Abstract

Fluorescent proteins are widely used to visualize structures and dynamics in various biological samples. Multiphoton microscopy is especially suitable for imaging structures expressing fluorescent proteins with subcellular resolution. 3-photon microscopy (3PM) excited at the 1700-nm window has proven to be promising for deep-tissue (such as brain) imaging expressing red fluorescent proteins. However, the 3-photon excitation and emission spectra of fluorescent proteins suitable at this window remain largely unknown, hampering protein selection and detection optimization. Here we demonstrate detailed measurement of 3-photon excitation and emission spectra for selected fluorescent proteins, suitable for 3-photon excitation at the 1700-nm window. The measured 3-photon excitation spectra will provide guidelines for protein and excitation wavelength selection. The measured 3-photon emission spectra and comparison with the 1-photon emission spectra, on one hand proves that the fundamental Kasha’s rule is still valid for 3-photon fluorescence in these fluorescent proteins, on the other hand will be helpful for efficient fluorescence signal detection.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Livet, T. A. Weissman, H. Kang, R. W. Draft, J. Lu, R. A. Bennis, J. R. Sanes, and J. W. Lichtman, “Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system,” Nature 450(7166), 56–62 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. Hoffman, “Green fluorescent protein imaging of tumour growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis in mouse models,” Lancet Oncol. 3(9), 546–556 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Fan, J. A. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. M. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. H. Yun, V. Toxavidis, T. B. Strom, C. P. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, “In vivo tracking of ‘color-coded’ effector, natural and induced regulatory T cells in the allograft response,” Nat. Med. 16(6), 718–722 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. S. Peterka, H. Takahashi, and R. Yuste, “Imaging Voltage in Neurons,” Neuron 69(1), 9–21 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. A. Dombeck, C. D. Harvey, L. Tian, L. L. Looger, and D. W. Tank, “Functional imaging of hippocampal place cells at cellular resolution during virtual navigation,” Nat. Neurosci. 13(11), 1433–1440 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. W. Wen, Y. Wang, H. Liu, K. Wang, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Comparison of higher-order multiphoton signal generation and collection at the 1700-nm window based on transmittance measurement of objective lenses,” J. Biophotonics 11(1), e201700121 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. K. Wang, N. Horton, K. Charan, and C. Xu, “Advanced Fiber Soliton Sources for Nonlinear Deep Tissue Imaging in Biophotonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 20(2), 6800311 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. S. Filonov, K. D. Piatkevich, L. M. Ting, J. Zhang, K. Kim, and V. V. Verkhusha, “Bright and stable near-infrared fluorescent protein for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 29(8), 757–761 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. Liu, J. Wang, X. Peng, Z. Zhuang, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Ex and in vivo characterization of the wavelength-dependent 3-photon action cross-sections of red fluorescent proteins covering the 1700-nm window,” J. Biophotonics 11(7), e201700351 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M. Kasha, “Characterization of electronic transitions in complexm molecules,” Discuss. Faraday Soc. 9, 14–19 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, S. E. Tillo, T. E. Hughes, and A. Rebane, “Two-photon absorption properties of fluorescent proteins,” Nat. Methods 8(5), 393–399 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. H. Qian, M. E. Cousins, E. H. Horak, A. Wakefield, M. D. Liptak, and I. Aprahamian, “Suppression of Kasha’s rule as a mechanism for fluorescent molecular rotors and aggregation-induced emission,” Nat. Chem. 9(1), 83–87 (2017).
    [PubMed]
  21. C. Xu and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690 to 1050 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(3), 481–491 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  22. E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. F. Bestvater, E. Spiess, G. Stobrawa, M. Hacker, T. Feurer, T. Porwol, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, C. Wotzlaw, and H. Acker, “Two-photon fluorescence absorption and emission spectra of dyes relevant for cell imaging,” J. Microsc. 208(2), 108–115 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. R. J. Stanley, Z. Hou, A. Yang, and M. E. Hawkins, “The two-photon excitation cross section of 6MAP, a fluorescent adenine analogue,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(8), 3690–3695 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. B. Shear, E. B. Brown, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton-excited fluorescence of fluorogen-labeled neurotransmitters,” Anal. Chem. 68(10), 1778–1783 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Y. X. Wang, W. H. Wen, K. Wang, P. Zhai, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D2O) and its application to signal enhancement in multiphoton microscopy at the 1700-nm window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(2), 021112 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

