Abstract

Direct frequency locking of lasers to RF oscillators has many applications such as high resolution optical frequency synthesis, coherent optical communication, spectroscopy, sensing, and imaging. Here we present a hybrid-integrated opto-electronic loop that directly frequency locks a semiconductor laser to an RF synthesized source using an opto-electronic oscillator with a dispersive optical delay line. Cascaded ring filters, operating near the resonance frequency, provide an enhanced chromatic dispersion with a compact footprint. The electronic chip is integrated in the GlobalFoundries 180 nm CMOS SOI technology and the photonic chip is integrated in the IME 180 nm SOI technology. A tracking range of 0.5 GHz is achieved while consuming 33 mW power. The proposed scheme is used to frequency lock a commercially available DFB laser, reducing the laser frequency fluctuations by an order of magnitude compared to the free-running case.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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2018 (2)

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ashtiani, P. Sanjari, M. H. Idjadi, and F. Aflatouni, “High-resolution optical frequency synthesis using an integrated electro-optical phase-locked loop,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 66, 5922–5932 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (1)

S. Shopov and S. P. Voinigescu, “A 3×60 Gb/s transmitter/repeater front-end with 4.3 VPP single-ended output swing in a 28nm UTBB FD-SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51, 1651–1662 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2012 (1)

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

M. C. Amann, “Phase noise limited resolution of coherent LIDAR using widely tunable laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1694–1696 (1992).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

E. Patzak and P. Meissner, “Influence of IF-filtering on bit error rate floor in coherent optical DPSK-systems,” IEE Proc. J - Optoelectronics 135, 355–358 (1988).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Abiri, B.

Aflatouni, F.

F. Ashtiani, P. Sanjari, M. H. Idjadi, and F. Aflatouni, “High-resolution optical frequency synthesis using an integrated electro-optical phase-locked loop,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 66, 5922–5932 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. Idjadi and F. Aflatouni, “Integrated Pound-Drever-Hall laser stabilization system in silicon,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1209 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ashtiani and F. Aflatouni, “Integrated electro-optical phase-locked loop for high resolution optical synthesis,” Opt. Express 25, 16171–16181 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aflatouni, B. Abiri, A. Rekhi, and A. Hajimiri, “Nanophotonic coherent imager,” Opt. Express 23, 5117–5125 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xuan, L. Du, and F. Aflatouni, “Direct frequency locking of lasers to RF oscillators,” in 2018 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OI), (2018), pp. 15–16.
[Crossref]

Amann, M. C.

M. C. Amann, “Phase noise limited resolution of coherent LIDAR using widely tunable laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1694–1696 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ashtiani, F.

F. Ashtiani, P. Sanjari, M. H. Idjadi, and F. Aflatouni, “High-resolution optical frequency synthesis using an integrated electro-optical phase-locked loop,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 66, 5922–5932 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ashtiani and F. Aflatouni, “Integrated electro-optical phase-locked loop for high resolution optical synthesis,” Opt. Express 25, 16171–16181 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, A.

Bitou, Y.

Bloch, E.

Bluestone, A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boussert, B.

Bowers, J. E.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briles, T. C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byrd, M. J.

Chang, L.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coldren, L. A.

Cole, D. B.

Diddams, S. A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drake, T.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Du, L.

Z. Xuan, L. Du, and F. Aflatouni, “Direct frequency locking of lasers to RF oscillators,” in 2018 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OI), (2018), pp. 15–16.
[Crossref]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Fredrick, C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goedgebuer, J.-P.

Griffith, Z.

Hajimiri, A.

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Hong, F.-L.

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Idjadi, M. H.

F. Ashtiani, P. Sanjari, M. H. Idjadi, and F. Aflatouni, “High-resolution optical frequency synthesis using an integrated electro-optical phase-locked loop,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 66, 5922–5932 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. Idjadi and F. Aflatouni, “Integrated Pound-Drever-Hall laser stabilization system in silicon,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1209 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikegami, T.

Ilic, B. R.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inaba, H.

Johansson, L. A.

Kippenberg, T. J.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Komljenovic, T.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, M.

Maleki, L.

Matsumoto, H.

Meissner, P.

E. Patzak and P. Meissner, “Influence of IF-filtering on bit error rate floor in coherent optical DPSK-systems,” IEE Proc. J - Optoelectronics 135, 355–358 (1988).
[Crossref]

Minoshima, K.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Newbury, N. R.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norberg, E.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, D. Y.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onae, A.

Papp, S. B.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H.

