Abstract

A periodically tapered waveguides technique is an emerging potential route to establish quasi-phase-matching schemes in third-order nonlinear materials for efficient on-demand parametric interactions. In this paper, I investigate this method in enhancing spontaneous photon-pair emission in microstructured fibres and planar waveguides with sinusoidally varying cross sections. To study this process for continuous and pulsed-pump excitations, I have developed a general robust quantum model that takes into account self- and cross-phase modulations. The model shows a great enhancement in photon-pair generation in waveguides with a small number of tapering periods that are feasible via the current fabrication technologies. I envisage that this work will open a new area of research to investigate how the tapering patterns can be fully optimised to tailor the spectral properties of the output photons in nonlinear guided structures.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (6)

D. D. Hickstein, G. C. Kerber, D. R. Carlson, L. Chang, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, A. Kowligy, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Quasi-phase-matched supercontinuum generation in photonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 053903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Saleh, “Quasi-phase-matched χ(3)-parametric interactions in sinusoidally tapered waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 013850 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12, 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Mussot, M. Conforti, S. Trillo, F. Copie, and A. Kudlinski, “Modulation instability in dispersion oscillating fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 10, 1–42 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Graffitti, P. Barrow, M. Proietti, D. Kundys, and A. Fedrizzi, “Independent high-purity photons created in domain-engineered crystals,” Optica 5, 514–517 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kowligy, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, D. R. Carlson, H. Timmers, N. Nader, D. L. Maser, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Tunable mid-infrared generation via wide-band four-wave mixing in silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43, 4220–4223 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

2016 (1)

A. Dosseva, L. Cincio, and A. M. Brańczyk, “Shaping the joint spectrum of down-converted photons through optimized custom poling,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013801 (2016).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Spring, P. S. Salter, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, M. Moore, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, W. S. Kolthammer, M. J. Booth, and I. A. Walmsley, “On-chip low loss heralded source of pure single photons,” Opt. Express 21, 13522–13532 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

A. Eckstein, A. Christ, P. J. Mosley, and C. Silberhorn, “Highly efficient single-pass source of pulsed single-mode twin beams of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Conditional preparation of single photons using parametric downconversion: a recipe for purity,” New J. Phys. 10, 093011 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

O. Alibart, J. Fulconis, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, “Photon pair generation using four-wave mixing in a microstructured fibre: theory versus experiment,” New J. Phys. 8, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

P. Dong and A. G. Kirk, “Nonlinear frequency conversion in waveguide directional couplers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 133901 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. i. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics IEEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

B. Huttner, S. Serulnik, and Y. Ben-Aryeh, “Quantum analysis of light propagation in a parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5594–5600 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

Y. R. Shen, “Quantum statistics of nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. 155, 921–931 (1967).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic University, 2007).

Alibart, O.

O. Alibart, J. Fulconis, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, “Photon pair generation using four-wave mixing in a microstructured fibre: theory versus experiment,” New J. Phys. 8, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alsing, P. M.

Armaroli, A.

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, M.

Barrow, P.

Ben-Aryeh, Y.

B. Huttner, S. Serulnik, and Y. Ben-Aryeh, “Quantum analysis of light propagation in a parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5594–5600 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, K.

Biancalana, F.

A. Armaroli and F. Biancalana, “Tunable modulational instability sidebands via parametric resonance in periodically tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Express 20, 25096–25110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Billat, A.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12, 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Black, R. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. i. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics IEEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Bonneau, D.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Booth, M. J.

Bowers, J. E.

D. D. Hickstein, G. C. Kerber, D. R. Carlson, L. Chang, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, A. Kowligy, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Quasi-phase-matched supercontinuum generation in photonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 053903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Branczyk, A. M.

A. Dosseva, L. Cincio, and A. M. Brańczyk, “Shaping the joint spectrum of down-converted photons through optimized custom poling,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brès, C.-S.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12, 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Carlson, D. R.

D. D. Hickstein, G. C. Kerber, D. R. Carlson, L. Chang, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, A. Kowligy, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Quasi-phase-matched supercontinuum generation in photonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 053903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Kowligy, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, D. R. Carlson, H. Timmers, N. Nader, D. L. Maser, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Tunable mid-infrared generation via wide-band four-wave mixing in silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43, 4220–4223 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, L.

D. D. Hickstein, G. C. Kerber, D. R. Carlson, L. Chang, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, A. Kowligy, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Quasi-phase-matched supercontinuum generation in photonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 053903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christ, A.