W. Wen, Y. Wang, H. Liu, K. Wang, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Comparison of higher-order multiphoton signal generation and collection at the 1700-nm window based on transmittance measurement of objective lenses,” J. Biophotonics 11(1), e201700121 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, J. Wang, X. Peng, Z. Zhuang, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Ex and in vivo characterization of the wavelength-dependent 3-photon action cross-sections of red fluorescent proteins covering the 1700-nm window,” J. Biophotonics 11(7), e201700351 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Qian, M. E. Cousins, E. H. Horak, A. Wakefield, M. D. Liptak, and I. Aprahamian, “Suppression of Kasha’s rule as a mechanism for fluorescent molecular rotors and aggregation-induced emission,” Nat. Chem. 9(1), 83–87 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (2)

Y. X. Wang, W. H. Wen, K. Wang, P. Zhai, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D2O) and its application to signal enhancement in multiphoton microscopy at the 1700-nm window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(2), 021112 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

R. J. Low, Y. Gu, and D. W. Tank, “Cellular resolution optical access to brain regions in fissures: imaging medial prefrontal cortex and grid cells in entorhinal cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(52), 18739–18744 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Cheng, N. G. Horton, K. Wang, S.-J. Chen, and C. Xu, “Measurements of multiphoton action cross sections for multiphoton microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3427–3433 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, N. Horton, K. Charan, and C. Xu, “Advanced Fiber Soliton Sources for Nonlinear Deep Tissue Imaging in Biophotonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 20(2), 6800311 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

G. S. Filonov, K. D. Piatkevich, L. M. Ting, J. Zhang, K. Kim, and V. V. Verkhusha, “Bright and stable near-infrared fluorescent protein for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 29(8), 757–761 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Peterka, H. Takahashi, and R. Yuste, “Imaging Voltage in Neurons,” Neuron 69(1), 9–21 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, S. E. Tillo, T. E. Hughes, and A. Rebane, “Two-photon absorption properties of fluorescent proteins,” Nat. Methods 8(5), 393–399 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Z. Fan, J. A. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. M. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. H. Yun, V. Toxavidis, T. B. Strom, C. P. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, “In vivo tracking of ‘color-coded’ effector, natural and induced regulatory T cells in the allograft response,” Nat. Med. 16(6), 718–722 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Dombeck, C. D. Harvey, L. Tian, L. L. Looger, and D. W. Tank, “Functional imaging of hippocampal place cells at cellular resolution during virtual navigation,” Nat. Neurosci. 13(11), 1433–1440 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. Livet, T. A. Weissman, H. Kang, R. W. Draft, J. Lu, R. A. Bennis, J. R. Sanes, and J. W. Lichtman, “Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system,” Nature 450(7166), 56–62 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Stanley, Z. Hou, A. Yang, and M. E. Hawkins, “The two-photon excitation cross section of 6MAP, a fluorescent adenine analogue,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(8), 3690–3695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

F. Bestvater, E. Spiess, G. Stobrawa, M. Hacker, T. Feurer, T. Porwol, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, C. Wotzlaw, and H. Acker, “Two-photon fluorescence absorption and emission spectra of dyes relevant for cell imaging,” J. Microsc. 208(2), 108–115 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hoffman, “Green fluorescent protein imaging of tumour growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis in mouse models,” Lancet Oncol. 3(9), 546–556 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

R. Y. Tsien, “The green fluorescent protein,” Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67(1), 509–544 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