Patzak, E.

E. Patzak and P. Meissner, “Influence of IF-filtering on bit error rate floor in coherent optical DPSK-systems,” IEE Proc. J - Optoelectronics 135, 355–358 (1988).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, M. H. P.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poinsot, S.

Porte, H.

Poulton, C. V.

Raval, M.

Rekhi, A.

Rhodes, W. T.

Rodwell, M. J.

Sanjari, P.

F. Ashtiani, P. Sanjari, M. H. Idjadi, and F. Aflatouni, “High-resolution optical frequency synthesis using an integrated electro-optical phase-locked loop,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 66, 5922–5932 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schibli, T. R.

Shopov, S.

S. Shopov and S. P. Voinigescu, “A 3×60 Gb/s transmitter/repeater front-end with 4.3 VPP single-ended output swing in a 28nm UTBB FD-SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51, 1651–1662 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, L. C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivananthan, A.

Spencer, D. T.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, K.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, J.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suh, M.-G.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Theogarajan, L.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vahala, K.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vermeulen, D.

Voinigescu, S. P.

S. Shopov and S. P. Voinigescu, “A 3×60 Gb/s transmitter/repeater front-end with 4.3 VPP single-ended output swing in a 28nm UTBB FD-SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51, 1651–1662 (2016).
[Crossref]

Volet, N.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

Westly, D.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xuan, Z.

Z. Xuan, L. Du, and F. Aflatouni, “Direct frequency locking of lasers to RF oscillators,” in 2018 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OI), (2018), pp. 15–16.
[Crossref]

Yaacobi, A.

Yang, K. Y.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, X. S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. C. Amann, “Phase noise limited resolution of coherent LIDAR using widely tunable laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1694–1696 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEE Proc. J - Optoelectronics (1)

E. Patzak and P. Meissner, “Influence of IF-filtering on bit error rate floor in coherent optical DPSK-systems,” IEE Proc. J - Optoelectronics 135, 355–358 (1988).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

S. Shopov and S. P. Voinigescu, “A 3×60 Gb/s transmitter/repeater front-end with 4.3 VPP single-ended output swing in a 28nm UTBB FD-SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51, 1651–1662 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. (1)

F. Ashtiani, P. Sanjari, M. H. Idjadi, and F. Aflatouni, “High-resolution optical frequency synthesis using an integrated electro-optical phase-locked loop,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 66, 5922–5932 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

M. H. Idjadi and F. Aflatouni, “Integrated Pound-Drever-Hall laser stabilization system in silicon,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1209 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

Z. Xuan, L. Du, and F. Aflatouni, “Direct frequency locking of lasers to RF oscillators,” in 2018 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OI), (2018), pp. 15–16.
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The block diagram of (a) a conventional OEO, (b) an OEO with a dispersive delay element, and (c) the proposed scheme for direct frequency locking of a laser to an RF source.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The schematic of the SOI photonic chip, (b) the measured normalized transmission of the thermally tuned ring resonators, and (c) the measured normalized transmission of the ring modulator.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The block diagram of the CMOS chip, (b) the schematics of the TIA, (c) the ring modulator driver, and (d) the voltage-to-current converter.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The simulated and measured trans-impedance gain of the bottom branch of the electronic chip used to close the OEO loop.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The micro-photograph of the hybrid-integrated opto-electronic frequency-locked loop.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The measurement setup.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The measured spectrum of the free-running OEO and (b) the free-running frequency of the OEO as a function of the laser wavelength offset, confirming the wavelength-dependent OEO frequency tuning.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) The spectrum of the frequency-locked OEO. (b) The laser tracks the reference RF frequency with an optical wavelength to electrical frequency conversion ratio of 5.1 pm/MHz corresponding to an FSF of 638. (c) The measured single-side band phase noise of the locked OEO.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) The block diagram of the FLL with thermal wavelength perturbation and (b) the equivalent linearized block diagram of the proposed FLL.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) The measured beat-note frequency in presence of temperature perturbation. The green and red regions indicate the status of the FLL. (b) The Allan deviation of the beat-note frequency when the FLL is engaged (green) and disengaged (red). At a gate time of 1 s, the Allan deviation of the beat-note is reduced from 3.0×108 Hz to 3.0×107 Hz when the FLL was engaged.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance summary

Equations (2)

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f osc = { k τ for loop gain > 0 2 k + 1 2 τ for loop gain < 0 ,
Δ f L = Δ f 1 + K amp K L FSF + FSF × Δ f LO ,

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