. Dierking, “Polymer network-stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 167–181 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. Kikuchi, J. Nishiwaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Mechanism of electro-optical switching hysteresis for (polymer/liquid crystal) composite films,” Polym. J. 27(12), 1246–1256 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Baek, J.I.

J.I. Baek and K. H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T. H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(5), 056507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baetens, R.

R. Baetens, B. P. Jelle, and A. Gustavsen, “Properties, requirements and possibilities of smart windows for dynamic daylight and solar energy control in buildings: A state-of-the-art review,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(2), 87–105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barile, C. J.

Chanda, D.

Y. H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S. T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, E.

Chen, H.

R. Zhu, H. Chen, T. Kosa, P. Coutino, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “High-ambient-contrast augmented reality with a tunable transmittance liquid crystal film and a functional reflective polarizer,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 229–233 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. M.

Chen, X.

D. Hu, W. Li, X. Chen, X. Ma, Y. Lee, and J. Lu, “Template effect on reconstruction of blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(10), 593–599 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Chidichimo, G.

D. Cupelli, F. Pasquale Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chien, L. C.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V. G.

Y. Shi, C. Zhao, J. Y. Ho, V. V. Vashchenko, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, F. Song, and D. Luo, “Exotic property of azobenzenesulfonic photoalignment material based on relative humidity,” Langmuir 33(16), 3968–3974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coutino, P.

R. Zhu, H. Chen, T. Kosa, P. Coutino, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “High-ambient-contrast augmented reality with a tunable transmittance liquid crystal film and a functional reflective polarizer,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 229–233 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cupelli, D.

D. Cupelli, F. Pasquale Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

De Filpo, G.

D. Cupelli, F. Pasquale Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dierking, I.

I. Dierking, “Polymer network-stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 167–181 (2000).
[Crossref]

Doane, J. W.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Dong, Y.

Formoso, P.

D. Cupelli, F. Pasquale Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Franklin, D.

Y. H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S. T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gou, F.

Y. H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S. T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, T.

Gustavsen, A.

R. Baetens, B. P. Jelle, and A. Gustavsen, “Properties, requirements and possibilities of smart windows for dynamic daylight and solar energy control in buildings: A state-of-the-art review,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(2), 87–105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hernandez, T. S.

Ho, J. Y.

Y. Shi, C. Zhao, J. Y. Ho, V. V. Vashchenko, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, F. Song, and D. Luo, “Exotic property of azobenzenesulfonic photoalignment material based on relative humidity,” Langmuir 33(16), 3968–3974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, J. W.

Y. B. Kim, S. Park, and J. W. Hong, “Fabrication of flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal films using conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 517(10), 3066–3069 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hou, J.

Hsieh, T.

Hsu, W. H.

Hsu, Y. L.

Hu, D.

D. Hu, W. Li, X. Chen, X. Ma, Y. Lee, and J. Lu, “Template effect on reconstruction of blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(10), 593–599 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Jau, H. C.

Jelle, B. P.

R. Baetens, B. P. Jelle, and A. Gustavsen, “Properties, requirements and possibilities of smart windows for dynamic daylight and solar energy control in buildings: A state-of-the-art review,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(2), 87–105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kajiyama, T.

H. Kikuchi, J. Nishiwaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Mechanism of electro-optical switching hysteresis for (polymer/liquid crystal) composite films,” Polym. J. 27(12), 1246–1256 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, J. Nishiwaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Mechanism of electro-optical switching hysteresis for (polymer/liquid crystal) composite films,” Polym. J. 27(12), 1246–1256 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. H.

J.I. Baek and K. H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T. H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(5), 056507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. B.

Y. B. Kim, S. Park, and J. W. Hong, “Fabrication of flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal films using conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 517(10), 3066–3069 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kosa, T.

R. Zhu, H. Chen, T. Kosa, P. Coutino, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “High-ambient-contrast augmented reality with a tunable transmittance liquid crystal film and a functional reflective polarizer,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 229–233 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H.

Kwok, H. S.

C. L. Meng, M. C. Tseng, S. T. Tang, C. X. Zhao, and H. S. Kwok, “Normally transparent smart window with haze enhancement via inhomogeneous alignment surface,” Liq. Cryst. 1, 1–8 (2018).

Y. Shi, C. Zhao, J. Y. Ho, V. V. Vashchenko, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, F. Song, and D. Luo, “Exotic property of azobenzenesulfonic photoalignment material based on relative humidity,” Langmuir 33(16), 3968–3974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.

D. Hu, W. Li, X. Chen, X. Ma, Y. Lee, and J. Lu, “Template effect on reconstruction of blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(10), 593–599 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

J. R. Talukder, Y. H. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Photo-responsive dye-doped liquid crystals for smart windows,” Opt. Express 27(4), 4480–4487 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S. T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C. C.

Li, W.

D. Hu, W. Li, X. Chen, X. Ma, Y. Lee, and J. Lu, “Template effect on reconstruction of blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(10), 593–599 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Liao, H. C.

Lin, S. A.

Lin, T. H.

Liu, G.

