Abstract

Large-scale autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) light-emitting-diode (LED) displays can provide high-quality, even immersive, visual experiences. However, the unique structural characteristics of the LED display panel can enhance moiré effects during parallax generation. We present a novel method for quantitatively characterizing the moiré effect in autostereoscopic 3D-LED displays using a model applying geometrical ray tracing and a brightness distribution stack. An optical diffuser (OD) device for moiré reduction and performance balance is designed and the influence of several key device parameters on moiré pattern features are examined in autostereoscopic 3D-LED displays for the first time. Using the obtained optimal parameters, we assembled an ultra-large moiré-less autostereoscopic 3D-LED display prototype, which was experimentally shown to be capable of reducing moiré fringes without noticeable increase in crosstalk or significant reduction in visual quality. Finally, the effects on the moiré and crosstalk effect of altering key influencing factors were examined.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  31. M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (5)

V. A. Ezhov, “Concept of autostereoscopic full-screen resolution imaging based on a dynamic amplitude parallax barrier with two antiphase liquid-crystal layers,” Opt. Eng. 57(11), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Sang, X. Gao, X. Yu, S. Xing, Y. Li, and Y. Wu, “Interactive floating full-parallax digital three-dimensional light-field display based on wavefront recomposing,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8883–8889 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, X. Gao, L. Liu, B. Liu, and L. Yang, “162-inch 3D light field display based on aspheric lens array and holographic functional screen,” Opt. Express 26(25), 33013–33021 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Saveljev and S. K. Kim, “Controlled moiré effect in multiview three-dimensional displays: image quality and image generation,” Opt. Eng. 57(6), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Saveljev and S. K. Kim, “Amplitude, period and orientation of the moiré patterns in barrier 3D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(2), 81–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

X. Zeng, L. Yang, X. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. Chen, and T. Guo, “Pixel arrangement optimization of two-dimensional light-emitting diode panel for low-crosstalk autostereoscopic light-emitting diode displays,” Opt. Eng. 56(6), 063104 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, X. Zhou, T. Guo, L. Yang, E. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Crosstalk reduction in large-scale autostereoscopic 3D-LED display based on black-stripe occupation ratio,” Opt. Commun. 389, 159–164 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

V. Saveljev and S. K. Kim, “Probability of the moiré effect in barrier and lenticular autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25597–25607 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lin, N. Liao, D. Zhao, S. Dong, and Y. Li, “Analysis of moiré minimization in color LED flat-panel display,” Proc. SPIE 9618, 96180K (2015).

2014 (2)

G. J. Lv, Q. H. Wang, W. X. Zhao, and J. Wang, “3D display based on parallax barrier with multiview zones,” Appl. Opt. 53(7), 1339–1342 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yamamoto, H. Nishimura, T. Abe, and Y. Hayasaki, “Large stereoscopic LED display by use of parallax barrier of aperture grille type,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 21–25 (2014).

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

S. K. Kim, S. K. Yoon, and K. H. Yoon, “Crosstalk minimization in autostereoscopic multiview 3D display by eye tracking and fusion(overlapping) of viewing zones,” Proc. SPIE 8384, 8384101 (2012).

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Saveljev and S. K. Kim, “Simulation and measurement of moiré patterns at finite distance,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2163–2177 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

J. Hong, Y. Kim, H. J. Choi, J. Hahn, J. H. Park, H. Kim, S. W. Min, N. Chen, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display technologies of recent interest: principles, status, and issues [Invited],” Appl. Opt. 50(34), H87–H115 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. R. You and S. H. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system using a variable parallax barrier and eye tracking,” Opt. Eng. 50(50), 087401 (2011).

J. Y. Son, B. R. Lee, M. C. Park, and H. Lee, “Moiré reduction by a diffuser in a multiview 3-D imaging system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(12), 873–879 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

W. X. Zhao, Q. H. Wang, A. H. Wang, and D. H. Li, “Autostereoscopic display based on two-layer lenticular lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4127–4129 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, S. Matsumoto, and S. Suyama, “Viewing-zone control of light-emitting diode panel for stereoscopic display and multiple viewing distances,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(9), 359–366 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

Y. Kim, G. Park, S. W. Cho, J. Jung, B. Lee, Y. Choi, and M. G. Lee, “Integral imaging with reduced color moire pattern by using a slanted lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68031L (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, J. Arai, and F. Okano, “Moire fringe reduction by optical filters in integral three-dimensional imaging on a color flat-panel display,” Appl. Opt. 44(21), 4475–4483 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. Börner, “Four autostereoscopic monitors on the level of industrial prototypes,” Displays 20(2), 57–64 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

N. Shiramatsu, M. Tanigawa, and S. Iwata, “Practical method for evaluating the visibility of moiré patterns for CRT design,” Proc. SPIE 2408, 255–262 (1995).
[Crossref]

Abe, T.