A. Eckstein, A. Christ, P. J. Mosley, and C. Silberhorn, “Highly efficient single-pass source of pulsed single-mode twin beams of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cincio, L.

A. Dosseva, L. Cincio, and A. M. Brańczyk, “Shaping the joint spectrum of down-converted photons through optimized custom poling,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

Conforti, M.

Copie, F.

Dadap, J. I.

Diddams, S. A.

D. D. Hickstein, G. C. Kerber, D. R. Carlson, L. Chang, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, A. Kowligy, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Quasi-phase-matched supercontinuum generation in photonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 053903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Kowligy, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, D. R. Carlson, H. Timmers, N. Nader, D. L. Maser, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Tunable mid-infrared generation via wide-band four-wave mixing in silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43, 4220–4223 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, P.

P. Dong and A. G. Kirk, “Nonlinear frequency conversion in waveguide directional couplers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 133901 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dosseva, A.

A. Dosseva, L. Cincio, and A. M. Brańczyk, “Shaping the joint spectrum of down-converted photons through optimized custom poling,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Driscoll, J. B.

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Duligall, J.

Eckstein, A.

A. Eckstein, A. Christ, P. J. Mosley, and C. Silberhorn, “Highly efficient single-pass source of pulsed single-mode twin beams of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ezaki, M.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fanto, M. L.

Fedrizzi, A.

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Francis-Jones, R. J. A.

R. J. A. Francis-Jones, T. A. Wright, A. V. Gorbach, and P. J. Mosley, “Engineered photon-pair generation by four-wave mixing in asymmetric coupled waveguides,” arXiv:1809.10494 (2018).

Fulconis, J.

Garay-Palmett, K.

Gates, J. C.

Gonthier, F.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. i. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics IEEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gorbach, A. V.

R. J. A. Francis-Jones, T. A. Wright, A. V. Gorbach, and P. J. Mosley, “Engineered photon-pair generation by four-wave mixing in asymmetric coupled waveguides,” arXiv:1809.10494 (2018).

Graffitti, F.

Grassani, D.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12, 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Grote, R. R.

Guo, H.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12, 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hadfield, R. H.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Halder, M.

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. i. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics IEEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Herkommer, C.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12, 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hickstein, D. D.

D. D. Hickstein, G. C. Kerber, D. R. Carlson, L. Chang, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, A. Kowligy, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Quasi-phase-matched supercontinuum generation in photonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 053903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Kowligy, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, D. R. Carlson, H. Timmers, N. Nader, D. L. Maser, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Tunable mid-infrared generation via wide-band four-wave mixing in silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43, 4220–4223 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hölzer, P.

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Humphreys, P. C.

Huttner, B.

B. Huttner, S. Serulnik, and Y. Ben-Aryeh, “Quantum analysis of light propagation in a parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5594–5600 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iizuka, N.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jin, X.-M.

Joly, N. Y.

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
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Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kerber, G. C.

D. D. Hickstein, G. C. Kerber, D. R. Carlson, L. Chang, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, A. Kowligy, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Quasi-phase-matched supercontinuum generation in photonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 053903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T. J.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12, 330–335 (2018).
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Koshiba, M.

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Kowligy, A. S.

Kudlinski, A.

Kundys, D.

Lacroix, S.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. i. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics IEEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).
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L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics III (Springer-Verlag, 2016).
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Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. i. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics IEEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lundeen, J. S.

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Marshall, G. D.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maser, D. L.

McGuinness, H. J.

McKinstrie, C. J.

McMillan, A.

Mennea, P. L.

Menotti, M.

Metcalf, B. J.

Moore, M.

Mosley, P. J.

A. Eckstein, A. Christ, P. J. Mosley, and C. Silberhorn, “Highly efficient single-pass source of pulsed single-mode twin beams of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Conditional preparation of single photons using parametric downconversion: a recipe for purity,” New J. Phys. 10, 093011 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. J. A. Francis-Jones, T. A. Wright, A. V. Gorbach, and P. J. Mosley, “Engineered photon-pair generation by four-wave mixing in asymmetric coupled waveguides,” arXiv:1809.10494 (2018).

Murdoch, S. G.

O. Alibart, J. Fulconis, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, “Photon pair generation using four-wave mixing in a microstructured fibre: theory versus experiment,” New J. Phys. 8, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mussot, A.

Nader, N.

Natarajan, C. M.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nazarkin, A.

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Brien, J. L.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

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J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ophir, N.