J. B. Shear, E. B. Brown, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton-excited fluorescence of fluorogen-labeled neurotransmitters,” Anal. Chem. 68(10), 1778–1783 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690 to 1050 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(3), 481–491 (1996).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1950 (1)

M. Kasha, “Characterization of electronic transitions in complexm molecules,” Discuss. Faraday Soc. 9, 14–19 (1950).
[Crossref]

Acker, H.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bestvater, E. Spiess, G. Stobrawa, M. Hacker, T. Feurer, T. Porwol, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, C. Wotzlaw, and H. Acker, “Two-photon fluorescence absorption and emission spectra of dyes relevant for cell imaging,” J. Microsc. 208(2), 108–115 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahrens, M. B.

H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aprahamian, I.

H. Qian, M. E. Cousins, E. H. Horak, A. Wakefield, M. D. Liptak, and I. Aprahamian, “Suppression of Kasha’s rule as a mechanism for fluorescent molecular rotors and aggregation-induced emission,” Nat. Chem. 9(1), 83–87 (2017).
[PubMed]

Bargmann, C. I.

H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennis, R. A.

J. Livet, T. A. Weissman, H. Kang, R. W. Draft, J. Lu, R. A. Bennis, J. R. Sanes, and J. W. Lichtman, “Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system,” Nature 450(7166), 56–62 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bestvater, E. Spiess, G. Stobrawa, M. Hacker, T. Feurer, T. Porwol, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, C. Wotzlaw, and H. Acker, “Two-photon fluorescence absorption and emission spectra of dyes relevant for cell imaging,” J. Microsc. 208(2), 108–115 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bestvater, F.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bestvater, E. Spiess, G. Stobrawa, M. Hacker, T. Feurer, T. Porwol, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, C. Wotzlaw, and H. Acker, “Two-photon fluorescence absorption and emission spectra of dyes relevant for cell imaging,” J. Microsc. 208(2), 108–115 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, E. B.

J. B. Shear, E. B. Brown, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton-excited fluorescence of fluorogen-labeled neurotransmitters,” Anal. Chem. 68(10), 1778–1783 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charan, K.

K. Wang, N. Horton, K. Charan, and C. Xu, “Advanced Fiber Soliton Sources for Nonlinear Deep Tissue Imaging in Biophotonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 20(2), 6800311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-J.

Cheng, L. C.

Cheng, Y.-T.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, C. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cousins, M. E.

H. Qian, M. E. Cousins, E. H. Horak, A. Wakefield, M. D. Liptak, and I. Aprahamian, “Suppression of Kasha’s rule as a mechanism for fluorescent molecular rotors and aggregation-induced emission,” Nat. Chem. 9(1), 83–87 (2017).
[PubMed]

Cruz-Hernández, J. C.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dana, H.

H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dombeck, D. A.

D. A. Dombeck, C. D. Harvey, L. Tian, L. L. Looger, and D. W. Tank, “Functional imaging of hippocampal place cells at cellular resolution during virtual navigation,” Nat. Neurosci. 13(11), 1433–1440 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Draft, R. W.

J. Livet, T. A. Weissman, H. Kang, R. W. Draft, J. Lu, R. A. Bennis, J. R. Sanes, and J. W. Lichtman, “Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system,” Nature 450(7166), 56–62 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drobizhev, M.

M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, S. E. Tillo, T. E. Hughes, and A. Rebane, “Two-photon absorption properties of fluorescent proteins,” Nat. Methods 8(5), 393–399 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

Z. Fan, J. A. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. M. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. H. Yun, V. Toxavidis, T. B. Strom, C. P. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, “In vivo tracking of ‘color-coded’ effector, natural and induced regulatory T cells in the allograft response,” Nat. Med. 16(6), 718–722 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, D. D.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feurer, T.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bestvater, E. Spiess, G. Stobrawa, M. Hacker, T. Feurer, T. Porwol, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, C. Wotzlaw, and H. Acker, “Two-photon fluorescence absorption and emission spectra of dyes relevant for cell imaging,” J. Microsc. 208(2), 108–115 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Filonov, G. S.