H. Yamamoto, H. Nishimura, T. Abe, and Y. Hayasaki, “Large stereoscopic LED display by use of parallax barrier of aperture grille type,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 21–25 (2014).

Arai, J.

Börner, R.

R. Börner, “Four autostereoscopic monitors on the level of industrial prototypes,” Displays 20(2), 57–64 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. C.

J. T. Lien, M. D. Chou, F. C. Lu, C. C. Chang, C. L. Tsou, T. Y. Lin, and C. N. Mo, “Using diffusive adhesives to reduce moiré pattern of autostereoscopic displays,” Proc IDW ’08, 2083–2086 (2008).

Chen, E.

X. Zeng, L. Yang, X. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. Chen, and T. Guo, “Pixel arrangement optimization of two-dimensional light-emitting diode panel for low-crosstalk autostereoscopic light-emitting diode displays,” Opt. Eng. 56(6), 063104 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, X. Zhou, T. Guo, L. Yang, E. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Crosstalk reduction in large-scale autostereoscopic 3D-LED display based on black-stripe occupation ratio,” Opt. Commun. 389, 159–164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, N.

Cho, S. W.

Y. Kim, G. Park, S. W. Cho, J. Jung, B. Lee, Y. Choi, and M. G. Lee, “Integral imaging with reduced color moire pattern by using a slanted lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68031L (2008).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. J.

Choi, Y.

Y. Kim, G. Park, S. W. Cho, J. Jung, B. Lee, Y. Choi, and M. G. Lee, “Integral imaging with reduced color moire pattern by using a slanted lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68031L (2008).
[Crossref]

Chou, M. D.

J. T. Lien, M. D. Chou, F. C. Lu, C. C. Chang, C. L. Tsou, T. Y. Lin, and C. N. Mo, “Using diffusive adhesives to reduce moiré pattern of autostereoscopic displays,” Proc IDW ’08, 2083–2086 (2008).

Dodgson, N. A.

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dong, S.

K. Lin, N. Liao, D. Zhao, S. Dong, and Y. Li, “Analysis of moiré minimization in color LED flat-panel display,” Proc. SPIE 9618, 96180K (2015).

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ezhov, V. A.

V. A. Ezhov, “Concept of autostereoscopic full-screen resolution imaging based on a dynamic amplitude parallax barrier with two antiphase liquid-crystal layers,” Opt. Eng. 57(11), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gao, X.

Geng, J.

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

Guo, T.

X. Zeng, X. Zhou, T. Guo, L. Yang, E. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Crosstalk reduction in large-scale autostereoscopic 3D-LED display based on black-stripe occupation ratio,” Opt. Commun. 389, 159–164 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, L. Yang, X. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. Chen, and T. Guo, “Pixel arrangement optimization of two-dimensional light-emitting diode panel for low-crosstalk autostereoscopic light-emitting diode displays,” Opt. Eng. 56(6), 063104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hahn, J.

Haino, Y.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Hayasaki, Y.

H. Yamamoto, H. Nishimura, T. Abe, and Y. Hayasaki, “Large stereoscopic LED display by use of parallax barrier of aperture grille type,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 21–25 (2014).

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hong, J.

Inoue, N.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Iwasawa, S.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Iwata, S.

N. Shiramatsu, M. Tanigawa, and S. Iwata, “Practical method for evaluating the visibility of moiré patterns for CRT design,” Proc. SPIE 2408, 255–262 (1995).
[Crossref]

Javidi, B.

V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jin, G.

Jung, J.

Y. Kim, G. Park, S. W. Cho, J. Jung, B. Lee, Y. Choi, and M. G. Lee, “Integral imaging with reduced color moire pattern by using a slanted lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68031L (2008).
[Crossref]

Jung, J. H.