Osgood, R. M.

Panoiu, N. C.

Papp, S. B.

D. D. Hickstein, G. C. Kerber, D. R. Carlson, L. Chang, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, A. Kowligy, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Quasi-phase-matched supercontinuum generation in photonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 053903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Kowligy, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, D. R. Carlson, H. Timmers, N. Nader, D. L. Maser, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Tunable mid-infrared generation via wide-band four-wave mixing in silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43, 4220–4223 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics III (Springer-Verlag, 2016).
[Crossref]

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, M. H. P.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12, 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Preble, S. F.

Proietti, M.

Radic, S.

Rangel-Rojo, R.

Rarity, J.

Rarity, J. G.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Alibart, J. Fulconis, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, “Photon pair generation using four-wave mixing in a microstructured fibre: theory versus experiment,” New J. Phys. 8, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. G. Rarity, J. Fulconis, J. Duligall, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fiber source of correlated photon pairs,” Opt. Express 13, 534–544 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raymer, M. G.

Rogers, H. L.

Russell, P. S. J.

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Rarity, J. Fulconis, J. Duligall, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fiber source of correlated photon pairs,” Opt. Express 13, 534–544 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saitoh, K.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007).

Saleh, M. F.

M. F. Saleh, “Quasi-phase-matched χ(3)-parametric interactions in sinusoidally tapered waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 013850 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salter, P. S.

Serulnik, S.

B. Huttner, S. Serulnik, and Y. Ben-Aryeh, “Quantum analysis of light propagation in a parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5594–5600 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, “Quantum statistics of nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. 155, 921–931 (1967).
[Crossref]

Silberhorn, C.

A. Eckstein, A. Christ, P. J. Mosley, and C. Silberhorn, “Highly efficient single-pass source of pulsed single-mode twin beams of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silverstone, J. W.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sipe, J. E.

Smith, A. M.

Smith, B. J.

J. B. Spring, P. L. Mennea, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, J. C. Gates, H. L. Rogers, C. Söller, B. J. Smith, W. S. Kolthammer, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Chip-based array of near-identical, pure, heralded single-photon sources,” Optica 4, 90–96 (2017).
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P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Conditional preparation of single photons using parametric downconversion: a recipe for purity,” New J. Phys. 10, 093011 (2008).
[Crossref]

Smith, P. G. R.

Söller, C.

Spring, J. B.

Srinivasan, K.

D. D. Hickstein, G. C. Kerber, D. R. Carlson, L. Chang, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, A. Kowligy, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Quasi-phase-matched supercontinuum generation in photonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 053903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Kowligy, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, D. R. Carlson, H. Timmers, N. Nader, D. L. Maser, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Tunable mid-infrared generation via wide-band four-wave mixing in silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43, 4220–4223 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steidle, J. A.

Stewart, W. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. i. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics IEEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, N.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanner, M. G.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
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B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007).

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J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Timmers, H.

Tison, C. C.

Travers, J. C.

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
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U’Ren, A. B.

Vernon, Z.

Wadsworth, W.

Wadsworth, W. J.

O. Alibart, J. Fulconis, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, “Photon pair generation using four-wave mixing in a microstructured fibre: theory versus experiment,” New J. Phys. 8, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. G. Rarity, J. Fulconis, J. Duligall, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fiber source of correlated photon pairs,” Opt. Express 13, 534–544 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

Weng, W.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12, 330–335 (2018).
[Crossref]

Westly, D.

D. D. Hickstein, G. C. Kerber, D. R. Carlson, L. Chang, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, A. Kowligy, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Quasi-phase-matched supercontinuum generation in photonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 053903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Kowligy, D. D. Hickstein, A. Lind, D. R. Carlson, H. Timmers, N. Nader, D. L. Maser, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Tunable mid-infrared generation via wide-band four-wave mixing in silicon nitride waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43, 4220–4223 (2018).
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Wong, G. K. L.

O. Alibart, J. Fulconis, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, “Photon pair generation using four-wave mixing in a microstructured fibre: theory versus experiment,” New J. Phys. 8, 67 (2006).
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Wright, T. A.

R. J. A. Francis-Jones, T. A. Wright, A. V. Gorbach, and P. J. Mosley, “Engineered photon-pair generation by four-wave mixing in asymmetric coupled waveguides,” arXiv:1809.10494 (2018).

Xiong, C.

Yoshida, H.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
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Zhang, C.

