Abstract

A nonpolar GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) using nanoporous bottom epitaxial distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) is demonstrated at room temperature (RT) under continuous-wave (CW) optical pumping. The porous layers enable the epitaxial growth of lattice-matched high-reflectance DBRs without sacrificing the conductive properties needed for high-performance VCSELs. The 2-λ cavity VCSEL reported here employs a hybrid design with top dielectric DBR and bottom nanoporous DBR. Single longitudinal mode lasing is observed at 462 nm with a threshold power density of ~5 kW/cm2 and a FWHM of ~0.12 nm. The emission polarization was pinned in the a-direction at all measured locations.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  5. T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-output-power and high-temperature operation of blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(11), 112101 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  7. S.-H. Park, “Crystal Orientation Effects on Many-Body Optical Gain of Wurtzite InGaN/GaN Quantum Well Lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 2B), L170–L172 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Park, D. Ahn, and S. Chuang, “Electronic and Optical Properties of$\rm a$- and$\rm m$-Plane Wurtzite InGaN–GaN Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. Schade, U. T. Schwarz, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Impact of band structure and transition matrix elements on polarization properties of the photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(3), 638–646 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. E. Romanov, T. J. Baker, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Strain-induced polarization in wurtzite III-nitride semipolar layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023522 (2006).
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  11. S. E. Brinkley, Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and Characterization of Low-Threshold Polarization-Stable VCSELs for Cs-Based Miniaturized Atomic Clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701410 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  15. S.-M. Lee, S.-H. Gong, J.-H. Kang, M. Ebaid, S.-W. Ryu, and Y.-H. Cho, “Optically pumped GaN vertical cavity surface emitting laser with high index-contrast nanoporous distributed Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11023–11030 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. C. Zhang, S. H. Park, D. Chen, D.-W. Lin, W. Xiong, H.-C. Kuo, C.-F. Lin, H. Cao, and J. Han, “Mesoporous GaN for Photonic Engineering—Highly Reflective GaN Mirrors as an Example,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 980–986 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. S. M. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Techniques to reduce thermal resistance in flip‐chip GaN‐based VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 214(8), 1600819 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. W. J. Tseng, D. H. van Dorp, R. R. Lietem, P. M. Vereecken, and G. Borghs, “Anodic Etching of n-GaN Epilayer into Porous GaN and Its Photoelectrochemical Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(51), 29492–29498 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, T. S. Luk, A. Rishinaramangalam, M. Monavarian, M. Nami, and D. Feezell, “Nanoporous distributed Bragg reflectors on free-standing nonpolar m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(4), 041109 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  21. E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Determination of Internal Loss in Nitride Lasers from First Principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Kuramoto, C. Sasaoka, N. Futagawa, M. Nido, and A. A. Yamaguchi, “Reduction of Internal Loss and Threshold Current in a Laser Diode with a Ridge by Selective Re-Growth (RiS-LD),” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 329–334 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2018 (4)

D. Feezell and S. Nakamura, “Invention, development, and status of the blue light-emitting diode, the enabler of solid-state lighting,” C. R. Phys. 19(3), 113–133 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-output-power and high-temperature operation of blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(11), 112101 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, T. S. Luk, A. Rishinaramangalam, M. Monavarian, M. Nami, and D. Feezell, “Nanoporous distributed Bragg reflectors on free-standing nonpolar m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(4), 041109 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

S. M. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Techniques to reduce thermal resistance in flip‐chip GaN‐based VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 214(8), 1600819 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