Kawakita, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. S.

V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

Kim, S. K.

V. Saveljev and S. K. Kim, “Amplitude, period and orientation of the moiré patterns in barrier 3D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(2), 81–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Saveljev and S. K. Kim, “Controlled moiré effect in multiview three-dimensional displays: image quality and image generation,” Opt. Eng. 57(6), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Saveljev and S. K. Kim, “Probability of the moiré effect in barrier and lenticular autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25597–25607 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Kim, S. K. Yoon, and K. H. Yoon, “Crosstalk minimization in autostereoscopic multiview 3D display by eye tracking and fusion(overlapping) of viewing zones,” Proc. SPIE 8384, 8384101 (2012).

V. Saveljev and S. K. Kim, “Simulation and measurement of moiré patterns at finite distance,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2163–2177 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

Kimura, T.

H. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, S. Matsumoto, and S. Suyama, “Viewing-zone control of light-emitting diode panel for stereoscopic display and multiple viewing distances,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(9), 359–366 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, M.

Kong, L.

Lee, B.

Lee, B. R.

J. Y. Son, B. R. Lee, M. C. Park, and H. Lee, “Moiré reduction by a diffuser in a multiview 3-D imaging system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(12), 873–879 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

J. Y. Son, B. R. Lee, M. C. Park, and H. Lee, “Moiré reduction by a diffuser in a multiview 3-D imaging system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(12), 873–879 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. G.

Y. Kim, G. Park, S. W. Cho, J. Jung, B. Lee, Y. Choi, and M. G. Lee, “Integral imaging with reduced color moire pattern by using a slanted lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68031L (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

Y. R. You and S. H. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system using a variable parallax barrier and eye tracking,” Opt. Eng. 50(50), 087401 (2011).

Lee, Y. H.

Li, D. H.

Li, Y.

Liao, N.

K. Lin, N. Liao, D. Zhao, S. Dong, and Y. Li, “Analysis of moiré minimization in color LED flat-panel display,” Proc. SPIE 9618, 96180K (2015).

Lien, J. T.

J. T. Lien, M. D. Chou, F. C. Lu, C. C. Chang, C. L. Tsou, T. Y. Lin, and C. N. Mo, “Using diffusive adhesives to reduce moiré pattern of autostereoscopic displays,” Proc IDW ’08, 2083–2086 (2008).

Lin, K.

K. Lin, N. Liao, D. Zhao, S. Dong, and Y. Li, “Analysis of moiré minimization in color LED flat-panel display,” Proc. SPIE 9618, 96180K (2015).

Lin, T. Y.

J. T. Lien, M. D. Chou, F. C. Lu, C. C. Chang, C. L. Tsou, T. Y. Lin, and C. N. Mo, “Using diffusive adhesives to reduce moiré pattern of autostereoscopic displays,” Proc IDW ’08, 2083–2086 (2008).

Liu, B.

Liu, L.

Lu, F. C.

J. T. Lien, M. D. Chou, F. C. Lu, C. C. Chang, C. L. Tsou, T. Y. Lin, and C. N. Mo, “Using diffusive adhesives to reduce moiré pattern of autostereoscopic displays,” Proc IDW ’08, 2083–2086 (2008).

Lv, G. J.

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, S.

H. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, S. Matsumoto, and S. Suyama, “Viewing-zone control of light-emitting diode panel for stereoscopic display and multiple viewing distances,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(9), 359–366 (2010).
[Crossref]

Min, S. W.

Mo, C. N.

J. T. Lien, M. D. Chou, F. C. Lu, C. C. Chang, C. L. Tsou, T. Y. Lin, and C. N. Mo, “Using diffusive adhesives to reduce moiré pattern of autostereoscopic displays,” Proc IDW ’08, 2083–2086 (2008).

Nishimura, H.

H. Yamamoto, H. Nishimura, T. Abe, and Y. Hayasaki, “Large stereoscopic LED display by use of parallax barrier of aperture grille type,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 21–25 (2014).

Okano, F.

Okui, M.

Park, G.

Y. Kim, G. Park, J. H. Jung, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Color moiré pattern simulation and analysis in three-dimensional integral imaging for finding the moiré-reduced tilted angle of a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2178–2187 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, G. Park, S. W. Cho, J. Jung, B. Lee, Y. Choi, and M. G. Lee, “Integral imaging with reduced color moire pattern by using a slanted lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68031L (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, J. H.