G. S. Filonov, K. D. Piatkevich, L. M. Ting, J. Zhang, K. Kim, and V. V. Verkhusha, “Bright and stable near-infrared fluorescent protein for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 29(8), 757–761 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordus, A.

H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, Y.

R. J. Low, Y. Gu, and D. W. Tank, “Cellular resolution optical access to brain regions in fissures: imaging medial prefrontal cortex and grid cells in entorhinal cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(52), 18739–18744 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hacker, M.

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Z. Fan, J. A. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. M. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. H. Yun, V. Toxavidis, T. B. Strom, C. P. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, “In vivo tracking of ‘color-coded’ effector, natural and induced regulatory T cells in the allograft response,” Nat. Med. 16(6), 718–722 (2010).
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H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
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Z. Fan, J. A. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. M. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. H. Yun, V. Toxavidis, T. B. Strom, C. P. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, “In vivo tracking of ‘color-coded’ effector, natural and induced regulatory T cells in the allograft response,” Nat. Med. 16(6), 718–722 (2010).
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D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
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J. Livet, T. A. Weissman, H. Kang, R. W. Draft, J. Lu, R. A. Bennis, J. R. Sanes, and J. W. Lichtman, “Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system,” Nature 450(7166), 56–62 (2007).
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N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
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Z. Fan, J. A. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. M. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. H. Yun, V. Toxavidis, T. B. Strom, C. P. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, “In vivo tracking of ‘color-coded’ effector, natural and induced regulatory T cells in the allograft response,” Nat. Med. 16(6), 718–722 (2010).
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R. J. Stanley, Z. Hou, A. Yang, and M. E. Hawkins, “The two-photon excitation cross section of 6MAP, a fluorescent adenine analogue,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(8), 3690–3695 (2005).
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E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
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F. Bestvater, E. Spiess, G. Stobrawa, M. Hacker, T. Feurer, T. Porwol, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, C. Wotzlaw, and H. Acker, “Two-photon fluorescence absorption and emission spectra of dyes relevant for cell imaging,” J. Microsc. 208(2), 108–115 (2002).
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Z. Fan, J. A. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. M. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. H. Yun, V. Toxavidis, T. B. Strom, C. P. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, “In vivo tracking of ‘color-coded’ effector, natural and induced regulatory T cells in the allograft response,” Nat. Med. 16(6), 718–722 (2010).
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H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
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H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
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D. S. Peterka, H. Takahashi, and R. Yuste, “Imaging Voltage in Neurons,” Neuron 69(1), 9–21 (2011).
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R. J. Low, Y. Gu, and D. W. Tank, “Cellular resolution optical access to brain regions in fissures: imaging medial prefrontal cortex and grid cells in entorhinal cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(52), 18739–18744 (2014).
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Tian, L.

D. A. Dombeck, C. D. Harvey, L. Tian, L. L. Looger, and D. W. Tank, “Functional imaging of hippocampal place cells at cellular resolution during virtual navigation,” Nat. Neurosci. 13(11), 1433–1440 (2010).
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M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, S. E. Tillo, T. E. Hughes, and A. Rebane, “Two-photon absorption properties of fluorescent proteins,” Nat. Methods 8(5), 393–399 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ting, L. M.

G. S. Filonov, K. D. Piatkevich, L. M. Ting, J. Zhang, K. Kim, and V. V. Verkhusha, “Bright and stable near-infrared fluorescent protein for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 29(8), 757–761 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tolias, A. S.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toth, K.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toxavidis, V.

Z. Fan, J. A. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. M. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. H. Yun, V. Toxavidis, T. B. Strom, C. P. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, “In vivo tracking of ‘color-coded’ effector, natural and induced regulatory T cells in the allograft response,” Nat. Med. 16(6), 718–722 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsegaye, G.