C. Zhang, S. H. Park, D. Chen, D.-W. Lin, W. Xiong, H.-C. Kuo, C.-F. Lin, H. Cao, and J. Han, “Mesoporous GaN for Photonic Engineering—Highly Reflective GaN Mirrors as an Example,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 980–986 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-M. Lee, S.-H. Gong, J.-H. Kang, M. Ebaid, S.-W. Ryu, and Y.-H. Cho, “Optically pumped GaN vertical cavity surface emitting laser with high index-contrast nanoporous distributed Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11023–11030 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. J. Tseng, D. H. van Dorp, R. R. Lietem, P. M. Vereecken, and G. Borghs, “Anodic Etching of n-GaN Epilayer into Porous GaN and Its Photoelectrochemical Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(51), 29492–29498 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and Characterization of Low-Threshold Polarization-Stable VCSELs for Cs-Based Miniaturized Atomic Clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701410 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. E. Brinkley, Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Kasahara, D. Morita, T. Kosugi, K. Nakagawa, J. Kawamata, Y. Higuchi, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Demonstration of Blue and Green GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers by Current Injection at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(7), 072103 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Schade, U. T. Schwarz, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Impact of band structure and transition matrix elements on polarization properties of the photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(3), 638–646 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Determination of Internal Loss in Nitride Lasers from First Principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, “CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. Park, D. Ahn, and S. Chuang, “Electronic and Optical Properties of$\rm a$- and$\rm m$-Plane Wurtzite InGaN–GaN Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J.-T. Chu, T. Lu, H.-H. Yao, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, J.-Y. Tsai, H. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Room-Temperature Operation of Optically Pumped Blue-Violet GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2556–2560 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. E. Romanov, T. J. Baker, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Strain-induced polarization in wurtzite III-nitride semipolar layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023522 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S.-H. Park, “Crystal Orientation Effects on Many-Body Optical Gain of Wurtzite InGaN/GaN Quantum Well Lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 2B), L170–L172 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Kuramoto, C. Sasaoka, N. Futagawa, M. Nido, and A. A. Yamaguchi, “Reduction of Internal Loss and Threshold Current in a Laser Diode with a Ridge by Selective Re-Growth (RiS-LD),” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 329–334 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ahn, D.

S. Park, D. Ahn, and S. Chuang, “Electronic and Optical Properties of$\rm a$- and$\rm m$-Plane Wurtzite InGaN–GaN Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[Crossref]

Akagi, T.

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-output-power and high-temperature operation of blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(11), 112101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Al-Samaneh, A.

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and Characterization of Low-Threshold Polarization-Stable VCSELs for Cs-Based Miniaturized Atomic Clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701410 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baker, T. J.

A. E. Romanov, T. J. Baker, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Strain-induced polarization in wurtzite III-nitride semipolar layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023522 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
[Crossref]

Borghs, G.

W. J. Tseng, D. H. van Dorp, R. R. Lietem, P. M. Vereecken, and G. Borghs, “Anodic Etching of n-GaN Epilayer into Porous GaN and Its Photoelectrochemical Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(51), 29492–29498 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brinkley, S. E.

S. E. Brinkley, Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Butté, R.

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

C. Zhang, S. H. Park, D. Chen, D.-W. Lin, W. Xiong, H.-C. Kuo, C.-F. Lin, H. Cao, and J. Han, “Mesoporous GaN for Photonic Engineering—Highly Reflective GaN Mirrors as an Example,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 980–986 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carlin, J. F.

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
[Crossref]

Castiglia, A.

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, A.

S. E. Brinkley, Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

C. Zhang, S. H. Park, D. Chen, D.-W. Lin, W. Xiong, H.-C. Kuo, C.-F. Lin, H. Cao, and J. Han, “Mesoporous GaN for Photonic Engineering—Highly Reflective GaN Mirrors as an Example,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 980–986 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cho, Y.-H.

Christmann, G.

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
[Crossref]

Christopoulos, S.

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, J.-T.

J.-T. Chu, T. Lu, H.-H. Yao, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, J.-Y. Tsai, H. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Room-Temperature Operation of Optically Pumped Blue-Violet GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2556–2560 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S.

S. Park, D. Ahn, and S. Chuang, “Electronic and Optical Properties of$\rm a$- and$\rm m$-Plane Wurtzite InGaN–GaN Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cohen, D.

S. E. Brinkley, Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cohen, D. A.

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. M. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Techniques to reduce thermal resistance in flip‐chip GaN‐based VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 214(8), 1600819 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Debernardi, P.

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and Characterization of Low-Threshold Polarization-Stable VCSELs for Cs-Based Miniaturized Atomic Clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701410 (2013).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. E. Brinkley, Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dorsaz, J.

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ebaid, M.

Farrell, R. M.

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D.

S. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, T. S. Luk, A. Rishinaramangalam, M. Monavarian, M. Nami, and D. Feezell, “Nanoporous distributed Bragg reflectors on free-standing nonpolar m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(4), 041109 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Feezell and S. Nakamura, “Invention, development, and status of the blue light-emitting diode, the enabler of solid-state lighting,” C. R. Phys. 19(3), 113–133 (2018).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D. F.

S. M. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Techniques to reduce thermal resistance in flip‐chip GaN‐based VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 214(8), 1600819 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feltin, E.

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
[Crossref]

Forman, C. A.