Park, M. C.

J. Y. Son, B. R. Lee, M. C. Park, and H. Lee, “Moiré reduction by a diffuser in a multiview 3-D imaging system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(12), 873–879 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peng, F.

Ralston, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sakai, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Sang, X.

Sato, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Saveljev, V.

V. Saveljev and S. K. Kim, “Amplitude, period and orientation of the moiré patterns in barrier 3D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(2), 81–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Saveljev and S. K. Kim, “Controlled moiré effect in multiview three-dimensional displays: image quality and image generation,” Opt. Eng. 57(6), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Saveljev and S. K. Kim, “Probability of the moiré effect in barrier and lenticular autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25597–25607 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Saveljev and S. K. Kim, “Simulation and measurement of moiré patterns at finite distance,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2163–2177 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shiramatsu, N.

N. Shiramatsu, M. Tanigawa, and S. Iwata, “Practical method for evaluating the visibility of moiré patterns for CRT design,” Proc. SPIE 2408, 255–262 (1995).
[Crossref]

Son, J. Y.

J. Y. Son, B. R. Lee, M. C. Park, and H. Lee, “Moiré reduction by a diffuser in a multiview 3-D imaging system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(12), 873–879 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[Crossref]

Suyama, S.

H. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, S. Matsumoto, and S. Suyama, “Viewing-zone control of light-emitting diode panel for stereoscopic display and multiple viewing distances,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(9), 359–366 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tanigawa, M.

N. Shiramatsu, M. Tanigawa, and S. Iwata, “Practical method for evaluating the visibility of moiré patterns for CRT design,” Proc. SPIE 2408, 255–262 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tao, Y. H.

Tsou, C. L.

J. T. Lien, M. D. Chou, F. C. Lu, C. C. Chang, C. L. Tsou, T. Y. Lin, and C. N. Mo, “Using diffusive adhesives to reduce moiré pattern of autostereoscopic displays,” Proc IDW ’08, 2083–2086 (2008).

Wang, A. H.

Wang, J.

Wang, Q. H.

Wang, T.

Wu, S. T.

Wu, Y.

Xing, S.

Yamamoto, H.

H. Yamamoto, H. Nishimura, T. Abe, and Y. Hayasaki, “Large stereoscopic LED display by use of parallax barrier of aperture grille type,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 21–25 (2014).

H. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, S. Matsumoto, and S. Suyama, “Viewing-zone control of light-emitting diode panel for stereoscopic display and multiple viewing distances,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(9), 359–366 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

S. Yang, X. Sang, X. Yu, X. Gao, L. Liu, B. Liu, and L. Yang, “162-inch 3D light field display based on aspheric lens array and holographic functional screen,” Opt. Express 26(25), 33013–33021 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zeng, X. Zhou, T. Guo, L. Yang, E. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Crosstalk reduction in large-scale autostereoscopic 3D-LED display based on black-stripe occupation ratio,” Opt. Commun. 389, 159–164 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, L. Yang, X. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. Chen, and T. Guo, “Pixel arrangement optimization of two-dimensional light-emitting diode panel for low-crosstalk autostereoscopic light-emitting diode displays,” Opt. Eng. 56(6), 063104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

Yoon, K. H.

S. K. Kim, S. K. Yoon, and K. H. Yoon, “Crosstalk minimization in autostereoscopic multiview 3D display by eye tracking and fusion(overlapping) of viewing zones,” Proc. SPIE 8384, 8384101 (2012).

Yoon, S. K.

S. K. Kim, S. K. Yoon, and K. H. Yoon, “Crosstalk minimization in autostereoscopic multiview 3D display by eye tracking and fusion(overlapping) of viewing zones,” Proc. SPIE 8384, 8384101 (2012).

You, Y. R.

Y. R. You and S. H. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system using a variable parallax barrier and eye tracking,” Opt. Eng. 50(50), 087401 (2011).

Yu, X.

Zeng, X.