H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsien, R. Y.

R. Y. Tsien, “The green fluorescent protein,” Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67(1), 509–544 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verkhusha, V. V.

G. S. Filonov, K. D. Piatkevich, L. M. Ting, J. Zhang, K. Kim, and V. V. Verkhusha, “Bright and stable near-infrared fluorescent protein for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 29(8), 757–761 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wakefield, A.

H. Qian, M. E. Cousins, E. H. Horak, A. Wakefield, M. D. Liptak, and I. Aprahamian, “Suppression of Kasha’s rule as a mechanism for fluorescent molecular rotors and aggregation-induced emission,” Nat. Chem. 9(1), 83–87 (2017).
[PubMed]

Walpita, D.

H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

H. Liu, J. Wang, X. Peng, Z. Zhuang, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Ex and in vivo characterization of the wavelength-dependent 3-photon action cross-sections of red fluorescent proteins covering the 1700-nm window,” J. Biophotonics 11(7), e201700351 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

H. Liu, J. Wang, X. Peng, Z. Zhuang, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Ex and in vivo characterization of the wavelength-dependent 3-photon action cross-sections of red fluorescent proteins covering the 1700-nm window,” J. Biophotonics 11(7), e201700351 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wen, Y. Wang, H. Liu, K. Wang, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Comparison of higher-order multiphoton signal generation and collection at the 1700-nm window based on transmittance measurement of objective lenses,” J. Biophotonics 11(1), e201700121 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wen, Y. Wang, H. Liu, K. Wang, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Comparison of higher-order multiphoton signal generation and collection at the 1700-nm window based on transmittance measurement of objective lenses,” J. Biophotonics 11(1), e201700121 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. X. Wang, W. H. Wen, K. Wang, P. Zhai, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D2O) and its application to signal enhancement in multiphoton microscopy at the 1700-nm window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(2), 021112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Wang, W. H. Wen, K. Wang, P. Zhai, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D2O) and its application to signal enhancement in multiphoton microscopy at the 1700-nm window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(2), 021112 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, N. Horton, K. Charan, and C. Xu, “Advanced Fiber Soliton Sources for Nonlinear Deep Tissue Imaging in Biophotonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 20(2), 6800311 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. C. Cheng, N. G. Horton, K. Wang, S.-J. Chen, and C. Xu, “Measurements of multiphoton action cross sections for multiphoton microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3427–3433 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

W. Wen, Y. Wang, H. Liu, K. Wang, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Comparison of higher-order multiphoton signal generation and collection at the 1700-nm window based on transmittance measurement of objective lenses,” J. Biophotonics 11(1), e201700121 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. X.

Y. X. Wang, W. H. Wen, K. Wang, P. Zhai, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D2O) and its application to signal enhancement in multiphoton microscopy at the 1700-nm window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(2), 021112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Webb, W. W.

J. B. Shear, E. B. Brown, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton-excited fluorescence of fluorogen-labeled neurotransmitters,” Anal. Chem. 68(10), 1778–1783 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690 to 1050 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(3), 481–491 (1996).
[Crossref]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weissman, T. A.

J. Livet, T. A. Weissman, H. Kang, R. W. Draft, J. Lu, R. A. Bennis, J. R. Sanes, and J. W. Lichtman, “Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system,” Nature 450(7166), 56–62 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, W.

W. Wen, Y. Wang, H. Liu, K. Wang, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Comparison of higher-order multiphoton signal generation and collection at the 1700-nm window based on transmittance measurement of objective lenses,” J. Biophotonics 11(1), e201700121 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, W. H.

Y. X. Wang, W. H. Wen, K. Wang, P. Zhai, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D2O) and its application to signal enhancement in multiphoton microscopy at the 1700-nm window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(2), 021112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wise, F. W.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wotzlaw, C.