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Futagawa, N.

M. Kuramoto, C. Sasaoka, N. Futagawa, M. Nido, and A. A. Yamaguchi, “Reduction of Internal Loss and Threshold Current in a Laser Diode with a Ridge by Selective Re-Growth (RiS-LD),” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 329–334 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fuutagawa, N.

T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gong, S.-H.

Grandjean, N.

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grundy, A. J. D.

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hamaguchi, T.

T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

C. Zhang, S. H. Park, D. Chen, D.-W. Lin, W. Xiong, H.-C. Kuo, C.-F. Lin, H. Cao, and J. Han, “Mesoporous GaN for Photonic Engineering—Highly Reflective GaN Mirrors as an Example,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 980–986 (2015).
[Crossref]

Higuchi, Y.

D. Kasahara, D. Morita, T. Kosugi, K. Nakagawa, J. Kawamata, Y. Higuchi, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Demonstration of Blue and Green GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers by Current Injection at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(7), 072103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Holder, C. O.

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, G.-S.

T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, “CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Izumi, S.

T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.-H.

Kao, C.-C.

T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, “CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-T. Chu, T. Lu, H.-H. Yao, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, J.-Y. Tsai, H. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Room-Temperature Operation of Optically Pumped Blue-Violet GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2556–2560 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kasahara, D.

D. Kasahara, D. Morita, T. Kosugi, K. Nakagawa, J. Kawamata, Y. Higuchi, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Demonstration of Blue and Green GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers by Current Injection at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(7), 072103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kawamata, J.

D. Kasahara, D. Morita, T. Kosugi, K. Nakagawa, J. Kawamata, Y. Higuchi, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Demonstration of Blue and Green GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers by Current Injection at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(7), 072103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kearns, J. A.

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kern, A.

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and Characterization of Low-Threshold Polarization-Stable VCSELs for Cs-Based Miniaturized Atomic Clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701410 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kioupakis, E.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Determination of Internal Loss in Nitride Lasers from First Principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

L. Schade, U. T. Schwarz, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Impact of band structure and transition matrix elements on polarization properties of the photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(3), 638–646 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, S.

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-output-power and high-temperature operation of blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(11), 112101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kosugi, T.

D. Kasahara, D. Morita, T. Kosugi, K. Nakagawa, J. Kawamata, Y. Higuchi, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Demonstration of Blue and Green GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers by Current Injection at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(7), 072103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.

J.-T. Chu, T. Lu, H.-H. Yao, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, J.-Y. Tsai, H. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Room-Temperature Operation of Optically Pumped Blue-Violet GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2556–2560 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.-C.

C. Zhang, S. H. Park, D. Chen, D.-W. Lin, W. Xiong, H.-C. Kuo, C.-F. Lin, H. Cao, and J. Han, “Mesoporous GaN for Photonic Engineering—Highly Reflective GaN Mirrors as an Example,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 980–986 (2015).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, “CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuramoto, M.

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-output-power and high-temperature operation of blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(11), 112101 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Kuramoto, C. Sasaoka, N. Futagawa, M. Nido, and A. A. Yamaguchi, “Reduction of Internal Loss and Threshold Current in a Laser Diode with a Ridge by Selective Re-Growth (RiS-LD),” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 329–334 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lagoudakis, P. G.

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-M.

Leonard, J. T.

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. M. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Techniques to reduce thermal resistance in flip‐chip GaN‐based VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 214(8), 1600819 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, W.-D.

J.-T. Chu, T. Lu, H.-H. Yao, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, J.-Y. Tsai, H. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Room-Temperature Operation of Optically Pumped Blue-Violet GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2556–2560 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lietem, R. R.

W. J. Tseng, D. H. van Dorp, R. R. Lietem, P. M. Vereecken, and G. Borghs, “Anodic Etching of n-GaN Epilayer into Porous GaN and Its Photoelectrochemical Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(51), 29492–29498 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-F.

C. Zhang, S. H. Park, D. Chen, D.-W. Lin, W. Xiong, H.-C. Kuo, C.-F. Lin, H. Cao, and J. Han, “Mesoporous GaN for Photonic Engineering—Highly Reflective GaN Mirrors as an Example,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 980–986 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, D.-W.

C. Zhang, S. H. Park, D. Chen, D.-W. Lin, W. Xiong, H.-C. Kuo, C.-F. Lin, H. Cao, and J. Han, “Mesoporous GaN for Photonic Engineering—Highly Reflective GaN Mirrors as an Example,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 980–986 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-D.

