Abstract

We present a novel optical fiber composed of a suspended core, a supporting ring and an outer ring. To establish a large holey region, a germanium-doped core is suspended by a silica ring and the entire structure is enclosed by another silica ring. By monitoring the Bragg wavelength shift of an FBG written in such a fiber with an air filling fraction of 65%, a hydrostatic pressure sensitivity of –43.6 pm/MPa was achieved experimentally. The high-pressure sensitivity is in good agreement with the numerically calculated value of ~40 pm/MPa. Due to the significant impact of the fiber core suspended in the large holey region inside the fiber, the pressure sensitivity improved by approximately eleven times compared to a Bragg grating inscribed in a standard single-mode fiber. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest pressure sensitivity obtained for a FBG-based sensor experimentally, when compared to other FBG-based pressure sensors reported up to date. The large air hole region and the suspended core in the center of the fiber not only make the proposed fiber sensor a good candidate for pressure measurements, especially in the oil industry where space is at a premium, but also allow the detection of substances, by exploiting interaction of light with liquids or gases.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

Z. Liu, L. Htein, K.-K. Lee, K.-T. Lau, and H.-Y. Tam, “Large dynamic range pressure sensor based on two semicircle-holes microstructured fiber,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 65 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2012 (4)

D. Chen and X. Cheng, “Hydrostatic pressure sensor based on a gold-coated fiber modal interferometer using lateral offset splicing of single mode fiber,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 124, 315–329 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, “Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” J. Sens. 2012, 1–21 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23320–23330 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

2008 (2)

T. G. Euser, J. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, “Hole-assisted fiber design for small bending and splice losses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. M. Christensen, “Mechanics of cellular and other low-density materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 37(1-2), 93–104 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. Dakin, “Fibre grating pressure sensor with enhanced sensitivity using a glass-bubble housing,” Electron. Lett. 32(2), 128–129 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

R. Kaul, “Pressure sensitivity of rocking filters fabricated in an elliptical-core optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 20(9), 1000–1001 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. J. R. Clowes and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10,(6)857­859 (1995).

1993 (1)

M. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. Chow, and J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fibre grating high pressure sensor,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 398–399 (1993).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

P. Kaiser and H. Astle, “Low-loss single-material fibers made from pure fused silica,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53(6), 1021–1039 (1974).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

W. Primak and D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(5), 779–788 (1959).
[Crossref]

Anuszkiewicz, A.

Astle, H.

P. Kaiser and H. Astle, “Low-loss single-material fibers made from pure fused silica,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53(6), 1021–1039 (1974).
[Crossref]

Berghmans, F.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23320–23330 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borsukowski, T.

Braga, A. M. B.

Calvert, S.

S. Kreger, S. Calvert, and E. Udd, “High pressure sensing using fiber Bragg gratings written in birefringent side hole fiber,” in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest (2002), pp. 355–358.
[Crossref]

Canning, J.

C. M. Jewart, Q. Wang, J. Canning, D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, and K. P. Chen, “Ultrafast femtosecond-laser-induced fiber Bragg gratings in air-hole microstructured fibers for high-temperature pressure sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1443–1445 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jewart, D. Xu, K. P. Chen, and J. Canning, “Structure optimization of air-hole fibers for high-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensors,” in 19th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (International Society for Optics and Photonics2008).
[Crossref]

Caucheteur, C.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chah, K.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chaudhari, C.

Chen, D.

D. Chen and X. Cheng, “Hydrostatic pressure sensor based on a gold-coated fiber modal interferometer using lateral offset splicing of single mode fiber,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 124, 315–329 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

T. G. Euser, J. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. P.

Cheng, K.-C. D.

Cheng, X.

D. Chen and X. Cheng, “Hydrostatic pressure sensor based on a gold-coated fiber modal interferometer using lateral offset splicing of single mode fiber,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 124, 315–329 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chitaree, R.

Chow, Y.

M. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. Chow, and J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fibre grating high pressure sensor,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 398–399 (1993).
[Crossref]

Christensen, R. M.

R. M. Christensen, “Mechanics of cellular and other low-density materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 37(1-2), 93–104 (2000).
[Crossref]

Clowes, S. S. J. R.

S. S. J. R. Clowes and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10,(6)857­859 (1995).

Croucher, J. A.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dakin, J.

M. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. Dakin, “Fibre grating pressure sensor with enhanced sensitivity using a glass-bubble housing,” Electron. Lett. 32(2), 128–129 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dakin, J. P.

M. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. Chow, and J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fibre grating high pressure sensor,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 398–399 (1993).
[Crossref]

Euser, T. G.

T. G. Euser, J. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

Farrer, N. J.

T. G. Euser, J. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

Fu, H. Y.

Geernaert, T.

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23320–23330 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Geiger, H.

M. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. Dakin, “Fibre grating pressure sensor with enhanced sensitivity using a glass-bubble housing,” Electron. Lett. 32(2), 128–129 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gomez-Rojas, L.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998).
[Crossref]

Grobnic, D.

Guan, B.-O.

Handerek, V. A.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hogari, K.

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, “Hole-assisted fiber design for small bending and splice losses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

Htein, L.

Z. Liu, L. Htein, K.-K. Lee, K.-T. Lau, and H.-Y. Tam, “Large dynamic range pressure sensor based on two semicircle-holes microstructured fiber,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 65 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jewart, C.

C. Jewart, D. Xu, K. P. Chen, and J. Canning, “Structure optimization of air-hole fibers for high-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensors,” in 19th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (International Society for Optics and Photonics2008).
[Crossref]

Jewart, C. M.

Jones, J. D.

Kaiser, P.

P. Kaiser and H. Astle, “Low-loss single-material fibers made from pure fused silica,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53(6), 1021–1039 (1974).
[Crossref]

Kanellopoulos, S.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kaul, R.

Kito, C.

Knight, J. C.

Kreger, S.

S. Kreger, S. Calvert, and E. Udd, “High pressure sensing using fiber Bragg gratings written in birefringent side hole fiber,” in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest (2002), pp. 355–358.
[Crossref]

Kumar, V.

Lau, K.-T.

Z. Liu, L. Htein, K.-K. Lee, K.-T. Lau, and H.-Y. Tam, “Large dynamic range pressure sensor based on two semicircle-holes microstructured fiber,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 65 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.-K.

Z. Liu, L. Htein, K.-K. Lee, K.-T. Lau, and H.-Y. Tam, “Large dynamic range pressure sensor based on two semicircle-holes microstructured fiber,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 65 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, C. R.

Liao, M.

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, L. Htein, K.-K. Lee, K.-T. Lau, and H.-Y. Tam, “Large dynamic range pressure sensor based on two semicircle-holes microstructured fiber,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 65 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez-Amo, M.

A. M. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, “Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” J. Sens. 2012, 1–21 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

MacPherson, W. N.

Makara, M.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23320–23330 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martynkien, T.

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23320–23330 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Megret, P.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mergo, P.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23320–23330 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mihailov, S. J.

Nakajima, K.

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, “Hole-assisted fiber design for small bending and splice losses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ohishi, Y.

Olszewski, J.

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23320–23330 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pinto, A. M.

A. M. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, “Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” J. Sens. 2012, 1–21 (2012).
[Crossref]

Post, D.

W. Primak and D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(5), 779–788 (1959).
[Crossref]

Poturaj, K.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23320–23330 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Primak, W.

W. Primak and D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(5), 779–788 (1959).
[Crossref]

Qin, G.

Quintero, S. M.

Reekie, L.

M. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. Chow, and J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fibre grating high pressure sensor,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 398–399 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rigg, E. J.

Russell, P. S. J.

T. G. Euser, J. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. N. MacPherson, E. J. Rigg, J. D. Jones, V. Kumar, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Finite-element analysis and experimental results for a microstructured fiber with enhanced hydrostatic pressure sensitivity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(3), 1227–1231 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sadler, P.

T. G. Euser, J. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sankawa, I.

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, “Hole-assisted fiber design for small bending and splice losses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

Scharrer, M.

T. G. Euser, J. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Skorupski, K.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sonnenfeld, C.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23320–23330 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sulejmani, S.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, T.

Tajima, K.

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, “Hole-assisted fiber design for small bending and splice losses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

Talataisong, W.

Tam, H. Y.

Tam, H.-Y.

Z. Liu, L. Htein, K.-K. Lee, K.-T. Lau, and H.-Y. Tam, “Large dynamic range pressure sensor based on two semicircle-holes microstructured fiber,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 65 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terryn, H.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thienpont, H.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23320–23330 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tse, M. L. V.

Udd, E.

S. Kreger, S. Calvert, and E. Udd, “High pressure sensing using fiber Bragg gratings written in birefringent side hole fiber,” in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest (2002), pp. 355–358.
[Crossref]

Urbanczyk, W.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23320–23330 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Roosbroeck, J.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Wang, D. N.