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bestvater, E. Spiess, G. Stobrawa, M. Hacker, T. Feurer, T. Porwol, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, C. Wotzlaw, and H. Acker, “Two-photon fluorescence absorption and emission spectra of dyes relevant for cell imaging,” J. Microsc. 208(2), 108–115 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, N. Horton, K. Charan, and C. Xu, “Advanced Fiber Soliton Sources for Nonlinear Deep Tissue Imaging in Biophotonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 20(2), 6800311 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. C. Cheng, N. G. Horton, K. Wang, S.-J. Chen, and C. Xu, “Measurements of multiphoton action cross sections for multiphoton microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3427–3433 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690 to 1050 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(3), 481–491 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yang, A.

R. J. Stanley, Z. Hou, A. Yang, and M. E. Hawkins, “The two-photon excitation cross section of 6MAP, a fluorescent adenine analogue,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(8), 3690–3695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Z. Fan, J. A. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. M. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. H. Yun, V. Toxavidis, T. B. Strom, C. P. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, “In vivo tracking of ‘color-coded’ effector, natural and induced regulatory T cells in the allograft response,” Nat. Med. 16(6), 718–722 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuste, R.

D. S. Peterka, H. Takahashi, and R. Yuste, “Imaging Voltage in Neurons,” Neuron 69(1), 9–21 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhai, P.

Y. X. Wang, W. H. Wen, K. Wang, P. Zhai, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D2O) and its application to signal enhancement in multiphoton microscopy at the 1700-nm window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(2), 021112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

G. S. Filonov, K. D. Piatkevich, L. M. Ting, J. Zhang, K. Kim, and V. V. Verkhusha, “Bright and stable near-infrared fluorescent protein for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 29(8), 757–761 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, Z.

H. Liu, J. Wang, X. Peng, Z. Zhuang, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Ex and in vivo characterization of the wavelength-dependent 3-photon action cross-sections of red fluorescent proteins covering the 1700-nm window,” J. Biophotonics 11(7), e201700351 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. B. Shear, E. B. Brown, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton-excited fluorescence of fluorogen-labeled neurotransmitters,” Anal. Chem. 68(10), 1778–1783 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1)

R. Y. Tsien, “The green fluorescent protein,” Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67(1), 509–544 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. X. Wang, W. H. Wen, K. Wang, P. Zhai, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D2O) and its application to signal enhancement in multiphoton microscopy at the 1700-nm window,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(2), 021112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Discuss. Faraday Soc. (1)

M. Kasha, “Characterization of electronic transitions in complexm molecules,” Discuss. Faraday Soc. 9, 14–19 (1950).
[Crossref]

eLife (1)

H. Dana, B. Mohar, Y. Sun, S. Narayan, A. Gordus, J. P. Hasseman, G. Tsegaye, G. T. Holt, A. Hu, D. Walpita, R. Patel, J. J. Macklin, C. I. Bargmann, M. B. Ahrens, E. R. Schreiter, V. Jayaraman, L. L. Looger, K. Svoboda, and D. S. Kim, “Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity,” eLife 5, e12727 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

K. Wang, N. Horton, K. Charan, and C. Xu, “Advanced Fiber Soliton Sources for Nonlinear Deep Tissue Imaging in Biophotonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 20(2), 6800311 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Biophotonics (2)

H. Liu, J. Wang, X. Peng, Z. Zhuang, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Ex and in vivo characterization of the wavelength-dependent 3-photon action cross-sections of red fluorescent proteins covering the 1700-nm window,” J. Biophotonics 11(7), e201700351 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wen, Y. Wang, H. Liu, K. Wang, P. Qiu, and K. Wang, “Comparison of higher-order multiphoton signal generation and collection at the 1700-nm window based on transmittance measurement of objective lenses,” J. Biophotonics 11(1), e201700121 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (2)