Y. H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S. T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, J.

D. Hu, W. Li, X. Chen, X. Ma, Y. Lee, and J. Lu, “Template effect on reconstruction of blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(10), 593–599 (2016).
[Crossref]

Luo, D.

Y. Shi, C. Zhao, J. Y. Ho, V. V. Vashchenko, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, F. Song, and D. Luo, “Exotic property of azobenzenesulfonic photoalignment material based on relative humidity,” Langmuir 33(16), 3968–3974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, X.

D. Hu, W. Li, X. Chen, X. Ma, Y. Lee, and J. Lu, “Template effect on reconstruction of blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(10), 593–599 (2016).
[Crossref]

Manfredi, S.

D. Cupelli, F. Pasquale Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

McGehee, M. D.

Meng, C.

Meng, C. L.

C. L. Meng, M. C. Tseng, S. T. Tang, C. X. Zhao, and H. S. Kwok, “Normally transparent smart window with haze enhancement via inhomogeneous alignment surface,” Liq. Cryst. 1, 1–8 (2018).

Miu, H.

Moheghi, A.

Nemati, H.

Nishiwaki, J.

H. Kikuchi, J. Nishiwaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Mechanism of electro-optical switching hysteresis for (polymer/liquid crystal) composite films,” Polym. J. 27(12), 1246–1256 (1995).
[Crossref]

Park, S.

Y. B. Kim, S. Park, and J. W. Hong, “Fabrication of flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal films using conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 517(10), 3066–3069 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pasquale Nicoletta, F.

D. Cupelli, F. Pasquale Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Peng, F.

Y. H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S. T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, G.

Ren, H.

Shao, G.

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, C. Zhao, J. Y. Ho, V. V. Vashchenko, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, F. Song, and D. Luo, “Exotic property of azobenzenesulfonic photoalignment material based on relative humidity,” Langmuir 33(16), 3968–3974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slotcavage, D. J.

Song, F.

Y. Shi, C. Zhao, J. Y. Ho, V. V. Vashchenko, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, F. Song, and D. Luo, “Exotic property of azobenzenesulfonic photoalignment material based on relative humidity,” Langmuir 33(16), 3968–3974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srivastava, A. K.

Y. Shi, C. Zhao, J. Y. Ho, V. V. Vashchenko, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, F. Song, and D. Luo, “Exotic property of azobenzenesulfonic photoalignment material based on relative humidity,” Langmuir 33(16), 3968–3974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strand, M. T.

Talukder, J. R.

Tan, G.

R. Zhu, H. Chen, T. Kosa, P. Coutino, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “High-ambient-contrast augmented reality with a tunable transmittance liquid crystal film and a functional reflective polarizer,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 229–233 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tang, S.

Tang, S. T.

C. L. Meng, M. C. Tseng, S. T. Tang, C. X. Zhao, and H. S. Kwok, “Normally transparent smart window with haze enhancement via inhomogeneous alignment surface,” Liq. Cryst. 1, 1–8 (2018).

Tseng, H. Y.

Tseng, M.

Tseng, M. C.

C. L. Meng, M. C. Tseng, S. T. Tang, C. X. Zhao, and H. S. Kwok, “Normally transparent smart window with haze enhancement via inhomogeneous alignment surface,” Liq. Cryst. 1, 1–8 (2018).

Vashchenko, V. V.

Y. Shi, C. Zhao, J. Y. Ho, V. V. Vashchenko, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, F. Song, and D. Luo, “Exotic property of azobenzenesulfonic photoalignment material based on relative humidity,” Langmuir 33(16), 3968–3974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vivacqua, M.

D. Cupelli, F. Pasquale Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. T.

C. T. Wang, W. Y. Wang, and T. H. Lin, “A stable and switchable uniform lying helix structure in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, W. Y.

C. T. Wang, W. Y. Wang, and T. H. Lin, “A stable and switchable uniform lying helix structure in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

J. R. Talukder, Y. H. Lee, and S. T. Wu, “Photo-responsive dye-doped liquid crystals for smart windows,” Opt. Express 27(4), 4480–4487 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S. T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhu, H. Chen, T. Kosa, P. Coutino, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “High-ambient-contrast augmented reality with a tunable transmittance liquid crystal film and a functional reflective polarizer,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 229–233 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Optical switch based on variable aperture,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1421–1423 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. C.

Xie, H.

Xu, S.

Xu, X.

Yang, D. K.

Ye, Y.

Zhao, C.

Y. Shi, C. Zhao, J. Y. Ho, V. V. Vashchenko, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, F. Song, and D. Luo, “Exotic property of azobenzenesulfonic photoalignment material based on relative humidity,” Langmuir 33(16), 3968–3974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, C. X.

C. L. Meng, M. C. Tseng, S. T. Tang, C. X. Zhao, and H. S. Kwok, “Normally transparent smart window with haze enhancement via inhomogeneous alignment surface,” Liq. Cryst. 1, 1–8 (2018).

Zhou, X.

Zhu, R.