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12, 330–335 (2018).
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J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
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Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photonics 8, 104 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, C. Herkommer, A. Billat, D. Grassani, C. Zhang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, W. Weng, C.-S. Brès, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 12, 330–335 (2018).
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New J. Phys. (2)

O. Alibart, J. Fulconis, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, “Photon pair generation using four-wave mixing in a microstructured fibre: theory versus experiment,” New J. Phys. 8, 67 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Conditional preparation of single photons using parametric downconversion: a recipe for purity,” New J. Phys. 10, 093011 (2008).
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Opt. Express (7)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Empirical relations for simple design of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 13, 267–274 (2005).
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A. McMillan, J. Fulconis, M. Halder, C. Xiong, J. Rarity, and W. Wadsworth, “Narrowband high-fidelity all-fibre source of heralded single photons at 1570 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 6156–6165 (2009).
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J. B. Spring, P. S. Salter, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, M. Moore, N. Thomas-Peter, M. Barbieri, X.-M. Jin, N. K. Langford, W. S. Kolthammer, M. J. Booth, and I. A. Walmsley, “On-chip low loss heralded source of pure single photons,” Opt. Express 21, 13522–13532 (2013).
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J. B. Driscoll, N. Ophir, R. R. Grote, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood, “Width-modulation of si photonic wires for quasi-phase-matching of four-wave-mixing: experimental and theoretical demonstration,” Opt. Express 20, 9227–9242 (2012).
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A. Armaroli and F. Biancalana, “Tunable modulational instability sidebands via parametric resonance in periodically tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Express 20, 25096–25110 (2012).
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J. G. Rarity, J. Fulconis, J. Duligall, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fiber source of correlated photon pairs,” Opt. Express 13, 534–544 (2005).
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K. Garay-Palmett, H. J. McGuinness, O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, R. Rangel-Rojo, A. B. U’Ren, M. G. Raymer, C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and I. A. Walmsley, “Photon pair-state preparation with tailored spectral properties by spontaneous four-wave mixing in photonic-crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 14870–14886 (2007).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (2)

Optoelectronics IEEE Proc. J. (1)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. i. adiabaticity criteria,” Optoelectronics IEEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (2)

Y. R. Shen, “Quantum statistics of nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. 155, 921–931 (1967).
[Crossref]

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. F. Saleh, “Quasi-phase-matched χ(3)-parametric interactions in sinusoidally tapered waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 97, 013850 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Huttner, S. Serulnik, and Y. Ben-Aryeh, “Quantum analysis of light propagation in a parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5594–5600 (1990).
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A. Dosseva, L. Cincio, and A. M. Brańczyk, “Shaping the joint spectrum of down-converted photons through optimized custom poling,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013801 (2016).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

M. F. Saleh, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, P. S. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Theory of photoionization-induced blueshift of ultrashort solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Eckstein, A. Christ, P. J. Mosley, and C. Silberhorn, “Highly efficient single-pass source of pulsed single-mode twin beams of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong and A. G. Kirk, “Nonlinear frequency conversion in waveguide directional couplers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 133901 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hickstein, G. C. Kerber, D. R. Carlson, L. Chang, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, A. Kowligy, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Quasi-phase-matched supercontinuum generation in photonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 053903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

R. J. A. Francis-Jones, T. A. Wright, A. V. Gorbach, and P. J. Mosley, “Engineered photon-pair generation by four-wave mixing in asymmetric coupled waveguides,” arXiv:1809.10494 (2018).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic University, 2007).

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007).

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics III (Springer-Verlag, 2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a,b) Wavelength-dependence of the group-index and second-order dispersion of a sinusoidally tapered microstructured fibres with a pitch σ varies between 0.9 and 1.1 μm, and a hole-diameter d = 0.5σ. (c) Dependence of the mismatching between the propagation constants Δκ of a SFWM process and the tapering period ΛT on the signal wavelength λs with a pump at 780 nm and an input power 1 W. The assumed fibre nonlinear refractive index is n2 = 2.25 × 10−20 m2/W. These parameters will be used in subsequent simulations, unless stated otherwise.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Dependence of 〈〉 of a SFWM process at a signal wavelength λs = 750 nm on the modulation amplitude Δσ and tapering period ΛT at the end of sinusoidally tapered fibres, for the same number of periods M = 50. (b) Spatial dependence of 〈〉 with Δσ = 0.1.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a,b) 1D and 2D spectral dependence of the expected number of photons 〈〉 generated in a modulated fibre with Δσ = 0.1 around the targeted wavelengths. (c) Dependence of 〈〉 on the signal wavelength over the entire spectrum. (d) Dependence of 〈〉 on the signal and idler wavelengths for a Gaussian pump with Q = 1 nJ and τ = 2.47 ps. M = 50 and ΛT = 4.5 cm in (b–d).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 A planar silicon-nitride PTW with wav = 1650 nm, Δw = 0.05, h = 450 nm, ΛT = 370 μm, M = 50, and n2 = 1.5 × 10−18 m2/W: (a) Fundamental TE mode at λ = 1064 nm and w = wav. (b) Spectral-dependence of β2 of the waveguide for different widths. (c) Dependence of Δκ and the corresponding ΛT on the signal wavelength λs at the average width, with a pump wavelength 1064 nm and an input power 1 W. (d) Dependence of 〈N〉 on the signal and idler wavelengths for a Gaussian-pulse centred at 1064 nm with Q = 1 nJ and τ = 0.29 ps.