X. Zeng, X. Zhou, T. Guo, L. Yang, E. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Crosstalk reduction in large-scale autostereoscopic 3D-LED display based on black-stripe occupation ratio,” Opt. Commun. 389, 159–164 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, L. Yang, X. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. Chen, and T. Guo, “Pixel arrangement optimization of two-dimensional light-emitting diode panel for low-crosstalk autostereoscopic light-emitting diode displays,” Opt. Eng. 56(6), 063104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

X. Zeng, L. Yang, X. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. Chen, and T. Guo, “Pixel arrangement optimization of two-dimensional light-emitting diode panel for low-crosstalk autostereoscopic light-emitting diode displays,” Opt. Eng. 56(6), 063104 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, X. Zhou, T. Guo, L. Yang, E. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Crosstalk reduction in large-scale autostereoscopic 3D-LED display based on black-stripe occupation ratio,” Opt. Commun. 389, 159–164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D.

K. Lin, N. Liao, D. Zhao, S. Dong, and Y. Li, “Analysis of moiré minimization in color LED flat-panel display,” Proc. SPIE 9618, 96180K (2015).

Zhao, W. X.

Zhou, X.

X. Zeng, X. Zhou, T. Guo, L. Yang, E. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Crosstalk reduction in large-scale autostereoscopic 3D-LED display based on black-stripe occupation ratio,” Opt. Commun. 389, 159–164 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, L. Yang, X. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. Chen, and T. Guo, “Pixel arrangement optimization of two-dimensional light-emitting diode panel for low-crosstalk autostereoscopic light-emitting diode displays,” Opt. Eng. 56(6), 063104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

H. Yamamoto, H. Nishimura, T. Abe, and Y. Hayasaki, “Large stereoscopic LED display by use of parallax barrier of aperture grille type,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 21–25 (2014).

Computer (1)

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[Crossref]

Displays (1)

R. Börner, “Four autostereoscopic monitors on the level of industrial prototypes,” Displays 20(2), 57–64 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, S. Matsumoto, and S. Suyama, “Viewing-zone control of light-emitting diode panel for stereoscopic display and multiple viewing distances,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(9), 359–366 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (2)

J. Y. Son, B. R. Lee, M. C. Park, and H. Lee, “Moiré reduction by a diffuser in a multiview 3-D imaging system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(12), 873–879 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Saveljev and S. K. Kim, “Amplitude, period and orientation of the moiré patterns in barrier 3D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(2), 81–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Zeng, X. Zhou, T. Guo, L. Yang, E. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Crosstalk reduction in large-scale autostereoscopic 3D-LED display based on black-stripe occupation ratio,” Opt. Commun. 389, 159–164 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (4)

Y. R. You and S. H. Lee, “Three-dimensional display system using a variable parallax barrier and eye tracking,” Opt. Eng. 50(50), 087401 (2011).

V. Saveljev and S. K. Kim, “Controlled moiré effect in multiview three-dimensional displays: image quality and image generation,” Opt. Eng. 57(6), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. A. Ezhov, “Concept of autostereoscopic full-screen resolution imaging based on a dynamic amplitude parallax barrier with two antiphase liquid-crystal layers,” Opt. Eng. 57(11), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Zeng, L. Yang, X. Zhou, Y. Zhang, E. Chen, and T. Guo, “Pixel arrangement optimization of two-dimensional light-emitting diode panel for low-crosstalk autostereoscopic light-emitting diode displays,” Opt. Eng. 56(6), 063104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (5)

S. K. Kim, S. K. Yoon, and K. H. Yoon, “Crosstalk minimization in autostereoscopic multiview 3D display by eye tracking and fusion(overlapping) of viewing zones,” Proc. SPIE 8384, 8384101 (2012).

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Lin, N. Liao, D. Zhao, S. Dong, and Y. Li, “Analysis of moiré minimization in color LED flat-panel display,” Proc. SPIE 9618, 96180K (2015).

Y. Kim, G. Park, S. W. Cho, J. Jung, B. Lee, Y. Choi, and M. G. Lee, “Integral imaging with reduced color moire pattern by using a slanted lens array,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68031L (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Shiramatsu, M. Tanigawa, and S. Iwata, “Practical method for evaluating the visibility of moiré patterns for CRT design,” Proc. SPIE 2408, 255–262 (1995).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

B. Javidi and F. Okano, Three-dimensional television, video, and display technologies (Springer, 2002).

R. Liao and R. P. Dong, “A novel analytical method for moiré phenomenon in autostereoscopic displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 1074–1076 (2015).