R. Zhu, H. Chen, T. Kosa, P. Coutino, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “High-ambient-contrast augmented reality with a tunable transmittance liquid crystal film and a functional reflective polarizer,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 229–233 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

I. Dierking, “Polymer network-stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 167–181 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. T. Wang, W. Y. Wang, and T. H. Lin, “A stable and switchable uniform lying helix structure in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041108 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (2)

D. Hu, W. Li, X. Chen, X. Ma, Y. Lee, and J. Lu, “Template effect on reconstruction of blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(10), 593–599 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Zhu, H. Chen, T. Kosa, P. Coutino, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “High-ambient-contrast augmented reality with a tunable transmittance liquid crystal film and a functional reflective polarizer,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(4), 229–233 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J.I. Baek and K. H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T. H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal cells with liquid crystalline polymer networks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(5), 056507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

Y. Shi, C. Zhao, J. Y. Ho, V. V. Vashchenko, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, F. Song, and D. Luo, “Exotic property of azobenzenesulfonic photoalignment material based on relative humidity,” Langmuir 33(16), 3968–3974 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

C. L. Meng, M. C. Tseng, S. T. Tang, C. X. Zhao, and H. S. Kwok, “Normally transparent smart window with haze enhancement via inhomogeneous alignment surface,” Liq. Cryst. 1, 1–8 (2018).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Polym. J. (1)

H. Kikuchi, J. Nishiwaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Mechanism of electro-optical switching hysteresis for (polymer/liquid crystal) composite films,” Polym. J. 27(12), 1246–1256 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S. T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

R. Baetens, B. P. Jelle, and A. Gustavsen, “Properties, requirements and possibilities of smart windows for dynamic daylight and solar energy control in buildings: A state-of-the-art review,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(2), 87–105 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Cupelli, F. Pasquale Nicoletta, S. Manfredi, M. Vivacqua, P. Formoso, G. De Filpo, and G. Chidichimo, “Self-adjusting smart windows based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 2008–2012 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

Y. B. Kim, S. Park, and J. W. Hong, “Fabrication of flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal films using conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 517(10), 3066–3069 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

A. Ronald, “Optical waveguide display panel,” U.S. patent 3,871,747 (1975).

Y. Numata, K. Okuyama, T. Nakahara, T. Nakamura, M. Mizuno, H. Sugiyama, S. Nomura, S. Takeuchi, Y. Oue, H. Kato, S. Ito, A. Hasegawa, T. Ozaki, M. Douyou, T. Imai, K. Takizawa, and S. Matsushima, “Highly transparent LCD using new scattering-type liquid crystal with field sequential color edge light,” IEEE 24th International Workshop of Active-Matrix Flat Panel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD), 1–4 (2017).

K. Okuyama, T. Nakahara, Y. Numata, T. Nakamura, M. Mizuno, H. Sugiyama, S. Nomura, S. Takeuchi, Y. Oue, H. Kato, and S. Ito, “Highly transparent LCD using new scattering-type liquid crystal with field sequential color edge light,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 48(1), 1166–1169 (2017).

C. Meng, M.-C. Tseng, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, and H.-S. Kwok, “One step stabilized azo dye photoalignment for mass production,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 48(1), 1869–1872 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. C. Li, H. Y. Tseng, C. W. Chen, C. T. Wang, H. C. Jau, Y. C. Wu, W. H. Hsu, and T. H. Lin, “Tri-stable cholesteric liquid crystal smart window,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 49(1), 543–545 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices (John Wiley & Sons, 2006), pp. 319–342.

B. G. Jeon, T. H. Choi, S. M. Do, and T. H. Yoon, “Fabrication of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal cell through low-temperature UV curing process for control of haze value,” International Display Workshops, Japan, 43–46 (2018).

W. Zhang, “Rubbing roller,” U.S. patent, US 2017/0023811 (2017).

W. Zhang, S. H. Song, J. Li, A. Xiao, X. Chen, and T. Y. Min, “Analysis of rubbing mura in fringe field switching liquid crystal display,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 44(1), 1122–1125 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the single-layered edge-lit smart window where the LED bar is inserted parallel to the LC alignment direction. (a) Voltage-off state and (b) voltage-on state.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of a design example to present a multi-layered LC smart window with the colored logo of “SKL”.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Testing architecture of the LC smart window sample; (b)-(d) the three primary colors presented by the sample; (e) the hysteresis effect of the sample before and after cycled driving test; (f) the color gamut coverage under CIE 1931 standard colorimetric system.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) LC cell assembled by substrates with rubbing polyimide film; (b) LC cell sandwiched between substrates with photoalignment film. The white arrow in (a) and (b) represents the rubbing direction. (c) Top view of polymer network above homogeneous photoalignment layer; (d) transmittance dynamic (red curve) of waveguide LC smart window as a function of driving scheme (green curve) with square-wave of 20V amplitude and 1 kHz frequency.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Off-axis brightness of both transparent and scattering states measured under different viewing angles (from normal 0° to 50° in 10° interval).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Single-layered and (b) multi-layered smart window with character patterns illuminated by a single green LED light bar and three-primary-color LED light bars, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Color performance including chromaticity coordinates, color temperature, and color gamut.

Tables Icon

Table 2 The brightness/scattering of power-off and power-on state based on different polymer-network liquid crystal system.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n op n o1
n ep n e1 ,

Metrics