S. E. Brinkley, Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, T.

J.-T. Chu, T. Lu, H.-H. Yao, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, J.-Y. Tsai, H. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Room-Temperature Operation of Optically Pumped Blue-Violet GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2556–2560 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, T.-C.

T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, “CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Luk, T. S.

S. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, T. S. Luk, A. Rishinaramangalam, M. Monavarian, M. Nami, and D. Feezell, “Nanoporous distributed Bragg reflectors on free-standing nonpolar m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(4), 041109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Margalith, T.

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Matsumura, H.

D. Kasahara, D. Morita, T. Kosugi, K. Nakagawa, J. Kawamata, Y. Higuchi, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Demonstration of Blue and Green GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers by Current Injection at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(7), 072103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Miah, M. J.

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and Characterization of Low-Threshold Polarization-Stable VCSELs for Cs-Based Miniaturized Atomic Clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701410 (2013).
[Crossref]

Michalzik, R.

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and Characterization of Low-Threshold Polarization-Stable VCSELs for Cs-Based Miniaturized Atomic Clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701410 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, S.

S. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, T. S. Luk, A. Rishinaramangalam, M. Monavarian, M. Nami, and D. Feezell, “Nanoporous distributed Bragg reflectors on free-standing nonpolar m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(4), 041109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, S. M.

S. M. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Techniques to reduce thermal resistance in flip‐chip GaN‐based VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 214(8), 1600819 (2017).
[Crossref]

Monavarian, M.

S. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, T. S. Luk, A. Rishinaramangalam, M. Monavarian, M. Nami, and D. Feezell, “Nanoporous distributed Bragg reflectors on free-standing nonpolar m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(4), 041109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Morita, D.

D. Kasahara, D. Morita, T. Kosugi, K. Nakagawa, J. Kawamata, Y. Higuchi, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Demonstration of Blue and Green GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers by Current Injection at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(7), 072103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

D. Kasahara, D. Morita, T. Kosugi, K. Nakagawa, J. Kawamata, Y. Higuchi, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Demonstration of Blue and Green GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers by Current Injection at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(7), 072103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Murayama, M.

T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, K.

D. Kasahara, D. Morita, T. Kosugi, K. Nakagawa, J. Kawamata, Y. Higuchi, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Demonstration of Blue and Green GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers by Current Injection at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(7), 072103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

D. Feezell and S. Nakamura, “Invention, development, and status of the blue light-emitting diode, the enabler of solid-state lighting,” C. R. Phys. 19(3), 113–133 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. M. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Techniques to reduce thermal resistance in flip‐chip GaN‐based VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 214(8), 1600819 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. E. Brinkley, Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. E. Romanov, T. J. Baker, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Strain-induced polarization in wurtzite III-nitride semipolar layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023522 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nami, M.

S. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, T. S. Luk, A. Rishinaramangalam, M. Monavarian, M. Nami, and D. Feezell, “Nanoporous distributed Bragg reflectors on free-standing nonpolar m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(4), 041109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Narui, H.

T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nido, M.

M. Kuramoto, C. Sasaoka, N. Futagawa, M. Nido, and A. A. Yamaguchi, “Reduction of Internal Loss and Threshold Current in a Laser Diode with a Ridge by Selective Re-Growth (RiS-LD),” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 329–334 (2002).
[Crossref]

Park, S.

S. Park, D. Ahn, and S. Chuang, “Electronic and Optical Properties of$\rm a$- and$\rm m$-Plane Wurtzite InGaN–GaN Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, S. H.

C. Zhang, S. H. Park, D. Chen, D.-W. Lin, W. Xiong, H.-C. Kuo, C.-F. Lin, H. Cao, and J. Han, “Mesoporous GaN for Photonic Engineering—Highly Reflective GaN Mirrors as an Example,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 980–986 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-H.

S.-H. Park, “Crystal Orientation Effects on Many-Body Optical Gain of Wurtzite InGaN/GaN Quantum Well Lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 2B), L170–L172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pfaff, N.

S. E. Brinkley, Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rinke, P.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Determination of Internal Loss in Nitride Lasers from First Principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rishinaramangalam, A.

S. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, T. S. Luk, A. Rishinaramangalam, M. Monavarian, M. Nami, and D. Feezell, “Nanoporous distributed Bragg reflectors on free-standing nonpolar m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(4), 041109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Romanov, A. E.