K. Oku, Y. Tomizuka, and Y. P. Tanaka, “Analysis and reduction of moiré in two-layered 3D display,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 38(1), 437–440 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. T. Lien, M. D. Chou, F. C. Lu, C. C. Chang, C. L. Tsou, T. Y. Lin, and C. N. Mo, “Using diffusive adhesives to reduce moiré pattern of autostereoscopic displays,” Proc IDW ’08, 2083–2086 (2008).

W. Hergert and T. Wriedt, The Mie theory: basics and applications (Springer, 2012).

Information display measurements standard, Version 1.03, (Society for Information Display, http://www.icdm-sid.org/ , 2012).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Light propagation at the optimum / actual viewing positions in PB-based autostereoscopic 3D-LED display.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Moiré suppression in an autostereoscopic 3D-LED display using a superimposed OD device.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Diffusing ability at different particle sizes.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Simulated moiré effect varying with particle size, represented by (a) brightness distribution images, and (b) corresponding brightness fluctuation curves.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Change in simulated moiré effect with distance between OD device and 2D-LED display panel, represented by (a) brightness distribution images and (b) corresponding brightness fluctuation curves
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated crosstalk effect at varying OD device particle sizes: (a) 20 μm, (b) 30 μm, (c) 40 μm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulated crosstalk effect at varying clearance distance between OD device and 2D-LED display panel: (a) 60 mm, (b) 100 mm, (c) 140 mm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Triangular LED arrangement structure. (b) Parallel LED arrangement structure. (c) Single LED module. (d) Microscope image of a single LED chip. (e) Assembly of ultra-large LED display panel.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a)–(e) PB preparation process using screen printing technology. (f) Printed pattern on glass substrate.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Comparison of actual 3D display images produced by prototype (a) without and (b) with OD device at a viewing distance of 4,000 mm. (c) Assembled ultra-large OD device and PB. (d) 3D display images with moiré fringe reduction under (d) bright and (e) dark environments at a viewing distance of 5,000 mm. (f) Measuring system.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Changing the moiré effect by altering two key factors.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Changing the crosstalk level by altering two key factors.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameter definitions.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters used in autostereoscopic LED display simulation.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparisons of crosstalk level in Figs. 6(a)–6(c).

Tables Icon

Table 4 Comparisons of crosstalk level in Figs. 7(a)–7(c).

Tables Icon

Table 5 Main parameters and measured results of the autostereoscopic 3D-LED display prototype.

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P e + P n N ( W e + W n ) = L D L
Δ 1 = D m ( L L 1 ) ( P e + P n ) ( L 1 D ) ( L D ) .
Δ 2 = D P e ( L L 1 ) ( L 1 D ) ( L D ) .
y + Q 2 z L = m P p P e 2 + Q 2 D L .
y l = 2 m L ( P e + P n ) P e L + Q D 2 ( L D ) .
y u = 2 m L ( P e + P n ) + P e L + Q D 2 ( L D ) .
y L E D ( n ) = ( n n L E D 1 2 ) ( W e + W n ) n 1 ~ n L E D .
I ( θ ) = I 0 cos ( θ ) ,
θ ( n ) = tan 1 [ y D y L E D ( n ) D ' ] ,
I θ ( y D , n ) = I 0 cos { tan 1 [ y D y L E D ( n ) D ' ] } ,
I D ( y D , φ ) = n = 1 n L E D { I θ ( y D , n ) P [ φ θ ( n ) ] } ,
y l _ P B ( m ) = ( 2 m m P B 1 ) ( P e + P n ) P e 2 ,
y u _ P B ( m ) = ( 2 m m P B 1 ) ( P e + P n ) + P e 2 .
y l _ D ( m ) = Q ( D D ' ) 2 ( L ' D ) y l _ P B ( m ) 2 ( L ' + D ' ) ,
y u _ D ( m ) = Q ( D D ' ) 2 ( L ' D ) y u _ P B ( m ) 2 ( L ' + D ' ) .
θ D ( y ) = tan 1 [ Q 2 y 2 ( L ' D ' ) ] .
B ( m ) = y l _ D ( m ) y u _ D ( m ) I D [ y , θ D ( y ) ] cos [ θ D ( y ) ] d y ,

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