Equations (21)

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p ( x , y , z , t ) = Re { E p ( x , y , z , t ) } ,
κ p = k p [ 1 + 3 χ ( 3 ) A p 2 8 n p 2 S p | F p | 4 d x d y ] ,
^ ( x , y , z , t ) = ^ + ( x , y , z , t ) + ^ ( x , y , z , t ) ,
^ + ( x , y , z , t ) = s ω s 2 0 c T n s S s F s ( x , y ) a ^ ( z , ω s ) e j ω s t ,
j ^ z = [ ^ , G ^ ] ,
a ^ s ( L ) z = j k s a ^ s ( z ) ,
G ^ FWM = 3 χ ( 3 ) A p 2 e j 2 κ p z 8 c s ω s ω i n s n i S s S i F p 2 F s * F i * d x d y a ^ s ( z ) a ^ i ( z ) + H . c . ,
a ^ s ( FWM ) z = j 3 χ ( 3 ) A p 2 e j 2 κ p z 4 c ω s ω i n s n i S s S i F p 2 F s * F i * d x d y a ^ i ( z ) .
G ^ XPM = 3 χ ( 3 ) A p 2 4 c s ω s n s S s | F p | 2 | F s | 2 d x d y a ^ s ( z ) a ^ s ( z ) + H . c . ,
a ^ s ( XPM ) z = j 3 χ ( 3 ) A p 2 2 c ω s n s S s | F p | 2 | F s | 2 d x d y a ^ s ( z ) .
a ^ s z = a ^ s ( L ) z + a ^ s ( XPM ) z + a ^ s ( FWM ) z = j κ s a ^ s ( z ) + j γ s , i e j 2 κ p z a ^ i ( z ) ,
κ s = k s ( 1 + 3 χ ( 3 ) A p 2 2 n s 2 S s | F p | 2 | F s | 2 d x d y ) ,
γ s , i = 3 χ ( 3 ) A p 2 4 c ω s ω i n s n i S s S i F p 2 F s * F i * d x d y .
a ^ i z = j κ i * a ^ i ( z ) j γ s , i * e j 2 κ p z a ^ s ( z ) .
b ^ s z = j γ s , i e j Δ κ z b ^ i ( z ) , b ^ i z = j γ s , i * e j Δ κ z b ^ s ( z ) ,
[ b ^ s b ^ i ] z = z m + Δ z = 𝒯 m [ b ^ s b ^ i ] z = z m , 𝒯 m = [ 1 f s , i ( ω p ) f s , i * ( ω p ) 1 ] z = z m ,
p ( x , y , z , t ) = Re { ω p A p ( ω p ) e j ( ω p t k p z ) } ,
𝒯 m = [ 1 ω p 1 f s , i ( ω p 1 , ω p 2 ) ω p 1 f s , i * ( ω p 1 , ω p 2 ) 1 ] z = z u .
γ s , i = 3 χ ( 3 ) A p 1 A p 2 2 c ω s ω i n s n i S s S i F p 1 F p 2 F s * F i * d x d y ,
κ p u = k p u [ 1 + 3 χ ( 3 ) 8 n p u 2 S p u ( A p u 2 | F p u | 2 + 2 A p v 2 | F p v | 2 ) | F p u | 2 d x d y ] , { u , v = 1 , 2 u v ,
κ q = k q [ 1 + 3 χ ( 3 ) 2 n q 2 S q ( A p 1 2 | F p 1 | 2 + A p 2 2 | F p 2 | 2 ) | F q | 2 d x d y ] , q = s , i .