A. E. Romanov, T. J. Baker, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Strain-induced polarization in wurtzite III-nitride semipolar layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023522 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ryu, S.-W.

Saito, T.

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-output-power and high-temperature operation of blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(11), 112101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sasaoka, C.

M. Kuramoto, C. Sasaoka, N. Futagawa, M. Nido, and A. A. Yamaguchi, “Reduction of Internal Loss and Threshold Current in a Laser Diode with a Ridge by Selective Re-Growth (RiS-LD),” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 329–334 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schade, L.

L. Schade, U. T. Schwarz, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Impact of band structure and transition matrix elements on polarization properties of the photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(3), 638–646 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, U. T.

L. Schade, U. T. Schwarz, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Impact of band structure and transition matrix elements on polarization properties of the photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(3), 638–646 (2011).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. E. Brinkley, Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. E. Romanov, T. J. Baker, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Strain-induced polarization in wurtzite III-nitride semipolar layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023522 (2006).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, T.

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-output-power and high-temperature operation of blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(11), 112101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-output-power and high-temperature operation of blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(11), 112101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tazawa, K.

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-output-power and high-temperature operation of blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(11), 112101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tsai, J.-Y.

J.-T. Chu, T. Lu, H.-H. Yao, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, J.-Y. Tsai, H. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Room-Temperature Operation of Optically Pumped Blue-Violet GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2556–2560 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tseng, W. J.

W. J. Tseng, D. H. van Dorp, R. R. Lietem, P. M. Vereecken, and G. Borghs, “Anodic Etching of n-GaN Epilayer into Porous GaN and Its Photoelectrochemical Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(51), 29492–29498 (2014).
[Crossref]

Van de Walle, C. G.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Determination of Internal Loss in Nitride Lasers from First Principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

van Dorp, D. H.

W. J. Tseng, D. H. van Dorp, R. R. Lietem, P. M. Vereecken, and G. Borghs, “Anodic Etching of n-GaN Epilayer into Porous GaN and Its Photoelectrochemical Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(51), 29492–29498 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vereecken, P. M.

W. J. Tseng, D. H. van Dorp, R. R. Lietem, P. M. Vereecken, and G. Borghs, “Anodic Etching of n-GaN Epilayer into Porous GaN and Its Photoelectrochemical Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(51), 29492–29498 (2014).
[Crossref]

von Högersthal, G. B. H.

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wahl, D.

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and Characterization of Low-Threshold Polarization-Stable VCSELs for Cs-Based Miniaturized Atomic Clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701410 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.-C.

T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, “CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-T. Chu, T. Lu, H.-H. Yao, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, J.-Y. Tsai, H. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Room-Temperature Operation of Optically Pumped Blue-Violet GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2556–2560 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wernicke, T.

L. Schade, U. T. Schwarz, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Impact of band structure and transition matrix elements on polarization properties of the photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(3), 638–646 (2011).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

L. Schade, U. T. Schwarz, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Impact of band structure and transition matrix elements on polarization properties of the photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(3), 638–646 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiong, W.

C. Zhang, S. H. Park, D. Chen, D.-W. Lin, W. Xiong, H.-C. Kuo, C.-F. Lin, H. Cao, and J. Han, “Mesoporous GaN for Photonic Engineering—Highly Reflective GaN Mirrors as an Example,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 980–986 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, A. A.

M. Kuramoto, C. Sasaoka, N. Futagawa, M. Nido, and A. A. Yamaguchi, “Reduction of Internal Loss and Threshold Current in a Laser Diode with a Ridge by Selective Re-Growth (RiS-LD),” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 329–334 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yao, H.-H.

J.-T. Chu, T. Lu, H.-H. Yao, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, J.-Y. Tsai, H. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Room-Temperature Operation of Optically Pumped Blue-Violet GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2556–2560 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yonkee, B.

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Young, E. C.