Wang, Q.

Wang, Z.

White, I. M.

Wu, C.

Xu, D.

C. Jewart, D. Xu, K. P. Chen, and J. Canning, “Structure optimization of air-hole fibers for high-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensors,” in 19th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (International Society for Optics and Photonics2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, M.

M. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. Dakin, “Fibre grating pressure sensor with enhanced sensitivity using a glass-bubble housing,” Electron. Lett. 32(2), 128–129 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. Chow, and J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fibre grating high pressure sensor,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 398–399 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yan, X.

Zervas, M. N.

S. S. J. R. Clowes and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10,(6)857­859 (1995).

Zhang, L.

Zhou, J.

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, “Hole-assisted fiber design for small bending and splice losses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

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P. Kaiser and H. Astle, “Low-loss single-material fibers made from pure fused silica,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53(6), 1021–1039 (1974).
[Crossref]

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J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. Chow, and J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fibre grating high pressure sensor,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 398–399 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Xu, H. Geiger, and J. Dakin, “Fibre grating pressure sensor with enhanced sensitivity using a glass-bubble housing,” Electron. Lett. 32(2), 128–129 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, and I. Sankawa, “Hole-assisted fiber design for small bending and splice losses,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1737–1739 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. S. J. R. Clowes and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10,(6)857­859 (1995).

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Megret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg grating-based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[Crossref]

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R. M. Christensen, “Mechanics of cellular and other low-density materials,” Int. J. Solids Struct. 37(1-2), 93–104 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

W. Primak and D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(5), 779–788 (1959).
[Crossref]

T. G. Euser, J. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103108 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Sens. (1)

A. M. Pinto and M. Lopez-Amo, “Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications,” J. Sens. 2012, 1–21 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Prog. Electromagnetics Res. (1)

D. Chen and X. Cheng, “Hydrostatic pressure sensor based on a gold-coated fiber modal interferometer using lateral offset splicing of single mode fiber,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 124, 315–329 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Z. Liu, L. Htein, K.-K. Lee, K.-T. Lau, and H.-Y. Tam, “Large dynamic range pressure sensor based on two semicircle-holes microstructured fiber,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 65 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. Kreger, S. Calvert, and E. Udd, “High pressure sensing using fiber Bragg gratings written in birefringent side hole fiber,” in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest (2002), pp. 355–358.
[Crossref]

C. Jewart, D. Xu, K. P. Chen, and J. Canning, “Structure optimization of air-hole fibers for high-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure sensors,” in 19th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (International Society for Optics and Photonics2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SEM images of the single-ring suspended fibers: (a) Fiber-1 and (b) Fiber-2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulation results of the single-ring suspended fiber. (a) The simulated mode profile and (b) stress distribution (P = 100MPa) of Fiber-1; (c) simulated mode profile and (d) stress distribution (P = 100MPa) of Fiber-2; effective index change ratio for different AFFs as a function of applied pressure in (e) Fiber-1 and (f) Fiber-2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Calculated axial strain (εz, pressure) induced by a pressure of 100 MPa using the effective solid fiber based on the equivalent Young’s modulus under different AFFs; (b) calculated pressure sensitivity as a function of AFF.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Reflected spectra of the FBGs inscribed in single-ring suspended fibers; (b) configuration of the experimental setup used to measure pressure-induced Bragg wavelength shifts.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Pressure responses of SMF and single-ring suspended fibers: Fiber-1 and Fiber-2; (b) pressure responses of Fiber-2 measured at two different fiber lengths.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Temperature responses of single-ring suspended fibers: Fiber-1 and Fiber-2.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Comparison of Fiber Parameters and Their Respective Pressure Responses

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Several Hydrostatic-Pressure Sensing Techniques Specifically Based on FBGs

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ B =2 n eff Λ.
λ B =2 n eff Λ =2( n eff +Δ n eff )(Λ+ΔΛ) λ B ( 1+ Δ n eff n eff + ΔΛ Λ ),
Δ λ B λ B = Δ n eff n eff + ΔΛ Λ = Δ n eff n eff + ε z,pressure .
E'=(1η)E,
[ Δ n x Δ n y Δ n z ]=[ C 1 C 2 C 2 C 2 C 1 C 2 C 2 C 2 C 1 ][ σ 1 σ 2 σ 3 ],

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