E. Spiess, F. Bestvater, A. Heckel-Pompey, K. Toth, M. Hacker, G. Stobrawa, T. Feurer, C. Wotzlaw, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, T. Porwol, and H. Acker, “Two-photon excitation and emission spectra of the green fluorescent protein variants ECFP, EGFP and EYFP,” J. Microsc. 217(3), 200–204 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bestvater, E. Spiess, G. Stobrawa, M. Hacker, T. Feurer, T. Porwol, U. Berchner-Pfannschmidt, C. Wotzlaw, and H. Acker, “Two-photon fluorescence absorption and emission spectra of dyes relevant for cell imaging,” J. Microsc. 208(2), 108–115 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

R. J. Stanley, Z. Hou, A. Yang, and M. E. Hawkins, “The two-photon excitation cross section of 6MAP, a fluorescent adenine analogue,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(8), 3690–3695 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lancet Oncol. (1)

R. Hoffman, “Green fluorescent protein imaging of tumour growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis in mouse models,” Lancet Oncol. 3(9), 546–556 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

G. S. Filonov, K. D. Piatkevich, L. M. Ting, J. Zhang, K. Kim, and V. V. Verkhusha, “Bright and stable near-infrared fluorescent protein for in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 29(8), 757–761 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Chem. (1)

H. Qian, M. E. Cousins, E. H. Horak, A. Wakefield, M. D. Liptak, and I. Aprahamian, “Suppression of Kasha’s rule as a mechanism for fluorescent molecular rotors and aggregation-induced emission,” Nat. Chem. 9(1), 83–87 (2017).
[PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

Z. Fan, J. A. Spencer, Y. Lu, C. M. Pitsillides, G. Singh, P. Kim, S. H. Yun, V. Toxavidis, T. B. Strom, C. P. Lin, and M. Koulmanda, “In vivo tracking of ‘color-coded’ effector, natural and induced regulatory T cells in the allograft response,” Nat. Med. 16(6), 718–722 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (3)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, S. E. Tillo, T. E. Hughes, and A. Rebane, “Two-photon absorption properties of fluorescent proteins,” Nat. Methods 8(5), 393–399 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

D. A. Dombeck, C. D. Harvey, L. Tian, L. L. Looger, and D. W. Tank, “Functional imaging of hippocampal place cells at cellular resolution during virtual navigation,” Nat. Neurosci. 13(11), 1433–1440 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

J. Livet, T. A. Weissman, H. Kang, R. W. Draft, J. Lu, R. A. Bennis, J. R. Sanes, and J. W. Lichtman, “Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system,” Nature 450(7166), 56–62 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuron (1)

D. S. Peterka, H. Takahashi, and R. Yuste, “Imaging Voltage in Neurons,” Neuron 69(1), 9–21 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

R. J. Low, Y. Gu, and D. W. Tank, “Cellular resolution optical access to brain regions in fissures: imaging medial prefrontal cortex and grid cells in entorhinal cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(52), 18739–18744 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for measuring 3PF emission spectrum. λ/2 plate: half-wave plate; L1: f = 30mm lens; L2: f = 75mm lens; L3: f = 25.4mm lens; LPF: 1575-nm long-pass filter; LMA fiber: large-mode-area fiber; MM fiber: multimode fiber.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 3PF signal vs excitation power on the sample and the linear fitting on log scale for mStrawberry (A) and mKate (B). The excitation wavelengths are 1600 nm, 1700 nm and 1800 nm as indicated in the figure. Symbols: measured data; solid lines: linear fitting. The fitted slopes are also indicated.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured 3PF excitation spectra (red data, bottom abscissa and left ordinate), and normalized 1PF excitation spectra (blue line, top abscissa and right ordinate) for the selected FPs. The arrows are a guide to the eye indicating different ordinates for either 3PF or 1PF excitation spectrum.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured normalized 3PF emission spectra (red) and 1PF emission spectra for all the nine FPs. 3PF emission spectra were measured with 1600-nm excitation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured normalized 3PF emission spectra for mRaspberry (A) and mKate (B), with 1600-nm (black), 1700-nm (red) and 1800-nm (blue) excitation.

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