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, S. H. Park, D. Chen, D.-W. Lin, W. Xiong, H.-C. Kuo, C.-F. Lin, H. Cao, and J. Han, “Mesoporous GaN for Photonic Engineering—Highly Reflective GaN Mirrors as an Example,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 980–986 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

C. Zhang, S. H. Park, D. Chen, D.-W. Lin, W. Xiong, H.-C. Kuo, C.-F. Lin, H. Cao, and J. Han, “Mesoporous GaN for Photonic Engineering—Highly Reflective GaN Mirrors as an Example,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 980–986 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (3)

D. Kasahara, D. Morita, T. Kosugi, K. Nakagawa, J. Kawamata, Y. Higuchi, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Demonstration of Blue and Green GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers by Current Injection at Room Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(7), 072103 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Kuramoto, S. Kobayashi, T. Akagi, K. Tazawa, K. Tanaka, T. Saito, and T. Takeuchi, “High-output-power and high-temperature operation of blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(11), 112101 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Determination of Internal Loss in Nitride Lasers from First Principles,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, T. S. Luk, A. Rishinaramangalam, M. Monavarian, M. Nami, and D. Feezell, “Nanoporous distributed Bragg reflectors on free-standing nonpolar m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(4), 041109 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. O. Holder, J. T. Leonard, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Cohen, B. Yonkee, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with a polarization ratio of 100% fabricated using photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 031111 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. A. Forman, S. Lee, E. C. Young, J. A. Kearns, D. A. Cohen, J. T. Leonard, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of m-plane GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(11), 111106 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Lu, C.-C. Kao, H.-C. Kuo, G.-S. Huang, and S.-C. Wang, “CW lasing of current injection blue GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141102 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. E. Brinkley, Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. R. Phys. (1)

D. Feezell and S. Nakamura, “Invention, development, and status of the blue light-emitting diode, the enabler of solid-state lighting,” C. R. Phys. 19(3), 113–133 (2018).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. B. H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure,” Electron. Lett. 43(17), 924–926 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Park, D. Ahn, and S. Chuang, “Electronic and Optical Properties of$\rm a$- and$\rm m$-Plane Wurtzite InGaN–GaN Quantum Wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. Miah, A. Al-Samaneh, A. Kern, D. Wahl, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, “Fabrication and Characterization of Low-Threshold Polarization-Stable VCSELs for Cs-Based Miniaturized Atomic Clocks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1701410 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. E. Romanov, T. J. Baker, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Strain-induced polarization in wurtzite III-nitride semipolar layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023522 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

W. J. Tseng, D. H. van Dorp, R. R. Lietem, P. M. Vereecken, and G. Borghs, “Anodic Etching of n-GaN Epilayer into Porous GaN and Its Photoelectrochemical Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(51), 29492–29498 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J.-T. Chu, T. Lu, H.-H. Yao, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, J.-Y. Tsai, H. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Room-Temperature Operation of Optically Pumped Blue-Violet GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2556–2560 (2006).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Park, “Crystal Orientation Effects on Many-Body Optical Gain of Wurtzite InGaN/GaN Quantum Well Lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 2B), L170–L172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Status Solidi (3)

M. Kuramoto, C. Sasaoka, N. Futagawa, M. Nido, and A. A. Yamaguchi, “Reduction of Internal Loss and Threshold Current in a Laser Diode with a Ridge by Selective Re-Growth (RiS-LD),” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 329–334 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Hamaguchi, N. Fuutagawa, S. Izumi, M. Murayama, and H. Narui, “Milliwatt-class GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Phys. Status Solidi 213(5), 1170–1176 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, S. Nakamura, and D. F. Feezell, “Techniques to reduce thermal resistance in flip‐chip GaN‐based VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 214(8), 1600819 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

L. Schade, U. T. Schwarz, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Impact of band structure and transition matrix elements on polarization properties of the photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(3), 638–646 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

R. Michalzik, VCSELs: Fundamentals, Technology and Applications of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (Springer, 2012).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Cross-sectional schematic of the hybrid VCSEL structure. (b) 1D TMM simulation showing the corresponding refractive index profile and the normalized mode intensity.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of the EC etch setup. (b) µ-PL setup where the samples are pumped by a 405 nm laser diode from the top and the emissions are collected from the bottom.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) µ-PL emission spectra of a VCSEL at various pump power densities. (b) Corresponding integrated PL and FHWM plot. (c) Polar plot showing polarization pinning at 3 different lasing spots.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Emission spectra of several VCSEL devices showing lasing emission at different wavelengths. (b) Cross-sectional SEM image of the nanoporous DBR, where higher index contrast was required to counter the incorrect epilayer thicknesses. (c) Microscope image of a device mesa with non-uniform in spectra due to large pores sizes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of all the materials used in the VCSEL cavity for the TMM simulation. The refractive indices are given for a wavelength of 462 nm and the absorption loss values are rough estimates used to determine threshold modal gain [21,22].

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